Camorlinga-Ponce, M (Margarita)
PLoS One. 2012 ;7 (1):e29605 22235308
Variations in Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin-associated genes and their influence in progression to gastric cancer: implications for prevention.
Cosmeri Rizzato, Javier Torres, Martyn Plummer, Nubia Muñoz, Silvia Franceschi, Margarita Camorlinga-Ponce, Ezequiel M Fuentes-Pananá, Federico Canzian, Ikuko Kato
German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.
Helicobacter pylori (HP) is a bacterium that colonizes the human stomach and can establish a long-term infection of the gastric mucosa. Persistent Hp infection often induces gastritis and is associated with the development of peptic ulcer disease, atrophic gastritis, and gastric adenocarcinoma. Virulent HP isolates harbor the cag (cytotoxin-associated genes) pathogenicity island (cagPAI), a 40 kb stretch of DNA that encodes components of a type IV secretion system (T4SS). This T4SS forms a pilus for the injection of virulence factors into host target cells, such as the CagA oncoprotein. We analyzed the genetic variability in cagA and other selected genes of the HP cagPAI (cagC, cagE, cagL, cagT, cagV and cag Gamma) using DNA extracted from frozen gastric biopsies or from clinical isolates. Study subjects were 95 cagA+ patients that were histologically diagnosed with chronic gastritis or gastric cancer in Venezuela and Mexico, areas with high prevalence of Hp infection. Sequencing reactions were carried out by both Sanger and next-generation pyrosequencing (454 Roche) methods. We found a total of 381 variants with unambiguous calls observed in at least 10% of the originally tested samples and reference strains. We compared the frequencies of these genetic variants between gastric cancer and chronic gastritis cases. Twenty-six SNPs (11 non-synonymous and 14 synonymous) showed statistically significant differences (P<0.05), and two SNPs, in position 1039 and 1041 of cagE, showed a highly significant association with cancer (p-value = 2.07×10⁻⁶), and the variant codon was located in the VirB3 homology domain of Agrobacterium. The results of this study may provide preliminary information to target antibiotic treatment to high-risk individuals, if effects of these variants are confirmed in further investigations.
In vivo expression of Helicobacter pylori virulence genes in patients with gastritis, ulcer, and gastric cancer.
Francisco Avilés-Jiménez, Adriana Reyes-Leon, Erik Nieto-Patlán, Lori M Hansen, Juan Burgueño, Irma P Ramos, Margarita Camorlinga-Ponce, Hector Bermúdez, Juan M Blancas, Lourdes Cabrera, Rosa María Ribas-Aparicio, Jay V Solnick, Javier Torres-López
Unidad de Investigación Médica en Enfermedades Infecciosas y Parasitarias, UMAE Pediatría, IMSS, México City, Mexico.
The best-studied Helicobacter pylori virulence factor associated with development of peptic ulcer disease or gastric cancer (GC) rather than asymptomatic nonatrophic gastritis (NAG) is the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI), which encodes a type IV secretion system (T4SS) that injects the CagA oncoprotein into host epithelial cells. Here we used real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) to measure the in vivo expression of genes on the cagPAI and of other virulence genes in patients with NAG, duodenal ulcer (DU), or GC. In vivo expression of H. pylori virulence genes was greater overall in gastric biopsy specimens of patients with GC than in those of patients with NAG or DU. However, since in vitro expression of cagA was not greater in H. pylori strains from patients with GC than in those from patients with NAG or DU, increased expression in GC in vivo is likely a result of environmental conditions in the gastric mucosa, though it may in turn cause more severe pathology. Increased expression of virulence genes in GC may represent a stress response to elevated pH or other environmental conditions in the stomach of patients with GC, which may be less hospitable to H. pylori colonization than the acidic environment in patients with NAG or DU.
Most cited papers:
Intensity of inflammation, density of colonization and interleukin-8 response in the gastric mucosa of children infected with Helicobacter pylori.
Margarita Camorlinga-Ponce, Francisco Aviles-Jimenez, Lourdes Cabrera, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, Onofre Muñoz, Jorge Soza, Javier Torres
Unidad de Investigación Médica en Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Nacional de la Nutrición Salvador Subirán, Mexico.
BACKGROUND: Few reports exist on inflammation and interleukin (IL)-8 response in H. pylori-infected children. The aim of this study was to determine the intensity of inflammation, density of colonization and magnitude of IL-8 response in children with and without H. pylori infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 45 children with dyspeptic symptoms, 21 infected with H. pylori and 24 without infection. Antrum and corpus gastric biopsies were obtained and studied for H. pylori infection with an immunofluorescence technique and for IL-8 with an immunohistochemical assay. Biopsy specimens were stained with hematoxilin and eosin and gastritis was graded according to the Sydney system. The magnitudes of the IL-8 response and H. pylori colonization were estimated microscopically with image analyzer software. RESULTS: In H. pylori-infected children, mild mono-nuclear cell infiltration was found in 50%, and no neutrophils in 40% of cases. In the antrum but not in the corpus, the intensity of colonization correlated with neutrophil and mononuclear cell infiltration. The IL-8 response was significantly higher in the antrum (p <.05) and corpus (p <.02) of infected children, and was localized mainly in the surface and crypts of the epithelium. No correlation was found between the magnitude of the IL-8 response and the infiltration of either neutrophil or mononuclear cells. CONCLUSIONS: In H. pylori-infected children, poor mononuclear and neutrophil infiltration was observed. Infection was associated with a higher IL-8 response by gastric epithelial cells. The density of colonization but not the IL-8 response correlated with neutrophil cell infiltration.
Differences in the genome content between H. pylori isolates from gastritis, duodenal ulcer or gastric cancer reveal novel disease associated genes.
Carolina Romo-González, Nina R Salama, Juan Burgeño-Ferreira, Veronica Ponce-Castañeda, Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce, Margarita Camorlinga-Ponce, Javier Torres
Unidad de Investigación en Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Medico Nacional-Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, México, DF, México; Departamento de Biomedicina Molecular, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México DF, México; Human Biology Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington; Estadistica. Campus Montecillo. Colegio de Posgraduados, Montecillo, Estado de México, México; Centro de Investigación en Salud Poblacional, Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica. Cuernavaca, Morelos, México.
H. pylori establishes a chronic infection in the human stomach causing gastritis, peptic ulcer or gastric cancer and more severe diseases are associated with virulence genes like the cag pathogenicity island (PAI). The aim of this work was to study gene content differences among H. pylori strains isolated from patients with different gastroduodenal diseases in a Mexican-Mestizo patient population. H. pylori isolates from 10 patients with non-atrophic gastritis, 10 with Duodenal Ulcer, and 9 with Gastric Cancer were studied. Multiple isolates from the same patient were analysed by RAPD and strains with unique patterns were tested using whole-genome microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). We studied 42 isolates and found 1,319 genes present in all isolates while 341 (20.5%) were variable genes. Among the variable genes, 127 (37%) were distributed within plasticity zones (PZs). The overall number of variable genes present in a given isolate was significantly lower in gastric cancer isolates. Thirty genes were significantly associated with non-atrophic gastritis, duodenal ulcer or gastric cancer of which 14 (46.6%) were within PZs and the cag PAI. Two genes (HP0674 and JHP0940) were absent in all gastric cancer isolates. Many of the disease-associated genes outside the PZs formed clusters, and some of these genes are regulated in response to acid or other environmental conditions. Validation of candidate genes identified by aCGH in a second patient cohort allowed the identification of novel H. pylori genes associated with gastric cancer or duodenal ulcer. These disease-associated genes may serve as biomarkers of the risk for severe gastroduodenal diseases.
Specific serum immunoglobulin G response to urease and CagA antigens of Helicobacter pylori in infected children and adults in a country with high prevalence of infection.
Unidad de Investigacion en Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital de Pediatría, CMN SXXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Av. Cuauhtemoc 330, Mexico D.F., 06720 Mexico City, Mexico. email@example.com
Few studies have analyzed the immune response to Helicobacter pylori CagA and urease antigens across age groups in the same population. The aim of this study was to analyze the serologic immunoglobulin G (IgG) response to CagA and urease proteins in children and adults with gastrointestinal symptoms and belonging to the same population and similar socioeconomic levels. The serologic response was studied in 352 children and 293 adults with gastrointestinal symptoms. IgG antibodies against CagA and urease were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods using highly purified recombinant antigens. H. pylori infection was defined as a positive result in a serologic assay using whole-cell H. pylori extracts as the antigen. We found, in H. pylori-positive children, a seroprevalence of 46.9% to CagA and 16.2% to urease, whereas in H. pylori-positive adults, a seroprevalence of 78.9% to CagA and 59% to urease was found. In children, the magnitude of the response to CagA was significantly higher and the response to urease was significantly lower than those in adults. The kinetics of serologic response to CagA and to urease across age groups was contrastably different. Whereas CagA is a strong immunogen, urease is a poor immunogen during natural infection. These differences in the humoral response may be important for the short-term or long-term outcome of the infection. These results add to our knowledge of the epidemiology of H. pylori infection.
Age and Severity of Mucosal Lesions Influence the Performance of Serologic Markers in Helicobacter pylori-Associated Gastroduodenal Pathologies.
Margarita Camorlinga-Ponce, Lourdes Flores-Luna, Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce, Rolando Herrero, Fernando Bernal-Sahagún, Juan Miguel Abdo-Francis, Jesús Aguirre-García, Nubia Muñoz, Javier Torres
Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Av. Universidad 655, Col. Sta. María Ahuacatitlán, C.P. 62508, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México. firstname.lastname@example.org.
OBJECTIVE: The course of Helicobacter pylori infection and antibody response to CagA in patients with preneoplastic lesions and gastric cancer has not been thoroughly studied. We aimed to study H. pylori infection and antibody response to CagA in patients with non-atrophic gastritis, preneoplastic lesions, and gastric cancer. METHODS: We studied patients attending one Oncology Hospital and one General Hospital in Mexico City. Diagnosis was based on endoscopy and histopathology in biopsies from six stomach regions. H. pylori infection was assessed by histology and serology, and antibodies against CagA were measured with immunoassay. RESULTS: We included 618 patients, 368 with non-atrophic gastritis, 126 with precancerous lesions, and 65 with gastric cancer; in addition, 59 patients with duodenal ulcer were studied. Detection of infection and IgG against CagA had a significant increase from non-atrophic gastritis to mild and up to advanced stages of metaplasia (P < 0.05), followed by decreased infection and IgG to CagA in patients with gastric cancer (P < 0.05). However, infection and CagA antibodies were associated with young gastric cancer cases. Duodenal ulcer showed a significant association with infection detected by histology and serology, particularly among women, and a trend to associate with IgG to CagA. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that H. pylori infection and CagA are risk markers for intestinal metaplasia. The prevalence of these risk markers decreases in gastric cancer, probably reflecting that infection decreases after advanced atrophy and metaplasia in the gastric mucosa. State of the disease, age, and sex influence the association of H. pylori infection and IgG response to CagA with gastroduodenal diseases.(Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008;17(9):2498-504).
Lewis antigen expression by Helicobacter pylori strains colonizing different regions of the stomach of single patients.
Gerardo González-Valencia, Leopoldo Muñoz-Perez, Rosario Morales-Espinosa, Margarita Camorlinga-Ponce, Onofre Muñoz, Javier Torres
Unidad de Investigación en Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital de Pediatría, IMSS, México; Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, UNAM, México; Hospital Infantil de México, Federico Gómez, SS, México.
Diversity in expression of Lewis antigens of 226 single-colonies of H. pylori isolated from four regions of the stomach of eight adults is shown. Le(y) was more expressed in strains colonizing antrum than fundus; whereas Le(x) was more frequent in fundus strains. cagA+ strains were more associated with Le- strains.
Activation of human neutrophils with Helicobacter pylori and the role of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in the response.
The innate immune response to Helicobacter pylori infection is beginning to be understood and recent works support a role for Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Our aim was to study the response of human neutrophils to H. pylori and to elucidate the role of TLR2 and TLR4. Neutrophils from healthy H. pylori-negative volunteers were cocultured with H. pylori 26695 strain. The release of IL-8, IL-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-10 was measured. The role of TLR2 and TLR4 was investigated with blocking assays using monoclonal antibodies against TLRs. Neutrophils produced a significant increase of IL-8, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha after 3, 6 and 24 h of H. pylori challenge, respectively, whereas IL-10 increased after 24 h. Helicobacter pylori challenge increased TLR2 and TLR4 expression; and antibodies against TLR2 and TLR4 diminished significantly the H. pylori-induced production of IL-8 and IL-10. In human neutrophils, H. pylori induces an early inflammatory response, partially mediated via TLR2 and TLR4 activation.
TLR4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms alter mucosal cytokine and chemokine patterns in Mexican patients with Helicobacter pylori-associated gastroduodenal diseases.
Alejandra Trejo-de la O, Javier Torres, Martha Pérez-Rodríguez, Margarita Camorlinga-Ponce, L Flores Luna, José M Abdo-Francis, Eduardo Lazcano, Carmen Maldonado-Bernal
Unidad de Investigación en Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, IMSS, Mexico City, México.
Helicobacter pylori is associated with peptic ulcer and gastric adenocarcinoma. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) participate in H. pylori recognition, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLRs are associated with impaired immune response. We aimed to evaluate the association of TLR2/R753Q and TLR4/D299G/T399I SNPs with gastroduodenal diseases; and study the effect of SNPs on cytokine and chemokine expression in the gastric mucosa. Study included 450 Mexican patients with gastroduodenal diseases. SNPs in TLRs 2 and 4 genes were analyzed by allele-specific PCR. Cytokines and chemokines were assessed by qRT-PCR and immunoassay. TLR4/D299G/T399I polymorphisms were more frequent in duodenal ulcer and showed a trend in gastric cancer, when compared with non-atrophic gastritis. Patients with TLR4 polymorphisms expressed significantly lower levels of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and GRO-alpha; and higher levels of TNF-alpha, IL-10, MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha . SNPs in TLR4 gene had an association with severe H. pylori-associated disease and with modified pattern of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the gastric mucosa. These results suggest that TLR4 SNPs contributes importantly to the clinical outcome of H. pylori infection.
Helicobacter pylori Genotyping from American Indigenous Groups Shows Novel Amerindian vacA and cagA Alleles and Asian, African and European Admixture.
Margarita Camorlinga-Ponce, Guillermo Perez-Perez, Gerardo Gonzalez-Valencia, Irma Mendoza, Rosenda Peñaloza-Espinosa, Irma Ramos, Dangeruta Kersulyte, Adriana Reyes-Leon, Carolina Romo, Julio Granados, Leopoldo Muñoz, Douglas E Berg, Javier Torres
Unidad de Investigacion en Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico D.F., Mexico.
It is valuable to extend genotyping studies of Helicobacter pylori to strains from indigenous communities across the world to better define adaption, evolution, and associated diseases. We aimed to genetically characterize both human individuals and their infecting H. pylori from indigenous communities of Mexico, and to compare them with those from other human groups. We studied individuals from three indigenous groups, Tarahumaras from the North, Huichols from the West and Nahuas from the center of Mexico. Volunteers were sampled at their community site, DNA was isolated from white blood cells and mtDNA, Y-chromosome, and STR alleles were studied. H. pylori was cultured from gastric juice, and DNA extracted for genotyping of virulence and housekeeping genes. We found Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, C, and D), Y-chromosome DYS19T, and Amerindian STRs alleles frequent in the three groups, confirming Amerindian ancestry in these Mexican groups. Concerning H.pylori cagA phylogenetic analyses, although most isolates were of the Western type, a new Amerindian cluster neither Western nor Asian, was formed by some indigenous Mexican, Colombian, Peruvian and Venezuelan isolates. Similarly, vacA phylogenetic analyses showed the existence of a novel Amerindian type in isolates from Alaska, Mexico and Colombia. With hspA strains from Mexico and other American groups clustered within the three major groups, Asian, African or European. Genotyping of housekeeping genes confirmed that Mexican strains formed a novel Asian-related Amerindian group together with strains from remote Amazon Aborigines. This study shows that Mexican indigenous people with Amerindian markers are colonized with H. pylori showing admixture of Asian, European and African strains in genes known to interact with the gastric mucosa. We present evidence of novel Amerindian cagA and vacA alleles in indigenous groups of North and South America.
Evolution of bacterial genes: evidences of positive Darwinian selection and fixation of base substitutions in virulence genes of Helicobacter pylori.
Araceli Torres-Morquecho, Silvia Giono-Cerezo, Margarita Camorlinga-Ponce, Carlos F Vargas-Mendoza, Javier Torres
Infectious Diseases Research Unit, Hospital de Pediatría, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico.
Gene diversity in Helicobacter pylori from different origins results in a phylogeographic differentiation, and this genetic variation among populations might be driven by random drift or by selective forces. However, only the selective forces would contribute to adaptation of the bacteria to the physiology and environment of its local host and to its association with gastroduodenal diseases. We studied evolutionary forces acting on variable regions of virulence genes cagA, babA and oipA, which present geographic differences among H. pylori strains from different human groups. Gene sequences in H. pylori strains from Asia, Europe and America were analysed using state of the art analytical methods like the Maximum Likelihood method. The rate and nature of polymorphisms in these virulence genes were also compared among populations using the AMOVA and McDonald-Kreitman tests. We found strong and significant positive selection acting on variable regions of cagA, babA and oipA. We found in cagA from Asian strains regions under positive selection, which localised in amino acid sites defining the Asian fingerprint for this gene and in sites with important biological activity. Different evolutionary forces are acting on the variable region of virulence genes; they partly explain the source of genetic diversity and the differences in risk for gastroduodenal diseases among different human populations.