Metronidazole :: chemical synthesis
Pharmazie. 2011 Nov ;66 (11):843-8 22204129
Design and gamma scintigraphic evaluation of colon specific pectin-EC pellets of secnidazole prepared by powder layering technology.
Calcutta Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology and Allied Health Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutics, Banitabla, Uluberia, Howrah, India. email@example.com
The aim of the present study was to prepare a colon targeted pellet formulation of secnidazole and to evaluate the formulation in vitro and in vivo by a gamma scintigraphy method. Pectin/ethyl cellulose in different ratios and in different coating labels with plasticizer was used to prepare secnidazole pellets by a powder layering technique. The formulations were tagged with 99mTC-DTPA, a tracer in gamma scintigraphy to evaluate its transit behavior in rabbits. Morphology and compatibility were studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy, IR spectroscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry were used for the characterization of prepared pellets. The in-vitro study suggested that pectin (59%) esterification and ethyl cellulose 45cps at 20% coating label led to an optimum bacterial enzyme dependent released behavior. The optimized formulation was subjected to an in-vivo transit study. Scintigraphy images clearly indicated that the formulation can delay the drug release prior to the colon. The average time of gastric emptying and colon arrival was 57 min and 6.08 h, respectively. The coated pellets prepared by powder layering technology successfully released drug in the colon indicating that site specificity has been achieved with pectin 59% esterification and ethyl cellulose 45 cps at 1:2 ratio with 20% coating label.
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Department of Nuclear Medicine, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA.
PURPOSE: The assessment of tumor hypoxia by imaging modality prior to radiation therapy would provide a rational means of selecting patients for treatment with radiosensitizers or bioreductive drugs. This study aimed to develop a 99mTc-labeled metronidazole (MN) using ethylene-dicysteine (EC) as a chelator and evaluate its potential use to image tumor hypoxia. METHODS: EC was conjugated to amino analogue of MN using Sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide-HCl as coupling agents, the yield was 55%. Tissue distribution of 99mTc-EC-MN was determined in breast tumor-bearing rats at 0.5, 2, and 4 hrs. Planar imaging and whole-body autoradiograms were performed. The data was compared to that using 99mTc-EC (control),[18F]fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) and [(131)I] iodomisonidazole (IMISO). RESULTS: In vivo biodistribution of 9mTc-EC-MN in breast tumor-bearing rats showed increased tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-muscle ratios as a function of time. Conversely, tumor-to-blood values showed time-dependent decrease with 9mTc-EC in the same time period. Planar images and autoradiograms confirmed that the tumors could be visualized clearly with 99mTc-EC-MN from 0.5 to 4 hrs. There was no significant difference of tumor-to-blood count ratios between 99mTc-EC-MN and [(131)I]IMISO at 2 and 4 hrs postinjection. From 0.5 to 4 hrs, both 9mTc-EC-MN and [(131)I]MISO have higher tumor-to-muscle ratios compared to FMISO. CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to use 9mTc-EC-MN to image tumor hypoxia.
Synthesis, chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis, and bioavailability evaluation in rabbits of metronidazole amino acid ester prodrugs with enhanced water solubility.
Department of Pharmaceutical Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, Egypt. firstname.lastname@example.org
A series of amino acid esters (3a-e) have been synthesized and evaluated as potential prodrugs of metronidazole with the aim of improving aqueous solubility and therapeutic efficacy. The aqueous solubility and the lipophilicity (expressed as the log P value) of metronidazole and its esters were investigated. In general the prodrugs revealed enhanced water solubility compared with metronidazole. N,N-diethylglycinate hydrochloride (3a) and 4-ethylpiperazinoacetate (3e) derivatives displayed higher aqueous solubility, which exceeded that of the parent drug by factors of approximately 140 and 100, respectively. All the esters revealed lower log P values than metronidazole except for the 4-phenylpiperazinoacetate derivative (3f), which was 6.5-times more lipophilic than metronidazole. The hydrolysis kinetics of the esters were studied in aqueous phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and 80% human plasma at 37 degrees C. In all cases the hydrolysis followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and resulted in a quantitative reversion to metronidazole as evidenced by HPLC analysis. The prodrugs exhibited adequate chemical stability (half-life, t1/2, 4-16 h) in aqueous phosphate solution of pH 7.4. In 80% human plasma they were hydrolysed within a few minutesto metronidazole. The esters 3d (methylpiperazinoacetate derivative) and 3f were exempted since their t1/2 values were approximately 2.5 and 8.5 h, respectively. A comparative pH-rate profile study of N,N-diethylglycinate hydrochloride (3a) and 4-ethyl-piperazinoacetate (3e) derivatives in aqueous buffer solution over the pH range 2.2-10 was investigated. The results indicated that 3a showed marked stability at pH 2-6 followed by accelerated hydrolysis at pH 7.4. The basic ester 3e was found to be less stable at lower pH values but exhibited comparative stability at physiological pH. Moreover, in-vivo experiments in rabbits revealed a higher metronidazole plasma level with sustained release characteristics within the prodrug-treated animals (10- and 2.5-fold) as compared with the parent drug-treated group. In conclusion, the designed amino acid esters 3a and 3c-e might be considered as good candidates for water-soluble prodrug forms of metronidazole.
Synthesis of 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-methyl-5-aminoimidazole: a ring-intact reduction product of metronidazole.
Synthesis and biodistribution of 18F-labeled fluoronitroimidazoles: potential in vivo markers of hypoxic tissue.
Three 18F labeled fluoronitroimidazoles have been prepared as potential in vivo markers of hypoxic cells in tumors, and ischemic areas of the heart and brain. 1-(2-Nitroimidazolyl)-3-[18F]fluoro-2-hydroxypropanol (18F]fluoro-normethoxymisonidazole) 4, 1-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-2-nitroimidazole 7, and 1-(2-[18F]-fluoroethyl)-2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole ([18F]fluoro-norhydroxymetronidazole) 10 were prepared in average radiochemical yields of less than 1%, 23% and 15-43%(8% at the no carrier-added level) respectively at end-of-synthesis. The in vivo biodistribution in rats was determined for each of the 18F labeled fluoronitroimidazoles. At 1 and 3 h after administration, the tissue distribution of each of the 18F labeled nitroimidzaoles was quite uniform and consistent with that of nitroimidazoles previously studied. These results suggest the need for a suitable animal model to evaluate their potential as in vivo markers of hypoxic tissue in the brain.
A novel [99mTc[triple bond]N]2+ complex of metronidazole xanthate as a potential agent for targeting hypoxia.
Radiopharmaceuticals Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India.
A xanthate derivative (L) at the pendant hydroxy group of metronidazole, a nitroimidazole known to possess affinity for hypoxic tumors, has been used as the carrier molecule for targeted delivery of the gamma-emitting radioisotope 99mTc to tumors. The xanthate residues (S2(-)) from two molecules of this ligand (L) were used for chelation with the [99mTcN]2+ intermediate to form a square pyramidal and neutral [99mTcN/L2] complex in >95% yield using a low ligand concentration of 1 mg/mL (approximately 3 x 10(-3) M). Biodistribution studies carried out in Swiss mice bearing fibrosarcoma tumor showed selective accumulation of the injected activity in the tumor (1.44 +/- 0.26% per gram 1 h pi) with major clearance through hepatobiliary route. The complex showed high tumor/muscle ratio (2.15 and 3.35 at 1 and 3 h post-injection, respectively) and tumor/blood ratio, which were comparable to hypoxia targeting agents 99mTc-BMS181321 and 99mTc-BRU59-21 reported earlier.
Department of Pharmacy, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland. email@example.com
Previously we have shown that the diacyl glyceryl ester of naproxen is absorbed into excised mouse skin and slowly degraded to release naproxen. In the present work we have synthesised some organic acid and fatty acid derivatives of metronidazole, and studied the in-vitro degradation in aqueous buffer solutions and serum as well as their permeation through hairless mouse skin. The derivatives were enzymatically degraded in serum to form metronidazole. Only the acetic acid and butyric acid derivatives were able to permeate hairless mouse skin intact. The fatty acid derivatives released metronidazole within the skin. The metronidazole delivery through the skin was significant when the metronidazole oleate was used. This compound could therefore be considered as a suitable pro drug for dermal applications.
Metronidazole (MTZ), a drug used for the treatment of protozoal infections caused by protozoa and anaerobic microorganisms, was conjugated to linear or branched poly(ethylene glycol) of 5,000, 10,000 and 20,000 Da. An ester linkage between polymer and drug was used in the coupling to yield a polymeric prodrug. The modification allowed overcoming the known MTZ solubility problem leading us to obtain a bioconjugate more suitable for parental administration. The conjugates of various molecular weight polymers have been tested in vitro toward chemical degradation and digestive enzymes. It was found that molecular weight and shape of PEG is critical for the prodrugs stability. Good resistance in the stomach acidic media was found and a slow release of the drug in the large intestinal fluid may take place. In vivo studies carried out following i.v. or s.c. administration to mice revealed improved pharmacokinetics properties upon conjugation.
Synthesis, molecular modeling, and biological evaluation of cinnamic acid metronidazole ester derivatives as novel anticancer agents.
State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, People's Republic of China.
A series of novel cinnamic acid metronidazole ester derivatives have been designed and synthesized, and their biological activities were also evaluated as potential EGFR and HER-2 kinase inhibitors. Compound 3h showed the most potent biological activity (IC50=0.62 microM for EGFR and IC50=2.15 microM for HER-2). Docking simulation was performed to position compound 3h into the EGFR active site to determine the probable binding model. Antiproliferative assay results demonstrated that some of these compounds possessed good antiproliferative activity against MCF-7. Compound 3h with potent inhibitory activity in tumor growth inhibition may be a potential anticancer agent.
Studies on DNA damage and induction of SOS repair by novel multifunctional bioreducible compounds. II. A metronidazole adduct of a ruthenium-arene compound.
Chemotherapy Research Unit, Polytechnic of East London, UK.
A new transition metal complex of the 5-nitroimidazole, metronidazole (1-beta-hydroxyethyl-2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole), has been prepared and its potential use as a hypoxic cell cytotoxic agent examined. The preparation of the complex [(eta6-C6H6)RuCl2(metronidazole)] is described together with its characterization using standard spectroscopic techniques. Electrochemical investigations showed that coordination to the metal centre had not altered the electron affinity of the metronidazole, but kinetic studies using the cyclic voltametric mode demonstrated that the one-electron addition product, the nitro radical anion, had a decreased lifetime, with a half-life of 7.75 and 11.9 s for the coordinated and free metronidazole ligand respectively. Biological studies employed viscosity measurements, DNA SOS repair capacity and a transfection assay to examine the effect on DNA. Conductance studies were also employed to determine the influence on intact Escherichia coli growth rates. The ruthenium-metronidazole complex showed greater activity than metronidazole aerobically, but a higher differential activity under hypoxic reduction conditions, due to activation of the NO2 group. Results with intact cells suggested a greater selective cytotoxicity with metronidazole coordinated to ruthenium than attained with the free ligand.