Eckel-Mahan, KL (Kristin L)
Front Mol Neurosci. 2012 ;5 :46 22529773
Sassone-Corsi Lab, Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism, Department of Biological Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA.
The ability to sustain memories over long periods of time, sometimes even a lifetime, is one of the most remarkable properties of the brain. Much knowledge has been gained over the past few decades regarding the molecular correlates of memory formation. Once a memory is forged, however, the molecular events that provide permanence are as of yet unclear. Studies in multiple organisms have revealed that circadian rhythmicity is important for the formation, stability, and recall of memories (Gerstner et al., 2009).The neuronal events that provide this link need to be explored further. This article will discuss the findings related to the circadian regulation of memory-dependent processes in the hippocampus. Specifically, the circadian-controlled mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cAMP signal transduction pathway plays critical roles in the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory. A series of studies have revealed the circadian oscillation of this pathway within the hippocampus, an activity that is absent in memory-deficient, transgenic mice lacking Ca(2+)-stimulated adenylyl cyclases. Interference with these oscillations proceeding the cellular memory consolidation period impairs the persistence of hippocampus-dependent memory. These data suggest that the persistence of long-term memories may depend upon reactivation of this signal transduction pathway in the hippocampus during the circadian cycle. New data reveals the dependence of hippocampal oscillation in MAPK activity on the suprachiasmatic nucleus, again underscoring the importance of this region in maintaining the circadian physiology of memory. Finally, the downstream ramification of these oscillations in terms of gene expression and epigenetics should be considered, as emerging evidence is pointing strongly to a circadian link between epigenetics and long-term synaptic plasticity.
Kristin L Eckel-Mahan, Vishal R Patel, Robert P Mohney, Katie S Vignola, Pierre Baldi, Paolo Sassone-Corsi
Department of Biological Chemistry, Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA.
The circadian clock governs a large array of physiological functions through the transcriptional control of a significant fraction of the genome. Disruption of the clock leads to metabolic disorders, including obesity and diabetes. As food is a potent zeitgeber (ZT) for peripheral clocks, metabolites are implicated as cellular transducers of circadian time for tissues such as the liver. From a comprehensive dataset of over 500 metabolites identified by mass spectrometry, we reveal the coordinate clock-controlled oscillation of many metabolites, including those within the amino acid and carbohydrate metabolic pathways as well as the lipid, nucleotide, and xenobiotic metabolic pathways. Using computational modeling, we present evidence of synergistic nodes between the circadian transcriptome and specific metabolic pathways. Validation of these nodes reveals that diverse metabolic pathways, including the uracil salvage pathway, oscillate in a circadian fashion and in a CLOCK-dependent manner. This integrated map illustrates the coherence within the circadian metabolome, transcriptome, and proteome and how these are connected through specific nodes that operate in concert to achieve metabolic homeostasis.
Most cited papers:
Kristin L Eckel-Mahan, Trongha Phan, Sung Han, Hongbing Wang, Guy C K Chan, Zachary S Scheiner, Daniel R Storm
Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific St., Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signal transduction pathways have critical roles in the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory. We found that extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 MAPK phosphorylation and cAMP underwent a circadian oscillation in the hippocampus that was paralleled by changes in Ras activity and the phosphorylation of MAPK kinase and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). The nadir of this activation cycle corresponded with severe deficits in hippocampus-dependent fear conditioning under both light-dark and free-running conditions. Circadian oscillations in cAMP and MAPK activity were absent in memory-deficient transgenic mice that lacked Ca2+-stimulated adenylyl cyclases. Furthermore, physiological and pharmacological interference with oscillations in MAPK phosphorylation after the cellular memory consolidation period impaired the persistence of hippocampus-dependent memory. These data suggest that the persistence of long-term memories may depend on reactivation of the cAMP/MAPK/CREB transcriptional pathway in the hippocampus during the circadian cycle.
Kristin L Eckel-Mahan, Trongha Phan, Sung Han, Hongbing Wang, Guy C-K Chan, Zachary S Scheiner, Daniel R Storm
Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific St., Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signal transduction pathways have critical roles in the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory. We found that extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 MAPK phosphorylation and cAMP underwent a circadian oscillation in the hippocampus that was paralleled by changes in Ras activity and the phosphorylation of MAPK kinase and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). The nadir of this activation cycle corresponded with severe deficits in hippocampus-dependent fear conditioning under both light-dark and free-running conditions. Circadian oscillations in cAMP and MAPK activity were absent in memory-deficient transgenic mice that lacked Ca(2+)-stimulated adenylyl cyclases. Furthermore, physiological and pharmacological interference with oscillations in MAPK phosphorylation after the cellular memory consolidation period impaired the persistence of hippocampus-dependent memory. These data suggest that the persistence of long-term memories may depend on reactivation of the cAMP/MAPK/CREB transcriptional pathway in the hippocampus during the circadian cycle.
ESX induces transformation and functional epithelial to mesenchymal transition in MCF-12A mammary epithelial cells.
Pepper J Schedin, Kristin L Eckel-Mahan, Shauntae M McDaniel, Jason D Prescott, Kelley S Brodsky, John J Tentler, Arthur Gutierrez-Hartmann
Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA. email@example.com
ESX is an epithelial-restricted member of a large family of transcription factors known as the Ets family. ESX expression has been shown to be correlated with Her2/neu proto-oncogene amplification in highly aggressive breast cancers and induced by Her2/neu in breast cell lines, but its role in tumorigenesis is unknown. Previously, we have shown that ESX enhances breast cell survival in colony-formation assays. In order to determine whether ESX can act as a transforming gene, we stably transfected MCF-12A human mammary epithelial cells with the ESX expression vector, pCGN2-HA-ESX. The MCF-12A cell line is immortalized, but nontransformed, and importantly, these cells fail to express endogenous ESX protein. We used pCGN2-HA-Ets-2 and pSVRas expression vectors as positive controls for transformation. Like HA-Ets-2 and V12-Ras, stable expression of ESX induced EGF-independent proliferation, serum-independent MAPK phosphorylation and growth in soft agar. Additionally, stable ESX expression conferred increased cell adhesion, motility and invasion in two-dimensional and transwell filter assays, and an epithelial to mesenchymal morphological transition. In three-dimensional cultures, parental and vector control (pCGN2) cells formed highly organized duct-like structures with evidence of cell polarity, ECM adhesion-dependent proliferation and cell survival, and lack of cellular invasion into surrounding matrix. Remarkably, the ESX stable cells formed solid, disorganized structures, with lack of cell polarity, loss of adhesion junctions and cytokeratin staining and loss of dependence on ECM adhesion for cell proliferation and survival. In addition, ESX cells invaded the surrounding matrix, indicative of a transformed and metastatic phenotype. Taken together, these data show that ESX expression alone confers a transformed and in vitro metastatic phenotype to otherwise normal MCF-12A cells.
Department of Pharmacology, University of California, Irvine, 2226 B Gillespie NRF, Irvine, California 92697-4625, USA.
The influence of circadian rhythms on memory has long been studied; however, the molecular prerequisites for their interaction remain elusive. The hippocampus, which is a region of the brain important for long-term memory formation and temporary maintenance, shows circadian rhythmicity in pathways central to the memory-consolidation process. As neuronal plasticity is the translation of numerous inputs, illuminating the direct molecular links between circadian rhythms and memory consolidation remains a daunting task. However, the elucidation of how clock genes contribute to synaptic plasticity could provide such a link. Furthermore, the idea that memory training could actually function as a zeitgeber for hippocampal neurons is worth consideration, based on our knowledge of the entrainment of the circadian clock system. The integration of many inputs in the hippocampus affects memory consolidation at both the cellular and the systems level, leaving the molecular connections between circadian rhythmicity and memory relatively obscure but ripe for investigation.
Jason R Gerstner, Lisa C Lyons, Kenneth P Wright Jr, Dawn H Loh, Oliver Rawashdeh, Kristin L Eckel-Mahan, Gregg W Roman
Department of Genetics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Circadian research has spent considerable effort in the determining clock output pathways, including identifying both physiological and behavioral processes that demonstrate significant time-of-day variation. Memory formation and consolidation represent notable processes shaped by endogenous circadian oscillators. To date, very few studies on memory mechanisms have considered potential confounding effects of time-of-day and the organism's innate activity cycles (e.g., nocturnal, diurnal, or crepuscular). The following studies highlight recent work describing this interactive role of circadian rhythms and memory formation, and were presented at a mini-symposium at the 2009 annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience. The studies illustrate these time-of-day observations in a variety of behavioral paradigms and model organisms, including olfactory avoidance conditioning in Drosophila, long-term sensitization in Aplysia, active-avoidance conditioning in Zebrafish, and classical fear conditioning in rodents, suggesting that the circadian influence on memory behavior is highly conserved across species. Evidence also exists for a conserved mechanistic relationship between specific cycling molecules and memory formation, and the extent to which proper circadian cycling of these molecules is necessary for optimal cognitive performance. Studies describe the involvement of the core clock gene period, as well as vasoactive intestinal peptide, melatonin, and the cAMP/MAPK (cAMP/mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascade. Finally, studies in humans describe evidence for alterations in cognitive performance based on an interaction between sleep-wake homeostasis and the internal circadian clock. Conservation of a functional relationship between circadian rhythms with learning and memory formation across species provides a critical framework for future analysis of molecular mechanisms underlying complex behavior.
The diurnal oscillation of MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase and adenylyl cyclase activities in the hippocampus depends on the suprachiasmatic nucleus.
Trongha X Phan, Trongha H Phan, Guy C-K Chan, Carlos B Sindreu, Kristin L Eckel-Mahan, Daniel R Storm
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-7750, USA.
Consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory is dependent on activation of the cAMP/Erk/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signal transduction pathway in the hippocampus. Recently, we discovered that adenylyl cyclase and MAPK activities undergo a circadian oscillation in the hippocampus and that inhibition of this oscillation impairs contextual memory. This suggests the interesting possibility that the persistence of hippocampus-dependent memory depends upon the reactivation of MAPK in the hippocampus during the circadian cycle. A key unanswered question is whether the circadian oscillation of this signaling pathway is intrinsic to the hippocampus or is driven by the master circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). To address this question, we ablated the SCN of mice by electrolytic lesion and examined hippocampus-dependent memory as well as adenylyl cyclase and MAPK activities. Electrolytic lesion of the SCN 2 d after training for contextual fear memory reduced contextual memory measured 2 weeks after training, indicating that maintenance of contextual memory depends on the SCN. Spatial memory was also compromised in SCN-lesioned mice. Furthermore, the diurnal oscillation of adenylyl cyclase and MAPK activities in the hippocampus was destroyed by lesioning of the SCN. These data suggest that hippocampus-dependent long-term memory is dependent on the SCN-controlled oscillation of the adenylyl cyclase/MAPK pathway in the hippocampus.
Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.
Long-term changes in synaptic plasticity require new protein synthesis. This preview discusses data from Kim et al.(this issues of Neuron) that demonstrate the requirement of a novel, nucleolar protein, LLP (LAPS18-like protein), for the formation of long-term facilitation in Aplysia. LLP binds to and transcriptionally activates C/EBP, thereby promoting the formation of long-term facilitation and behavioral sensitization.