Sanchez, SE (S E)
Int J Hypertens. 2011 ;2011 :931402 21331161
Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, and Other Measures of Adiposity in Predicting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Peruvian Adults.
K M Knowles, L L Paiva, S E Sanchez, L Revilla, T Lopez, M B Yasuda, N D Yanez, B Gelaye, M A Williams
Department of Epidemiology, Multidisciplinary International Research Training Program, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Health Sciences Building F-161E, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
Objectives. To examine the extent to which measures of adiposity can be used to predict selected components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods. A total of 1,518 Peruvian adults were included in this study. Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHtR), and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were examined. The prevalence of each MetS component was determined according to tertiles of each anthropometric measure. ROC curves were used to evaluate the extent to which measures of adiposity can predict cardiovascular risk. Results. All measures of adiposity had the strongest correlation with triglyceride concentrations (TG). For both genders, as adiposity increased, the prevalence of Mets components increased. Compared to individuals with low-BMI and low-WC, men and women with high-BMI and high- WC had higher odds of elevated fasting glucose, blood pressure, TG, and reduced HDL, while only men in this category had higher odds of elevated CRP. Overall, the ROCs showed VAI, WC, and WHtR to be the best predictors for individual MetS components. Conclusions. The results of our study showed that measures of adiposity are correlated with cardiovascular risk although no single adiposity measure was identified as the best predictor for MetS.
Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98122, USA, and Dos de Mayo Hospital, Lima, Peru. email@example.com
Migraine headaches are among the leading causes of disability in the world. The burden of migraines is highest in women of reproductive age. This cross-sectional study characterized the prevalence, symptoms and correlates of migrainous headaches in 154 pregnant women attending a prenatal care clinic in Lima, Peru. Lifetime prevalence of migraine defined by modified IHS criteria was 9.1%(95% CI 4.6-13.6). When probable migraines were included, the lifetime prevalence of migraine in this population was 29.2%(95% CI 22.0-36.4). Migraine headaches were associated with a maternal history of headache, childhood carsickness, a diagnosis of allergies, and a high frequency of fatigue. Although headache-related disability was low in terms of missed work and recreation, high rates of headache pain and medicinal use reflect the true impact on this population.
Most cited papers:
Plasma folate, vitamin B(12), and homocyst(e)ine concentrations in preeclamptic and normotensive Peruvian women.
Dos de Mayo Hospital, Lima, Peru.
The authors measured maternal third trimester plasma folate, vitamin B(12), and homocyst(e)ine concentrations among 125 women with preeclampsia and 179 normotensive women in Lima, Peru (1997-1998), to determine whether these analytes were associated with the occurrence of preeclampsia. Logistic regression procedures were used to calculate maximum likelihood estimates of odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Relative to women in the upper quartile of the control distribution of maternal plasma folate concentrations, women with values in the lowest quartile experienced a 1.6-fold increased risk of preeclampsia (odds ratio = 1.6; 95% confidence interval: 0.8, 3.2). There was no evidence of an increased risk of preeclampsia associated with low plasma vitamin B(12) concentrations. The unadjusted relative risk of preeclampsia increased across successively higher quartiles of plasma homocyst(e)ine level (odds ratios were 1.0, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.9, respectively, with the lowest quartile used as the referent; p for linear trend = 0.0004). After adjustment for maternal age, parity, gestational age, use of prenatal vitamins, whether the pregnancy had been planned, and educational attainment, the relative risk between extreme quartiles was 4.0 (95% confidence interval: 1.8, 8.9). These findings are consistent with earlier reports suggesting that hyperhomocyst(e)inemia in pregnancy may be a risk factor for preeclampsia.
Plasma concentrations of carotenoids, retinol, and tocopherols in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women.
Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
This case-control study was conducted in Lima, Peru, from June 1997 through January 1998 to assess whether plasma concentrations of carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin), retinol, and tocopherols (alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol) are decreased in women with preeclampsia. A total of 125 pregnant women with preeclampsia and 179 normotensive pregnant women were included. Plasma concentrations of antioxidants were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. After adjusting for maternal demographic, behavioral, and reproductive characteristics and total plasma lipid concentrations, the authors found a linear increase in risk of preeclampsia with increasing concentrations of alpha-tocopherol (odds ratio of the highest quartile = 3.13; 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 9.23, with the lowest quartile as the reference group; p value of the test of linear trend = 0.040). The risk of preeclampsia decreased across increasing quartiles of concentrations for retinol (odds ratio of the highest quartile = 0.32; 95% confidence interval: 0.15, 0.69, with the lowest quartile as the reference group; p value of the test of linear trend = 0.001). Some of these results are inconsistent with the prevailing hypothesis that preeclampsia is an antioxidant-deficient state. Preliminary findings confirm an earlier observation of increased plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol among women with preeclampsia as compared with normotensive pregnant women.
Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, School of Public Health and Community Medicine Seattle 98195, USA.
OBJECTIVES Dyslipidemia is thought to be of etiological importance in pre-eclampsia. We studied the relationship between maternal plasma lipid concentrations and risk of pre-eclampsia. METHODS A total of 125 pre-eclampsia cases and 179 normotensive control subjects were included in this case-control study conducted in Lima, Peru, between August 1997 and January 1998. Postdiagnosis, antepartum plasma lipid profiles were determined by standard enzymatic methods. Logistic regression procedures were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS Mean plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were, on average, 6% and 21% higher in pre-eclamptics than controls, respectively. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations were, on average, 9% lower in cases than controls. After adjusting for maternal age, prepregnancy body mass index, education, parity and other potential confounders, the risk of pre-eclampsia increased with successively higher quartiles of plasma triglyceride (adjusted OR: 1.00, 1.62, 2.21, 5.00, with the lowest quartile as referent; P-value for trend < 0.001). The association between pre-eclampsia risk and plasma total cholesterol was much less pronounced. In general, there was an inverse association between pre-eclampsia risk and HDL cholesterol concentration (adjusted OR: 1.00, 0.41, 0.50, 0.38, with the first quartile as the referent group; P-value for trend = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that high triglyceride and low HDL cholesterol concentrations are important risk factors for pre-eclampsia among Peruvian women.
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha soluble receptor p55 (sTNFp55) and risk of preeclampsia in Peruvian women.
Dos de Mayo Hospital, Lima, Peru.
We conducted a large case-control study to assess the risk of preeclampsia with elevated sTNFp55 concentrations (markers of excessive TNF-alpha release) in Peruvian women. A total of 125 women with preeclampsia and 179 normotensive women were included in a study conducted during the period, June 1997 through January 1998. Antepartum (third-trimester) plasma sTNFp55 was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Mean plasma sTNFp55 concentrations were 32.4% higher among preeclampsia cases (920.1+/-30.4 pg/ml) as compared with controls (694.8+/-15.0 pg/ml, Student's t-test P<0.001). There was a strong linear increase in risk of preeclampsia with increasing concentrations of sTNFp55 (linear trend P-value <0. 001). After adjusting for confounding factors, women in the highest quartile experienced a 10-fold increased risk of preeclampsia as compared with women in the lowest quartile (adjusted odds ratio, 10.3; 95% confidence interval, 4.1-25.9). Compared with women in the highest quartile, women in the second and third quartiles experienced a 3-fold or greater increased risk of preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratios were 3.1 and 3.8, respectively). Excessive TNF-alpha release (as measured by the detection of the soluble receptor sTNFp55 in maternal plasma collected before delivery) is increased in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia as compared with normotensive pregnancies. These findings are consistent with most previous studies.
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677 C-->T polymorphism and plasma folate in relation to pre-eclampsia risk among Peruvian women.
Center for Perinatal Studies, Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, USA.
OBJECTIVES Pre-eclampsia is an important cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia in pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia in most studies. Nutritional and genetic factors regulate homocyst(e)ine levels. A missense mutation 677 C-->T in the gene for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) has been associated with an increased pre-eclampsia risk in some, although not most, previously studied populations. METHODS To further understand the role of this polymorphism in the etiology of pre-eclampsia, we genotyped a total of 125 pre-eclamptics and 179 normotensive pregnant Peruvian women. RESULTS The wild-type allele frequency among cases and controls was 54% and 58%, respectively. Twenty percent of cases and 17% of controls were homozygous for the 677 C-->T MTHFR genotype (T/T). After adjustment for confounding by covariates including maternal age, nulliparity, pre-pregnancy body mass index and use of prenatal vitamins, women homozygous for the 677 C-->T MTHFR genotype (T/T) experienced a modest, statistically non-significant increased risk of pre-eclampsia (adjusted OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.7, 3.8). Maternal folate deficiency was associated with a statistically non-significant doubling in risk of pre-eclampsia in this population (adjusted OR 2.0, 95% CI 0.9, 4.3). CONCLUSIONS There was no evidence to suggest that pre-eclampsia risk is positively associated with the T/T genotype overall, or in the context of folate deficiency.
The influence of maternal triglyceride levels on infant birth weight in Peruvian women with pre-eclampsia.
Dos de Mayo Hospital, Lima, Peru.
OBJECTIVE Hypertriglyceridemia is an important pathophysiological feature of pre-eclampsia, a complication associated with retarded fetal growth. We studied the relation between third-trimester maternal triglyceride levels and infant birth weight in 113 pre-eclamptic and 150 normotensive women. METHODS Plasma triglyceride concentrations were determined using enzymatic methods. The relative risk of infant low birth weight (LBW,< 2500 g) was determined using logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS Approximately 12% of normotensive and 32% of pre-eclamptic mothers delivered LBW infants. After adjusting for maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy adiposity and gestational age at delivery, pre-eclamptics were 2.3 times more likely to deliver a LBW infant as compared with normotensive mothers (95% CI 1.1-5.0). There was no association between plasma triglyceride level and infant birth weight. Pearson correlation coefficients for birth weight and triglyceride were r = 0.10 (p = 0.24) and r = 0.06 (p = 0.49) for normotensive and pre-eclamptic women, respectively. The OR for LBW associated with high triglyceride level (> or = 233 mg/dl) was 0.8 (95% CI 0.2-3.1) and 0.9 (95% CI 0.4-2.0) for the two groups. Triglyceride levels did not modify the pre-eclampsia and LBW association. Compared to normotensive women with low triglyceride level (< 233 mg/dl), the ORs for LBW were 1.2 (95% CI 0.4-4.0), 3.6 (95% CI 1.0-12.5) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.0-8.0) for normotensive and high triglyceride, pre-eclamptic and low triglyceride, and pre-eclamptic and high triglyceride mothers, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Hypertriglyceridemia in late pregnancy, considered a maternal adaptation to maintain stable fuel distribution to the fetus, was not related to birth weight.