Kroep, JR (Judith R)
J Surg Oncol. 2012 Jul 17;: 22806927
A multidisciplinary approach to giant cell tumors of tendon sheath and synovium-A critical appraisal of literature and treatment proposal.
Lizz van der Heijden, C L Max H Gibbons, A Bass Hassan, Judith R Kroep, Hans Gelderblom, Carla S P van Rijswijk, Remi A Nout, Kevin M Bradley, Nick A Athanasou, P D Sander Dijkstra, Pancras C W Hogendoorn, Michiel A J van de Sande
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands. email@example.com.
Giant cell tumors deriving from synovium are classified into a localized (GCT of tendon sheath; GCT-TS) and diffuse form (diffuse-type GCT, Dt-GCT). We propose a multidisciplinary management based upon a systematic review and authors' opinion. Open excision for GCT-TS and open synovectomy (plus excision) for Dt-GCT is advised to reduce the relatively high recurrence risk. External beam radiotherapy should be considered in severe cases, as Dt-GCT commonly extends extra-articular. J. Surg. Oncol © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Determining sensitivity and specificity of HER2 testing in breast cancer using a tissue micro-array approach.
Tim Ja Dekker, Susan Ter Borg, Gerrit Kj Hooijer, Sybren L Meijer, Jelle Wesseling, James E Boers, Ed Schuuring, Jos Bart, Joost van Gorp, Wilma E Mesker, Judith R Kroep, Vincent Thbm Smit, Marc J van de Vijver
Department of Pathology, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, 1100 DD, The Netherlands. firstname.lastname@example.org.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) as a result of HER2 gene amplification is associated with a relatively poor prognosis in breast cancer and is predictive of HER2-targeting therapy response. False-positive rates of up to 20% for HER2 testing have been described. HER2-testing laboratories are therefore encouraged to participate in external quality control schemes in order to improve HER2-testing standardization. METHODS: This study investigated the feasibility of retesting large numbers of invasive breast cancers for HER2 status on tissue micro-array (TMA) as part of a quality control scheme. For this assessment different HER2 testing methods were used including HER2 detecting antibodies SP3, 4B5, Herceptest and mono color silver in situ hybridization (SISH) and dual color SISH. Final HER2 status for each tumor on the TMA was compared to the local testing result for the same tumor. Discordances between these two results were investigated further by staining whole tumor sections. RESULTS: For this study, 1,210 invasive breast carcinomas of patients treated in six hospitals between 2006 and 2008 were evaluated. Results from the three immunohistochemistry (IHC) and two in situ hybridization (ISH) assays performed on the TMAs were compared. The final HER2 status on TMA was determined with SP3, 4B5 and mono color SISH. Concordance between local HER2 test results and TMA retesting was 98.0%. Discordant results between local and TMA retesting were found in 20 tumors (2.0%). False positive HER2 IHC results were identified in 13 (1.3%) tumors; false negative IHC results in seven (0.7%) tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Retesting large volumes of HER2 classified breast carcinomas was found to be feasible and can be reliably performed by staining TMAs with SP3, 4B5 and mono color SISH in combination with full-sized slides for discordant cases. The frequency of false-positive results was lower than previously reported in the literature. This method is now offered to other HER2-testing laboratories.
Most cited papers:
Judith R Kroep, Willem J P Loves, Clasina L van der Wilt, Enrique Alvarez, Iannis Talianidis, Epie Boven, Boudewijn J M Braakhuis, Cornelis J van Groeningen, Herbert M Pinedo, Godefridus J Peters
Department of Medical Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) is essential for the phosphorylation of gemcitabine (2',2'-difluorodeoxycytidine), a deoxycytidine analogue active against various solid tumors. Cytidine deaminase (CDA) catalyzes the degradation of gemcitabine. We determined whether dCK and/or CDA levels would predict response to gemcitabine. Activities of dCK and CDA were measured in a panel of eight gemcitabine-sensitive and -resistant tumors of a different origin (pancreas, lung, colon, ovary, and head and neck) grown as s.c. tumors in mice. Sensitivity to gemcitabine was expressed as treated versus control (tumor volume treated mice/control mice). Gemcitabine was given on days 0, 3, 6, and 9 (q3dx4) at its maximum tolerated dose. In addition, we measured the mRNA expression and protein levels of dCK in seven human tumor xenografts. dCK activity (mean +/- SE) ranged from 3.3+/-0.3 to 18.4+/-1.2 nmol/h/mg protein. Sensitivity to gemcitabine, expressed as treated versus control, ranged from 0.98 to 0.02, and the activity of CDA varied from 2+/-2 to 411+/-4 nmol/h/mg protein. In contrast to CDA, dCK activity was clearly related to gemcitabine sensitivity (p =-0.93; P < 0.001). This indicates that dCK might be an important prognostic marker for gemcitabine sensitivity. Protein levels were significantly related to both dCK activity (r = 0.96; P < 0.001) and gemcitabine sensitivity (rho =-0.96; P < 0.001). dCK expression as determined by competitive template reverse transcriptase PCR was significantly related with the dCK activity (r = 0.88; P = 0.025) and protein levels (p = 0.80; P = 0.052) but not with gemcitabine sensitivity, suggesting a post-translational regulation of dCK. In conclusion, the clear correlation between dCK levels and gemcitabine sensitivity in various murine tumors and human tumor xenografts may be a prognostic parameter when considering gemcitabine therapy.
Positron emission tomography using 2-deoxy-2-[18F]-fluoro-D-glucose for response monitoring in locally advanced gastroesophageal cancer; a comparison of different analytical methods.
Judith R Kroep, Cornelis J Van Groeningen, Miguel A Cuesta, Mike E Craanen, Otto S Hoekstra, Emile F I Comans, Elisabeth Bloemena, Corneline J Hoekstra, Richard P Golding, Jos W R Twisk, Godefridus J Peters, Herbert M Pinedo, Adriaan A Lammertsma
Department of Medical Oncology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
PURPOSE To determine the ability of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to monitor response in locally advanced gastroesophageal cancer (LAGEC). Additionally, optimal FDG-PET methods for response monitoring were selected. PROCEDURES Sequential dynamic FDG-PET scans were performed in 13 patients with LAGEC (T2-3N0-1M0-1a) treated with neoadjuvant cisplatin and gemcitabine plus granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating growth factor at a three weekly schedule. The standard FDG-PET method, nonlinear regression (NLR), was compared with computed tomography (CT), endoscopic-ultrasound (EUS), and histopathology as well as with 21 simplified analytical FDG-PET methods. RESULTS Five out of 12 operated tumors responded histopathologically with less than 10% residual tumorcells (42%). These had a higher decrease in FDG uptake compared with nonresponders (P=0.008). Early (after two cycles) and late (after completed induction therapy) response evaluation showed a specificity of 86% and 100%, respectively, and a sensitivity of 100%. Both FDG-PET and EUS were superior to CT. From 21 methods analyzing FDG uptake, the quantitative Patlak analysis, the simplified kinetic method (SKM), and the semiquantitative standardized uptake value corrected for bodyweight (SUV-BW) seemed to correlate best with NLR. CONCLUSIONS FDG-PET reliably predicted response in LAGEC. FDG-PET measurements using Patlak analysis or the more clinical applicable SKM and SUV-BW were acceptable alternatives to NLR.
Quantitative real time PCR of deoxycytidine kinase mRNA by Light Cycler PCR in relation to enzyme activity and gemcitabine sensitivity.
Department of Medical Oncology, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) is essential for the phosphorylation of gemcitabine and can predict response to gemcitabine in vivo. Conventional Competitive Template-Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (CT-RT-PCR) was correlated with real time PCR using a Light Cycler (LC) with SYBR-Green detection to enable rapid and sensitive detection of dCK mRNA expression. We used cDNA from human xenografts to establish a relation between dCK activity and gemcitabine sensitivity. A significant correlation of LC-PCR was found with CT-RT-PCR (Pearson: r = 0.956; P < 0.0001), enzyme activity (Pearson: r = 0.972; P = 0.003) and gemcitabine sensitivity (Pearson: r = 0.695; P = 0.048). The LC-PCR was also applied to needle biopsy specimens. In bladder tumors a similar correlation was found, while esophageal tumors with a high dCK expression responded to gemcitabine treatment. The LC is a rapid and reliable method for quantitation of dCK mRNA levels in tumors to predict clinical gemcitabine sensitivity.
Efficacy of imatinib mesylate for the treatment of locally advanced and/or metastatic tenosynovial giant cell tumor/pigmented villonodular synovitis.
Philippe A Cassier, Hans Gelderblom, Silvia Stacchiotti, David Thomas, Robert G Maki, Judith R Kroep, Winette T van der Graaf, Antoine Italiano, Beatrice Seddon, Julien Dômont, Emanuelle Bompas, Andrew J Wagner, Jean-Yves Blay
Department of Medicine, Léon Bérard Center, Lyon, France. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS)(also known as diffuse-type giant cell tumor) and tenosynovial giant cell tumors (TGCT) are rare, usually benign neoplasms that affect the synovium and tendon sheaths in young adults. These tumors are driven by the overexpression of colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF1). CSF1 is expressed by a minority of tumor cells, which, in turn attract non-neoplastic inflammatory cells that express CSF1 receptor (CSF1R) through a paracrine effect. METHODS Imatinib mesylate (IM) blocks CSF1R, and previous case reports indicated that it also exerts antitumor activity in PVNS. The authors conducted a multi-institutional retrospective study to assess the activity of IM in patients with locally advanced/metastatic PVNS/TGCT. RESULTS Twenty-nine patients from 12 institutions in Europe, Australia, and the United States were included. There were 13 men, the median age was 41 years, and the most common site of disease was the knee (n = 17; 59%). Two patients had metastatic disease to the lung and/or bone. Five of 27 evaluable patients had Response Evaluation in Solid Tumor (RECIST) responses (overall response rate, 19%; 1 complete response and 4 partial responses), and 20 of 27 patients (74%) had stable disease. Symptomatic improvement was noted in 16 of 22 patients (73%) who were assessable for symptoms. Despite a high rate of symptomatic improvement and a favorable safety profile, 6 patients discontinued because of toxicity, and 4 patients decided to discontinue IM for no clear medical reason. CONCLUSIONS IM displayed interesting activity in patients with PVNS/TGCT, providing proof of concept for targeting CSF1R in this disease. The authors concluded that the benefits of alleviating morbidity in patients with localized PVNS/TGCT must be balanced against the potential toxicity of chronic drug therapy.
Jakob K Anninga, Hans Gelderblom, Marta Fiocco, Judith R Kroep, Antoni H M Taminiau, Pancras C W Hogendoorn, R Maarten Egeler
Department of Paediatric Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
AIM: Since the introduction of chemotherapy, survival in localised high-grade osteosarcoma has improved considerably. However, there is still no worldwide consensus on a standard chemotherapy approach. In this systematic review evidence for effectiveness of each single drug and the role of response guided salvage treatment of adjuvant chemotherapy are addressed, whereas in a meta-analysis the number of drugs in current protocols is considered. METHODS: A systematic literature search for clinical studies in localised high-grade osteosarcoma was undertaken, including both randomised and non-randomised trials. Historical clinical studies from the pre-chemotherapy era were included for comparison purposes. RESULTS: Nine historical studies showed a long-term survival of 16% after only local treatment. Fifty single agent phase II studies showed high response rates for adriamycin (A, 43%), ifosfamide (Ifo, 33%), methotrexate (M, 32%), cisplatin (P, 26%) but only 4% for etposide (E). In 19 neo-adjuvant studies the mean 5-year event free survival (EFS) was 48% for 2-drug regimens and 58% for ⩾3 drug regimens, with a 5-year overall survival (OAS) of 62% and 70%, respectively. Meta-analysis showed that ⩾3 drug regimens including methotrexate plus adriamycin plus cisplatin (plus ifosfamide)(MAP(Ifo)) had significant better outcome (EFS: HR=0.701 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.615-0.799); OAS: HR=0.792 (95% CI: 0.677-0.926) than 2-drug regimens, but there was no significant difference between MAP and MAPIfo (or plus etoposide). Salvage of poor responders by changing drugs, or intensifying treatment postoperatively has not proven to be useful in this analysis. CONCLUSION: Meta-analysis in patients with localised high-grade osteosarcoma shows that 3-drug regimens, for example MAP are the most efficacious drug regimens.
Extra-abdominal subcutaneous metastasis of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor: report of a case and a review of the literature.
Department of Medical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands. firstname.lastname@example.org
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) metastasize primarily within the peritoneal cavity and to the liver. Superficial soft tissue metastases occur in about 1% of advanced GIST and are mostly associated with abdominal laparotomy scars and advanced disease. Extra-abdominal subcutaneous metastases of GIST have not been previously reported. Subcutaneous spindle cell tumors constitute a diagnostic challenge of which the differential diagnostic list can be limited by recognition of morphological, immunohistochemical en molecular genetic patterns. A 69-year-old woman presented with a fast growing subcutaneous nodule on her right upper arm. She was known with an imatinib-resistant advanced GIST, treated with sunitinib. The nodule was excised. Histopathological examination revealed a sharply demarcated tumor nodule in the subcutaneous fat with slightly spindled tumor cells, with pleomorphic nuclei and multiple mitoses. There was a hemangiopericytomatous vascular pattern. The cells stained positive for CD117 (KIT) and CD34. No KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha mutations were detected. We report the first case of an extra-abdominal subcutaneous metastasis of GIST. Although rare, metastatic GIST should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous spindle cell tumors. A comparative survey of the histological, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic features of spindle cell tumors of the subcutis and a review of the literature is presented.