Lejoyeux, M (Michel)
Eur Addict Res. 2012 ;18 (1):26-33 22156705
Michel Lejoyeux, Delphine Gastal, Angela Bergeret, Enrique Casalino, Valérie Lequen, Simone Guillermet
Department of Psychiatry and Addictive Medicine, Bichat-Claude Bernard Hospital, AP-HP, Paris, France. email@example.com
AIM OF THE STUDY To assess the prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in a population of patients examined following attempted suicide and compare suicide attempts with and without AUD. METHODS 180 patients examined in an emergency department after a suicide attempt were compared with 180 controls paired for sex and age. All patients answered the CAGE and the Fagerström questionnaire. The DSM-IV-R criteria for alcohol, nicotine and cannabis abuse and dependence, as well as for borderline and antisocial personality, were checked. RESULTS The prevalence of AUD was 43% among suicide attempters. Suicide attempters with AUD were more often men (52 vs. 30%), living alone (64 vs. 31%) and older (35.9 vs. 32.3 years). They were more often dependent on nicotine (87 vs. 43%) and smoked more cannabis joints (1.4 vs. 0.5). They had taken alcohol before committing suicide more often (61 vs. 23%) and had more previous suicide attempts (2.5 vs. 0.9). Additionally, suicide attempters had higher scores of sensation seeking and presented more often with an antisocial or borderline personality. CONCLUSION 43% of the patients examined after a suicide attempt presented with AUD. Emergency units may provide an opportunity to identify their dependence disorder and offer information and treatment.
Karim Sacré, Olivier Lidove, Noémie Chanson, Jean Laganier, Marie Vidailhet, Michel Lejoyeux, Thomas Papo
Paris-7 University, Paris-Diderot University, Bichat Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Paris, France.
Most cited papers:
Department of Psychiatry, Louis Mourier Hospital, 178 Rue des Renouillers AP-HP, 92700, Colombes, France.
This study assessed the frequency of impulse control disorders (ICDs) and their association with bulimia, compulsive buying, and suicide attempts in a population of depressed inpatients. We investigated ICDs using the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview. Patients answered the Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scale and the Barratt Impulsivity Rating Scale. Among the 31 depressed patients who met criteria for ICD (ICD+ group), we found 18 cases of intermittent explosive disorder, three cases of pathological gambling, four cases of kleptomania, three cases of pyromania, and three cases of trichotillomania. Patients with co-occurring ICDs were significantly younger (mean age = 37.7 versus 42.8 years). Patients with kleptomania had a higher number of previous depressive episodes (5.7 versus 1.3), and patients with pyromania had a higher number of previous depressions (3.3 versus 1.3, p =.01). Bipolar disorders were more frequent in the ICD+ group than in the ICD- group (19% versus 1.3%, p =.002), whereas antisocial personality was not (3% versus 1%, p = ns). Bulimia (42% versus 10.5%, p =.005) and compulsive buying (51% versus 22%, p =.006) were significantly more frequent in the ICD+ group. Patients from the ICD+ group had higher scores of motor impulsivity assessed with the Barratt Impulsivity rating scale (p =.01).
Department of Psychiatry, Bichat-Claude Bernard Hospital, 75018, AP-HP Paris, France.
OBJECTIVE The authors assessed the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among a population of patients examined in the emergency service of a French general hospital. They compared patients with and without psychiatric disorders. They also compared patients where the primary motive of emergency was psychiatric to those whose psychiatric disorders were secondarily diagnosed by a systematic assessment. METHOD Five hundred consecutive patients admitted to the emergency service of Bichat Claude Bernard Hospital (Paris, France) were interviewed with standardized questionnaires. Demographic details were collected along with information on current and past contacts with emergencies and psychiatric services. Psychiatric disorders were identified using a structured psychiatric interview, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Domestic violence was identified with a specific checklist validated for this purpose. RESULTS Prevalence of psychiatric disorders was 38%(189 patients). Forty (8%) patients were primary psychiatric cases referred to the emergency department for psychiatric reasons, while 149 (30%) were secondary psychiatric cases, as revealed by a systematic assessment of their mental state. Psychiatric patients, primary or secondary, were more often homeless (13.6% vs.1.95%). They had been more often referred to the emergency department after an aggressive (7.4% vs.3.5%) or violent behavior (5.8% vs.0.9%) and less often after an accident (8.4% vs.14.3%). Psychiatric patients were more often examined after an episode of domestic violence (21.7% vs. 6.8%). Psychiatric diagnoses, according to the DSM-IV criteria, were depression (80 cases), generalized anxiety disorder (34 cases) acute alcohol intoxication (21 cases), alcohol dependence (20 cases), schizophrenia (16 cases), posttraumatic stress disorder (14 cases), drug abuse (4 cases), agoraphobia (4 cases), alcohol abuse (3 cases), anorexia nervosa (3 cases), mania (2 cases) and obsessive compulsive disorder (2 cases). The proportion of psychiatric diagnoses was equivalent in primary and secondary psychiatric cases except for schizophrenia (more often a primary demand for psychiatric help) and acute alcohol intoxication (more often revealed by a systematic assessment of the mental state). CONCLUSION Thirty-eight percent of the patients examined in a French emergency service presented with psychiatric disorders. The majority of the patients (78%) were not referred to the emergency service for psychiatric reasons. Patients seen in an emergency service should thus be identified as a population at risk for psychiatric disorders whatever their reason for utilizing this service.
Prevalence of exercise dependence and other behavioral addictions among clients of a Parisian fitness room.
Department of Psychiatry, AP-HP, Hospital Bichat-Claude Bernard, 75877 Paris Cédex 18, France. firstname.lastname@example.org
AIM OF THE STUDY: Exercise dependence is an inadequate pattern of exercise leading to clinically significant negative consequences. Subjects present loss of control of their physical activity, tolerance, and withdrawal symptoms when they do not practice sport. We studied the prevalence of exercise dependence among clients of a Parisian fitness room. We also assessed alcohol and nicotine use disorders, 2 other "socially tolerated" behavioral addictions (compulsive buying and Internet addiction), and 2 disorders related to anxiety focused on the body (bulimia and hypochondria). METHOD: All clients of the fitness room 18 years and older were invited to participate in the study. Three hundred subjects were included; 125 (42%) presented diagnostic criteria of exercise dependence. Unsurprisingly, exercise dependents spent more hours each day in the fitness center practicing (2.1 vs 1.5 hours per day). They went to the fitness center more often each week (3.5 vs 2.9 days per week). Exercise addicts smoked less; alcohol consumption was equivalent in both groups. Compulsive buying was significantly more frequent in exercise dependents (63% vs 38%), which means they scored higher in the compulsive buying scale (5.4 vs 4.1). Prevalence of hypochondria was equivalent in both groups, but scores in the Whiteley Index of Hypochondria were higher (4.1 vs 3) in the exercise-dependent group. Bulimia was significantly more frequent among exercise dependents (70% vs 47%), who also presented a higher number of bulimic episodes each week (2.5 vs 1.3). Subjects with exercise dependence spent more time on their computer each day (3.9 vs 2.4 hours per day). We found no difference regarding time spent using Internet, the number of e-mails sent or received, and their time at speaking on a cellular phone. CONCLUSION: Our results lead to systematically study the addictive relation to exercise among regular clients of the fitness rooms. Exercise addicts are exposed to negative consequences for their excess of physical activity. Exercise addiction is also associated to compulsive buying, bulimia, and, in a lesser extent, hypochondria.
Sensation seeking in a French population of pathological gamblers: comparison with regular and nongamblers.
Institute of Psychology, University Paris V. Celinebonnaire@chez.com
To test the hypothesis that pathological gamblers in the French general population who play games available in cafés score lower on sensation seeking than regular and nongamblers, the Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale was administered to 57 diagnosed pathological gamblers, 40 regular gamblers, and a control group of 97 nongamblers. Whereas pathological gamblers did not obtain a significantly lower Sensation Seeking mean than the regular and nongamblers groups, analysis indicated that those pathological gamblers seek different and multiple forms of games to reduce boredom, but they do not necessarily seek excitement-generating activities. One possible interpretation is that the types of games investigated in this study are "passive" forms of games that required low involvement from the gamblers.
OBJECTIVE: The authors assessed the prevalence of compulsive buying (CB) among patients presenting an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). They compared the buying style of patients with and without CB. METHOD: One thousand five hundred consecutive patients were assessed by a general practitioner in Paris (France). Sixty patients presenting with OCD were included. Patients with CB associated with OCD (n = 14) were compared with those with "pure" OCD (n = 46). Sixty patients paired for sex and age and free from OCD, depression, and anxiety were also recruited among the clients of the same general practitioner. We compared 3 groups: controls, patients with OCD, and patients with OCD + CB. RESULTS: Prevalence of CB was 23%(14 cases) among patients with OCD and 6%(4 cases) in controls (chi(2)(1)= 5.3, P =.02). Patients presenting with OCD + CB had a higher number of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Fourth Edition diagnostic criteria for OCD than patients with pure OCD (6.1 and 5.4, respectively, P =.001). Depression was more frequent in the OCD + CB group (78%) than in the OCD group (42%) and in controls (10%)(P =.02). Patients from the OCD + CB group had higher score at the CAGE questionnaire than those of the OCD group (2 vs 0.7, P =.003). Patients with OCD + CB considered 42% of their purchases as occasions not to be passed up compared with 15.4% in the OCD group and 8.6% in controls. OCD+CD patients used the items they bought after a longer delay than controls and patients with pure OCD (8.2 vs 3 and 3.1 days, respectively). CONCLUSION: Compulsive buying is more frequent in OCD than in controls. Patients presenting with OCD + CB show more depressive disorders and drink more alcohol. They are more highly implicated in the items they buy and they are more often disappointed by the items once they possess them.
Paris University, Department of Psychiatry, France. email@example.com
Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Bichat-Claude Bernard,(AP-HP) and Hospital Perray Vaucluse, 75877 Paris, France.
Compulsive buying is defined by the presence of repetitive impulsive and excessive buying, leading to personal and family distress. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of compulsive buying among "normal consumers" and to describe the specificities in the buying style of compulsive buyers. We tried to answer several questions.(1) Does compulsive buying occur more often during sales or periods of sales campaigns?(2) Is compulsive buying more impulsive and unplanned than normal buying?(3) Are compulsive buyers more "affectively" involved in their purchases (preference for specific brands they have a narcissistic relationship with, tendency to consider purchases as exceptional special occasions)?(4)Do women who buy compulsively use shopping Web sites and the Internet in general more than controls? We interviewed 200 women successively entering Les Galeries Lafayette, a famous Parisian department store. We diagnosed compulsive buying with standardized criteria and a specific rating scale. All subjects answered an additional questionnaire assessing their buying behavior. We also rated their duration of connection to the Web, the number of e-mails sent and received, and the time spent speaking on a cellular phone. Prevalence of compulsive buying was 32.5%. The proportion of married women was lower among compulsive buyers (66%) than in controls (85%). Compulsive buyers do not seek sales more than controls. Their decision to buy is more often made during their stay in the shop (48% vs 24%, chi(2)= 117, P <.001). Women buying compulsively consider more often their purchases as opportunities not to be passed by (33.7% vs 23.1%, P =.006). They have a higher tendency to use items less than expected (23.4% vs 14.4% in the control group, P <.001). They more often make purchases to impress others (6.5% vs 2.5%, P =.04) and consider more often their purchases as personally gratifying (44% vs 23%, P <.001). Their connections to online shopping sites are longer and more frequent. They spend significantly more time than controls speaking on their cellular phones.
Michel Lejoyeux, Patrick Zillhardt, François Chièze, Anika Fichelle, Mary Mc Loughlin, Astrid Poujade, Jean Adès
Department of Psychiatry, Hopital Louis Mourier, 92700, Colombes, France. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: The authors assessed the prevalence of domestic violence among patients examined in the emergency service of a general hospital. They compared the socio-demographic status and psychiatric comorbidity of victims of domestic violence and other patients. METHOD: An assessment was made on 126 consecutive patients received by the emergency service of Bichat-Claude Bernard hospital (Paris, France). Assessment of domestic violence was made through the use of a specific questionnaire. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of domestic violence was 18% among patients examined by the emergency service. Thirty-five percent of the cases were physical violence, 22% sexual violence, 17% psychological violence and 26% multiple forms of domestic violence. Domestic violence had been going on for less than 1 month in only one case. In 74% of the cases, violence lasted for more than 1 year. No differences were found in terms of socio-demographic characteristics (age, marital status, rate of unemployment, sex ratio) and psychiatric comorbidity between victims of domestic violence and others. CONCLUSION: Patients seen in an emergency service must be identified as a population at risk for domestic violence (18%). These situations can be identified only by a systematic assessment using a standardized questionnaire.
Hadassah Medical Organization, Ein Kerem, Jerusalem, Israel. email@example.com
Michel Lejoyeux, Françoise Huet, Micheline Claudon, Anika Fichelle, Enrique Casalino, Valérie Lequen
Department of Psychiatry, Bichat-Claude Bernard Hospital, Paris, France.
Acute alcohol ingestion and alcohol dependence are known to increase the risk of impulsive suicide attempt even in non-depressed patients. The relation between alcohol and suicide risk needs, however, to be clarified. We assessed for this purpose prevalence of recent alcohol intake among suicide attempters and compared suicide attempts preceded ("Alcohol +") or not by alcohol intake. We included 160 patients examined in the emergency service of a French general hospital after a suicide attempt. Psychiatric disorders were identified according to the DSM-IV criteria. Patients were rated for depression and alcohol use disorder (MAST). Prevalence of alcohol consumption was 40%. Patients from the "Alcohol +" group were significantly older (40 versus 34.8 years, p = 0.03). Alcohol abuse was more frequent among suicide attempters with prior alcohol ingestion (49% versus 12%,). Alcohol dependence was also more frequent in the "Alcohol +" group (43% versus 9%). Patients from the "Alcohol +" group drank more alcohol each day (6.1 versus 1.3 drinks) and more often during the week (3.6 days per week versus 1.4). They had a higher number of alcohol intoxications each week (0.9 versus 0.3). They drank more often alone (41% versus 12%, p < 0.005) and in the morning (21% versus 3%). They had higher scores on the Michigan Alcohol Screening test (14.8 versus 2.9). Prevalence of drug dependence was higher in the "Alcohol +" group (21% versus 3%, respectively). Suicide attempts must be asked about their recent alcohol intake. This alcohol intake is often the symptom of an alcohol abuse or dependence disorder.