Sorensen, TK (Tanya K)
J Pregnancy. 2012 ;2012 :858097 22934185
Multidisciplinary International Research Training Program, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
Background. To evaluate the association of migraine and asthma and to estimate the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in relation to maternal comorbid migraine and asthma. Methods. Reproductive age women (N = 3.731) were interviewed during early pregnancy. At the time of interview, we ascertained participants' migraine and asthma status. From medical records, we collected information to allow the diagnosis of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and preeclampsia. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression procedures. Results. After adjusting for confounders, migraineurs had 1.38-fold increased odds of asthma as compared with nonmigraineurs (95% CI 1.09-1.38). The odds of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were highest among women with comorbid migraine-asthma. The ORs for PIH preeclampsia and the two disorders combined were 2.53 (95% CI 1.39-4.61), 3.53 (95% CI 1.51-8.24), and 2.64 (95% CI 1.56-4.47), respectively, for women with comorbid migraine-asthma as compared with those who had neither disorder. Conclusion. These findings confirm prior reports and extend the literature by documenting particularly high odds of pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia among women with comorbid migraine-asthma. Increased knowledge about the prevalence and sequelae of comorbidities during pregnancy may lead to improved symptom management and perinatal outcomes.
Sleep Breath. 2012 Aug 21;: 22907649
Center for Perinatal Studies, Swedish Medical Center, 1124 Columbia Street, Suite 750, Seattle, WA, 98104, USA, Ihunnaya.Frederick@swedish.org.
PURPOSE: Mounting evidence implicate habitual snoring, a prominent symptom of sleep-disordered breathing, as an important risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes including preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. Little, however, is known about the determinants of habitual snoring among pregnant women. We sought to assess its prevalence and to identify maternal characteristics associated with habitual snoring during pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant women (N = 1,303) receiving prenatal care provided information about habitual snoring before and during pregnancy in in-person interviews completed in early pregnancy. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) from multivariable models designed to identify factors associated with snoring during pregnancy. RESULTS: Approximately 7.3 % of pregnant women reported habitual snoring during early pregnancy. The odds of habitual snoring during pregnancy was strongly related with maternal reports of habitual snoring prior to the index pregnancy (aOR = 24.32; 95 % CI, 14.30-41.51). Advanced maternal age (≥35 years)(aOR = 2.02; 95 % CI, 1.11-3.68), history of pregestational diabetes (aOR = 3.61; 95 % CI, 1.07-12.2), history of mood and anxiety disorders (aOR = 1.81; 95 % CI, 1.02-3.20), and prepregnancy overweight (25-29.9 kg/m(2))(aOR = 2.31; 95 % CI, 1.41-3.77) and obesity (≥30 kg/m(2))(aOR = 2.81; 95 % CI, 1.44-5.48) status were statistically significant risk factors for habitual snoring during pregnancy. In addition, maternal smoking during pregnancy (aOR = 2.70; 95 % CI, 1.17-6.26) was associated with habitual snoring during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of risk factors for habitual snoring during pregnancy has important implications for developing strategies aimed at reducing the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing, promoting improved sleep hygiene and improved pregnancy outcomes among reproductive-age women.
Most cited papers:
Prospective study of gestational diabetes mellitus risk in relation to maternal recreational physical activity before and during pregnancy.
Jennifer C Dempsey, Tanya K Sorensen, Michelle A Williams, I-Min Lee, Raymond S Miller, Edward E Dashow, David A Luthy
Center for Perinatal Studies, Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA. Jennifer.Dempsey@Swedish.org
Physical activity has been associated with a reduced risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, but inferences have been hampered by recall and selection bias. The authors examined the relation between recreational physical activity before and during pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in a prospective cohort study. In 1996-2000, 909 normotensive, nondiabetic women in Seattle and Tacoma, Washington, were questioned during early gestation about physical activity performed during the year before and 7 days prior to the interview during pregnancy. Compared with inactive women, women who participated in any physical activity during the year before experienced a 56% risk reduction (relative risk (RR)= 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21, 0.91). Women spending >/=4.2 hours/week engaged in physical activity experienced a 76% reduction in gestational diabetes mellitus risk (RR = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.64), and those expending >/=21.1 metabolic equivalent-hours/week experienced a 74% reduction (RR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.65) compared with inactive women. Physical activity during pregnancy was also associated with reductions in gestational diabetes mellitus risk. Women who engaged in physical activity during both time periods experienced a 69% reduced risk (RR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.12, 0.79). Findings suggest that efforts to increase maternal physical activity may contribute to substantial reductions in gestational diabetes mellitus risk.
A case-control study of maternal recreational physical activity and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.
Jennifer C Dempsey, Carole L Butler, Tanya K Sorensen, I-Min Lee, Mary Lou Thompson, Raymond S Miller, Ihunnaya O Frederick, Michelle A Williams
Center for Perinatal Studies 444N, Swedish Medical Center, 747 Broadway, Seattle, WA 98122, USA. Jennifer.Dempsey@Swedish.org
Despite the maternal and infant morbidity associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), few modifiable risk factors have been identified. We explored the relation between recreational physical activity performed during the year before and during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy and the risk of GDM. 155 GDM cases and 386 normotensive, non-diabetic pregnant controls provided information about the type, intensity, frequency, and duration of physical activity performed during these time periods. Women who participated in any recreational physical activity during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, as compared with inactive women, experienced a 48% reduction in risk of GDM (odds ratio [OR]= 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33-0.80). The number of hours spent performing recreational activities and the energy expended were related to a decrease in GDM risk. No clear patterns related to distance walked and pace of walking emerged. Daily stair climbing, when compared with no stair climbing, was associated with a 49-78% reduction in GDM risk (P for trend <0.011). Recreational physical activity performed during the year before the index pregnancy was also associated with statistically significant reductions in GDM risk, but women who engaged in physical activity during both time periods experienced the greatest reduction in risk (OR = 0.40; 95% CI 0.23-0.68). These data suggest that recreational physical activity performed before and/or during pregnancy is associated with a reduced risk of GDM.
A prospective study of maternal serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.
Center for Perinatal Studies, Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, WA 98122, USA. Chun-fang.Qiu@Swedish.org
Low-grade systemic inflammation is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Limited available data suggest inflammatory factors are predictive of gestational diabetes (GDM), a condition that is biochemically similar to type 2 diabetes. We examined the association between C-reactive protein (CRP) and GDM risk. Women were recruited before 16 weeks gestation and were followed until delivery. Maternal serum CRP (collected at 13 weeks' gestation, on average) was measured by a competitive immunoassay. We used generalised linear models to derive estimates of relative risks and 95% confidence intervals [CI]. Approximately 4.5% of the cohort (38 of 851) developed GDM. Elevated CRP was positively associated with GDM risk (P for trend = 0.007). After adjusting for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), family history of type 2 diabetes and nulliparity, women with CRP in the highest tertile experienced a 3.5-fold increased risk of GDM [95% CI 1.2, 9.8] as compared with those in the lowest tertile. The association between CRP and GDM was evident when analyses were restricted to lean women (BMI < 25 kg/m(2)). Lean women with CRP > or = 5.3 mg/L experienced a 3.7-fold increased risk of GDM [95% CI 1.6, 8.7] as compared with women with CRP < 5.3 mg/L. Systemic inflammation is associated with an increased risk of GDM, and the association is independent of maternal prepregnancy adiposity.
Cuilin Zhang, Michelle A Williams, Irena B King, Edward E Dashow, Tanya K Sorensen, Ihunnaya O Frederick, Mary Lou Thompson, David A Luthy
Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington School of Public Health and Community Medicine, 1959 NE Pacific Avenue, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. METHODS In a case-control study of 109 women with preeclampsia and 259 controls, maternal dietary and plasma vitamin C in relation to preeclampsia risk were assessed. Dietary intake during the periconceptional period and pregnancy was ascertained using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression procedures were used to derive odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Plasma ascorbic acid was determined using automated enzymatic procedures. RESULTS After adjusting for maternal age, parity, prepregnancy body mass index, and energy intake, women who consumed <85 mg of vitamin C daily (below the recommended dietary allowance), as compared with others, experienced a doubling in preeclampsia risk (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.1-3.9). The OR for extreme quartiles of plasma ascorbic acid (<42.5 vs > or = 63.3 micromol/liter) was 2.3 (95% CI = 1.1-4.6). Compared with women in the highest quartile, those with plasma ascorbic acid <34.6 micromol/liter (lowest decile) experienced a 3.8-fold increased risk of preeclampsia (95% CI = 1.7-8.8). CONCLUSIONS Our results, if confirmed, would suggest that current public health efforts to increase intake of fruits and vegetables rich in vitamin C and other antioxidants may reduce the risk of preeclampsia.
Tanya K Sorensen, Jennifer C Dempsey, Rong Xiao, Ihunnaya O Frederick, David A Luthy, Michelle A Williams
Center for Perinatal Studies, Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, WA 98122, USA.
PURPOSE We studied the relation between maternal history of asthma and preterm delivery. METHODS The 312 preterm delivery cases, studied in aggregate, and in subgroups (spontaneous preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, medically induced preterm delivery), were compared with 424 randomly selected women who delivered at term. Maternal medical records provided information on maternal lifetime asthma status, pregnancy outcome, and sociodemographic characteristics. Using multivariate logistic regression, we derived maximum likelihood estimates of adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS Maternal history of asthma was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery overall (OR = 2.37; 95% CI 1.15-4.88). Analyses of preterm delivery sub-groups indicated that maternal history of asthma was associated with at least a doubling in risk of spontaneous preterm labor (OR = 2.35; 95% CI 0.84-6.58) and medically induced preterm delivery (OR = 2.69; 95% CI 1.11-6.53), though only the latter approached statistical significance. There was some evidence of a modest association between maternal asthma and risk of preterm premature rupture of membranes (OR = 1.63; 95% CI 0.50-5.33). CONCLUSIONS These results support the hypothesis that maternal asthma is associated with an increased risk of preterm labor and delivery.
Center for Perinatal Studies, Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA.
Increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity motivated this prospective examination of gestational diabetes mellitus in relation to self-reported adult height, weight, and weight fluctuation. Gestational diabetes was assessed by use of medical records in 1,644 women enrolled in Seattle and Tacoma, Washington, between 1996 and 2002. After adjustment, risk was inversely related to height and directly related to pregravid body mass index (p(trend)< 0.001). The relation with body mass index at age 18 years was J shaped, with higher risk among lean women (adjusted relative risk (RR)= 1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 2.84) and obese women (RR = 4.53, 95% CI: 1.25, 16.43) versus normal-weight women. Weight gain between age 18 years and the study pregnancy was associated with increased risk independently of body mass index at 18 years and other confounders (>/=10-kg gain vs.<2.5-kg change: RR = 3.43, 95% CI: 1.60, 7.37). Weight cycling (loss and regain of >/=6.8 kg) was not associated after adjustment for body mass index at 18 years and adult weight change (>/=3 vs. zero cycles: RR = 1.23, 95% CI: 0.56, 2.73). Cycling was nonsignificantly related among women who gained 10 kg or more during adulthood (>/=3 vs. zero cycles: RR = 2.04, 95% CI: 0.83, 5.02). Efforts to prevent obesity and weight gain among young women may reduce gestational diabetes risk.
Jennifer C Dempsey, Zelalem Ashiny, Chun-Fang Qiu, Raymond S Miller, Tanya K Sorensen, Michelle A Williams
Center for Perinatal Studies, Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, Washington 98122, USA.
OBJECTIVE To determine the extent to which, if at all, maternal pre-pregnancy adiposity and other anthropometric factors are related to risk of cesarean delivery. METHODS This hospital-based prospective cohort study included 738 nulliparous women who initiated prenatal care prior to 16 weeks gestation. Participants provided information about their pre-pregnancy weight and height and other sociodemographic and reproductive covariates. Labor and delivery characteristics were obtained from maternal and infant medical records. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% CI were estimated by fitting generalized linear models. RESULTS The proportion of cesarean deliveries in this population was 26%. Women who were overweight (BMI 25.00-29.99 kg/m2) were twice as likely to deliver their infants by cesarean section as lean women (BMI<20.00 kg/m2)(RR=2.09; 95% CI 1.27-3.42). Obese women (BMI>or=30.00 kg/m2) experienced a three-fold increase in risk of cesarean delivery when compared with this referent group (RR=3.05; 95% CI 1.80-5.18). The joint association between maternal pre-pregnancy overweight status and short stature was additive. When compared with tall (height>or=1.63 m), lean women, short (<1.63 m), overweight (BMI>or=25.00 kg/m2) women were nearly three times as likely to have a cesarean delivery (RR=2.79; 95% CI 1.72-4.52). CONCLUSION Our findings suggest that nulliparous women who are overweight or obese prior to pregnancy, and particularly those who are also short, have an increased risk of delivering their infants by cesarean section.
Chunfang Qiu, Michelle A Williams, Wendy M Leisenring, Tanya K Sorensen, Ihunnaya O Frederick, Jennifer C Dempsey, David A Luthy
Center for Perinatal Studies, Swedish Medical Center, 747 Broadway, Suite 449 North Seattle, Wash 98122, USA. Chun-Fang.Qiu@Swedish.org
In a case-control study of 190 preeclamptic patients and 373 control subjects, we assessed maternal family history of chronic hypertension and type 2 diabetes in relation to preeclampsia risk. Participants provided information on first-degree family history of the 2 conditions and other covariates during postpartum interviews. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for confounding by age, race, and obesity. Compared with women with no parental history of hypertension, women with maternal only (odds ratio=1.9), paternal only (odds ratio=1.8), or both maternal and paternal history of hypertension (odds ratio=2.6) had a statistically significant increased risk of preeclampsia. The odds ratio for women with at least one hypertensive parent and a hypertensive sibling was 4.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 11.6). Both maternal only (odds ratio=2.1; 95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 4.6) and paternal only (odds ratio=1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 3.2) history of diabetes was associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia. Women with a diabetic sibling had a 4.7-fold increased risk of preeclampsia (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 19.8). For women with at least one hypertensive parent and at least one diabetic parent, relative to those with parents with neither diagnosis, the odds ratio for preeclampsia was 3.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.6 to 6.2). Our results are consistent with the thesis that family history of hypertension and diabetes reflects genetic and behavioral factors whereby women may be predisposed to an increased preeclampsia risk.
Center for Perinatal Studies, Swedish Medical Center, 747 Broadway (4 North), Seattle, WA 98122. Mwilliam@u.washington.edu
The potential benefits and risks of physical activity before and during pregnancy are not well studied. We studied the relation between recreational physical activity and the risk of preeclampsia in a case-control study of 201 preeclamptic and 383 normotensive pregnant women. Participants provided information about the type, intensity, frequency, and duration of physical activity performed during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy and during the year before pregnancy. Women who engaged in any regular physical activity during early pregnancy, compared with inactive women, experienced a 35% reduced risk of preeclampsia (odds ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43 to 0.99). Compared with inactive women, those engaged in light or moderate activities (ie, activities with metabolic-equivalent scores <6) experienced a 24% reduced risk of preeclampsia (95% CI, 0.48 to 1.20). The corresponding reduction for women participating in vigorous activities (metabolic equivalent scores > or =6) was 54%(95% CI, 0.27 to 0.79). Brisk walking (average walking pace > or =3 mi/h), when compared with no walking at all, was associated with a 30% to 33% reduction in preeclampsia risk. Stair climbing was inversely associated with the risk of preeclampsia (P for trend=0.039). Recreational physical activity performed during the year before pregnancy was associated with similar reductions in preeclampsia risk. These data suggest that regular physical activity, particularly when performed during the year before pregnancy and during early pregnancy, is associated with a reduced risk of preeclampsia.
Health Direction V Lima City: Jr. Antonio Raymondi 220, La Victoria, Lima, Peru.
BACKGROUND Migraine, a common chronic-intermittent disorder of idiopathic origin characterized by severe debilitating headaches and autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, share many common epidemiological and pathophysiological characteristics. Both conditions are associated with higher subsequent risk of ischemic stroke. Moreover, endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, hyper-coagulation, and inflammation are common to both disorders. We assessed the risk for preeclampsia in relation to the maternal history of migraine before and during pregnancy in Peruvian women. METHODS Cases consisted of 339 women with preeclampsia, and controls were 337 normotensive women. During in-person interviews conducted at delivery, women were asked whether they had physician-diagnosed migraines, and they were asked questions that allowed for headaches and migraines to be classified according to criteria established by the International Headache Society (IHS). Logistic regression procedures were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS A history of any headache before or during pregnancy was associated with a 2.4-fold increased risk for preeclampsia (OR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.7-3.3). Women classified as having migraines that began prior to pregnancy had a 3.5-fold increased risk for preeclampsia (95% CI 1.9-6.4) as compared with those who reported no migraines. Women with migraines during pregnancy had a fourfold increased risk of preeclampsia (OR = 4.0, 95% CI 1.9-8.2) compared with non-migraineurs. CONCLUSIONS Our findings are consistent with previous reports and we have extended them to the Peruvian population. Prospective cohort studies, however, are needed to more rigorously evaluate the extent to which migraines and/or its treatments are associated with the occurrence of preeclampsia.