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Effect of visual media on the aggression level and perceived attitude of adolescents: A questionnaire study
It is a well known and proven fact that children learn a lot from media. In many studies before, TV and visual media (movies, internet and video games) have been considered a form of super-peer. Violence is being depicted on a much larger scale in TV programs and video games, in the present day scenario. Access to adult sites through the internet is available to many children and adolescents in the urban setup. It is assumed that such regular exposure to violence or pornographic material over the internet can potentially desensitize adolescents and have an impact on their perceptions or attitude, and thus shape their behavior. In our study we chose 255 high school students (random), who were interviewed by means of a semi structured questionnaire, to measure the level of exposure to visual media and assess their perceived attitude towards traffic rules, sexual relationships and addictions. Simultaneously the hostility and aggression levels of the students were analyzed by means of a standardized inventory (Buss Durkee) and a statistical comparison was made between the two.74.3% of the students who had low aggression and hostility scores did not watch violent programs on TV regularly. 43.8% of the students who had high hostility scores had regular exposure to such programs (p<0.05). Rash driving and breaking traffic rules was considered of not much concern or fashionable by 38.2% of the students who had regular exposure to games that depicted the same in realistic settings (p<0.05) while 75.6% of the students who thought following traffic rules was a major concern had no such exposure.89.4% of the students with high scores were not involved in the practice of any fine arts regularly (p<0.05). 53.4% of the students who did not view substance abuse or addictions seriously and on the contrary attributed acts like smoking to give them a “cool” image had regular exposure to TV (p<0.001), movies and videogames of a similar nature.54.7% of the students who considered casual sexual relationships to be of not much concern, admitted having regular access to sexual material online (p<0.05). However, no significant correlation was found to exist between TV viewing and unruly classroom behavior.
Papers recommended this week
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Bristol, England.
A new technique for percutaneous release of the trigger finger is described. A 21-gauge hypodermic needle is used to release the A1 pulley. The technique is effective, convenient, safe, and well tolerated by patients. Thirty-three of 35 procedures (94%) led to complete relief of symptoms, and in the remaining two digits partial symptomatic relief was achieved. There were no significant complications. After a mean follow-up of 13 months, there had been no recurrences. This technique should be the treatment of choice for the established trigger finger with symptoms of more than 4 months' duration.
Vibrational spectroscopy and microscopic imaging: novel approaches for comparing barrier physical properties in native and human skin equivalents.
Rutgers University, Department of Chemistry, 73 Warren Street, Newark, New Jersey 07103.
ABSTRACT. Vibrational spectroscopy and imaging have been used to compare barrier properties in human skin, porcine skin, and two human skin equivalents, Epiderm 200X with an enhanced barrier and Epiderm 200 with a normal barrier. Three structural characterizations were performed. First, chain packing and conformational order were compared in isolated human stratum corneum (SC), isolated porcine SC, and in the Epiderm 200X surface layers. The infrared (IR) spectrum of isolated human SC revealed a large proportion of orthorhombically packed lipid chains at physiological temperatures along with a thermotropic phase transition to a state with hexagonally packed chains. In contrast, the lipid phase at physiological temperatures in both porcine SC and in Epiderm 200X, although dominated by conformationally ordered chains, lacked significant levels of orthorhombic subcell packing. Second, confocal Raman imaging of cholesterol bands showed extensive formation of cholesterol-enriched pockets within the human skin equivalents (HSEs). Finally, IR imaging tracked lipid barrier dimensions as well as the spatial disposition of ordered lipids in human SC and Epiderm 200X. These approaches provide a useful set of experiments for exploring structural differences between excised human skin and HSEs, which in turn may provide a rationale for the functional differences observed among these preparations.
Advanced chemical imaging and comparison of human and porcine hair follicles for drug delivery by confocal Raman microscopy.
Saarland University, Department of Biopharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Saarbruecken, Germany.
ABSTRACT. Hair follicles have recently gained a lot of interest for dermal drug delivery. They provide facilitated penetration into the skin and a high potential to serve as a drug depot. In this area of research, excised pig ear is a widely accepted in vitro model to evaluate penetration of drug delivery into hair follicles. However, a comparison of human and porcine follicles in terms of chemical composition has not been performed so far. In this study, we applied confocal Raman microscopy as a chemically selective imaging technique to compare human and porcine follicle composition and to visualize component distribution within follicle cross-sections. Based on the evaluation of human and porcine Raman spectra optical similarity for both species was successfully confirmed. Furthermore, cyanoacrylate skin surface biopsies, which are generally used to determine the extent of follicular penetration, were imaged by a novel complementary analytical approach combining confocal Raman microscopy and optical profilometry. This all-encompassing analysis allows investigation of intactness and component distribution of the excised hair bulb in three dimensions. Confocal Raman microscopy shows a high potential as a noninvasive and chemically selective technique for the analysis of trans-follicular drug delivery.
In vivo assessment of human burn scars through automated quantification of vascularity using optical coherence tomography.
The University of Western Australia, School of Electrical, Electronic & Computer Engineering, Optical and Biomedical Engineering Laboratory, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Perth, WA 6009, Australia.
ABSTRACT. In scars arising from burns, objective assessment of vascularity is important in the early identification of pathological scarring, and in the assessment of progression and treatment response. We demonstrate the first clinical assessment and automated quantification of vascularity in cutaneous burn scars of human patients in vivo that uses optical coherence tomography (OCT). Scar microvasculature was delineated in three-dimensional OCT images using speckle decorrelation. The diameter and area density of blood vessels were automatically quantified. A substantial increase was observed in the measured density of vasculature in hypertrophic scar tissues (38%) when compared against normal, unscarred skin (22%). A proliferation of larger vessels (diameter≥100 μm) was revealed in hypertrophic scarring, which was absent from normal scars and normal skin over the investigated physical depth range of 600 μm. This study establishes the feasibility of this methodology as a means of clinical monitoring of scar progression.