Sputum :: physiology
Heart Lung. ;40 (6):545-53 21784525
Can the Flutter Valve improve respiratory mechanics and sputum production in mechanically ventilated patients? A randomized crossover trial.
Aluno do Programa de Pós Graduação em Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina da UFRJ, Brazil.
OBJECTIVE The Flutter Valve (Varioraw SARL, Scandipharm Inc, Birmingham, AL) has proven efficacy in hypersecretive spontaneously ventilated patients. This study was designed to evaluate whether an airway clearance protocol using the Flutter Valve can affect the therapeutic and physiologic outcomes in mechanically ventilated patients with pulmonary infection. METHODS In a randomized crossover study, sputum production, respiratory mechanics, hemodynamics, and gas exchange were evaluated from 20 mechanically ventilated patients submitted to 2 interventions. FLUTTER intervention consisted of connecting the Flutter Valve to the exhalation port of the mechanical ventilator. Control intervention (CTRL) was normal ventilation in pressure controlled mode. RESULTS Compared with CTRL, FLUTTER improved sputum production (P <.001), respiratory system static compliance (P =.02), peak expiratory flow (P =.048), expiratory flow at 75% of tidal volume (P =.005), and arterial PO(2)-to-inspired oxygen concentration ratio (P <.001). Respiratory resistance, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure remained unaltered during the interventions (P >.05). CONCLUSION The Flutter Valve improves lung secretion removal, mucus production, respiratory mechanics, and arterial oxygenation in mechanically ventilated patients with respiratory infection, without causing clinically relevant hemodynamic repercussions.
Most cited papers:
Department of Immunobiology, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA 94080.
Respiratory distress and progressive lung destruction in cystic fibrosis can be attributed to bacterial persistence and the accumulation of viscous purulent secretions in the airways. More than 30 yr ago it was suggested that the large amounts of DNA in purulent secretions contribute to its viscosity and that bovine pancreatic DNase I could reduce the viscosity. To evaluate the potential clinical utility of recombinant human DNase I (rhDNase) in the treatment of cystic fibrosis, we have cloned, sequenced, and expressed rhDNase. Catalytic amounts of rhDNase greatly reduce the viscosity of purulent cystic fibrosis sputum, transforming it within minutes from a nonflowing viscous gel to a flowing liquid. The reduction in viscosity is associated with a decrease in size of DNA in the sputum. Inhalation of a rhDNase aerosol may be a simple direct approach that will help individuals with cystic fibrosis and other patients with pneumonia or bronchitis to clear their airways of purulent secretions.
In this study of a general population sample, highly significant quantitative relationships were noted between pack-years of smoking and functional impairment. Subjects with chronic productive cough showed steeper declines in the forced expired volume in 1 sec and forced expiratory flow after exhalation of 75 per cent of the forced vital capacity (Vmax 25), but a definite inverse relationship between ventilatory function and pack-years was demonstrated even among subjects who denied any cough or sputum production. Current smoking showed no relationship to 1-sec forced expiratory volume or Vmax 25 when total pack-years were taken into account. Age appeared to be an important independent determinant of per cent predicted values only in regard to the Vmax 25 in symptomatic nonsmoking women. A history of childhood respiratory trouble was associated with a lower ventilatory function regardless of smoking habits, and for this reason such subjects have been deleted from detailed analyses of dose-effect relationships. Allergy skin test reactivity in young to middle-aged adults showed a significant additive effect to pack-years as a determinant of forced expiratory flow toward the end of the forced vital capacity, but the effect was noted only among present smokers.
Promoter hypermethylation of multiple genes in sputum precedes lung cancer incidence in a high-risk cohort.
Steven A Belinsky, Kieu C Liechty, Frederick D Gentry, Holly J Wolf, Justin Rogers, Kieu Vu, Jerry Haney, Tim C Kennedy, Fred R Hirsch, York Miller, Wilbur A Franklin, James G Herman, Stephen B Baylin, Paul A Bunn, Tim Byers
Lung Cancer Program, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108, USA. sbelinski@LRRI.org
A sensitive screening approach for lung cancer could markedly reduce the high mortality rate for this disease. Previous studies have shown that methylation of gene promoters is present in exfoliated cells within sputum prior to lung cancer diagnosis. The purpose of the current study is to conduct a nested case-control study of incident lung cancer cases from an extremely high-risk cohort for evaluating promoter methylation of 14 genes in sputum. Controls (n = 92) were cohort members matched to cases (n = 98) by gender, age, and month of enrollment. The comparison of proximal sputum collected within 18 months to >18 months prior to diagnosis showed that the prevalence for methylation of gene promoters increased as the time to lung cancer diagnosis decreased. Six of 14 genes were associated with a >50% increased lung cancer risk. The concomitant methylation of three or more of these six genes was associated with a 6.5-fold increased risk and a sensitivity and specificity of 64%. This is the first study to prospectively examine a large panel of genes for their ability to predict lung cancer and shows the promise of gene promoter hypermethylation in sputum as a molecular marker for identifying people at high risk for cancer incidence.
On 100 sputum specimens selected from patients suffering from chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, asthma, and cystic fibrosis total deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) content has been related to macroscopic type, to total dry weight yield, and to the apparent viscosity of the secretion at 1350 s-1: since DNA may be present, either as fibres or within cells, in one-third of the specimens the contribution of each form to the apparent viscosity was assessed. The effect on sputum viscosity of the addition of DNA in vitro has also been studied. Whereas between mucoid, mucopurulent, and purulent macroscopic types a significant difference in total DNA and dry weight yield has been found, viscosity was not significantly correlated with purulence. Similarly, the concentration of either cells or fibres correlated significantly with total DNA but not with viscosity. The in vitro addition of DNA to sputum caused a significant increase in its viscosity, and reasons for the differences between the iv vivo and in vitro effect are discussed. Certain constituents of purulent sputum tend to increase viscosity and others to reduce it, and the influence of these varies in the several diseases studied.
Faculties of Pharmacy, Veterinary Medicine, and Medicine, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by the presence of a viscoelastic mucus layer in the upper airways and bronchi. The underlying problem is a mutation in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein. Clinical studies of gene transfer for CF are ongoing. For gene delivery to the airways of CF patients to be effective, the mucus covering the target cells must be overcome. We therefore examined the extent to which CF sputum presents a physical barrier to the transport of nanospheres of a size comparable to that of lipoplexes and other transfection systems currently being clinically evaluated for CF gene therapy. We observed that an extremely low percentage of nanospheres (< 0.3%) moved through a 220-microm-thick CF sputum layer after 150 min. The largest nanospheres studied (560 nm) were almost completely blocked by the sputum, whereas the smaller nanospheres (124 nm) were retarded only by a factor of 1.3 as compared with buffer. Surprisingly, the nanospheres diffused significantly more easily through the more viscoelastic sputum samples. We hypothesize that the structure of the network in sputum becomes more macroporous when the sputum becomes more viscoelastic. Sputum from a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease retarded the transport of nanospheres to the same extent as did CF sputum. When directly mixed with CF sputum, recombinant human deoxyribonuclease I moderately facilitated the transport of nanospheres through CF sputum.
Fractional analysis of sequential induced sputum samples during sputum induction: evidence that different lung compartments are sampled at different time points.
Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 94143, USA.
BACKGROUND: The effect of the duration of sputum induction on markers of inflammation in induced sputum is unknown, and the optimal duration of sputum induction for research purposes in airway disease is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether the duration of sputum induction influences the cellular or biochemical characteristics of induced sputum. METHODS: Induced sputum was collected sequentially at 4-minute intervals during a 20-minute sputum induction in 12 subjects with mild and moderate asthma. Each 4-minute sample was collected and analyzed separately for total and differential cell counts and for levels of eosinophil cationic protein, fibrinogen, mucin-like glycoprotein, and surfactant protein SP-A. RESULTS: The percentages of eosinophils and neutrophils were significantly higher at the beginning of the 20-minute sputum induction than at the end, whereas the percentage of macrophages was significantly lower at the beginning than at the end. In addition, the levels of eosinophil cationic protein and mucin-like glycoprotein were significantly higher at the beginning of the 20-minute induction than at the end, whereas the level of surfactant protein SP-A was significantly lower. CONCLUSIONS: The duration of sputum induction significantly affects the cellular and biochemical composition of induced sputum in a manner suggesting that large airways are sampled at the beginning of sputum induction, whereas peripheral airways and alveoli are sampled at later time periods. Our data demonstrate the importance of standardizing the duration of sputum induction in clinical research studies, and on the basis of these data, we have chosen 12 minutes as the optimal duration for sputum induction in asthmatic subjects.
Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco 94143-0130.
To investigate the role of neutrophil proteases in the pathogenesis of mucus hypersecretion in bronchiectasis, we collected sputum samples from seven patients with bronchiectasis and measured their secretagogue activity by examining secretion of radiolabeled macromolecules by bovine airway submucosal gland cells incubated with sputum supernatants. There was marked secretagogue activity in bronchiectasis sputum, reaching a maximum of 1,963 +/- 292%(mean +/- SEM) above baseline at 1:15 dilution. Addition of ICI 200,355 (10(-5) M), a selective human neutrophil elastase inhibitor, decreased the secretory response markedly (72.53 +/- 5.89% reduction). The combination of aprotinin, an inhibitor of cathepsin G, and ICI 200,355 caused significantly more reduction in the secretory response than ICI 200,355 alone (89.12 +/- 3.8 versus 72.53 +/- 5.89% reduction, p < 0.05). We conclude that bronchiectasis sputum causes a large secretory response from tracheal submucosal glands due mostly to neutrophil proteases.
Sodium chloride increases the ciliary transportability of cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis sputum on the mucus-depleted bovine trachea.
Host Defence Unit at Imperial College, National Heart & Lung Institute, London, United Kingdom.
Mucus retention in the lungs is an important feature of several respiratory diseases (Regnis, J.A., M. Robinson, D.L. Bailey, P. Cook, P. Hooper, H.K. Chan, I. Gonda, G. Bautovich, and P.T.P. Bye. 1994. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 150:66-71 and Currie, D.C., D. Pavia, J.E. Agnew, M.T. Lopez-Vidriero, P.D. Diamond, P.J. Cole, and S.W. Clarke. 1987. Thorax. 42:126-130). On the mucus-depleted bovine trachea, the ciliary transport rate of sputum from patients with cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis of other causes was slow, but the rate was doubled by increasing the sodium chloride content by 90 mM. Increasing the sputum osmolality by inspissation or by the addition of nonelectrolytes had a similar effect. The viscoelasticity of sputum, but not the bovine ciliary beat frequency, was markedly saline dependent over the pathophysiological range. This suggests that low mucus salinity, not (as is generally assumed) its under-hydration, contributes to its retention in bronchiectasis due to cystic fibrosis and other causes, probably by affecting its rheology. It also indicates how the genetic defect in cystic fibrosis might lead to impaired mucus clearance. Therapies that increase the osmolality of lung mucus might benefit patients with mucus retention.
James Hogg iCAPTURE Centre for Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Research, University of British Columbia, St. Paul's Hospital, 1081 Burrard Street, Vancouver, BC V6Z 1Y6, Canada. firstname.lastname@example.org
Structural changes reported in the airways of asthmatics include epithelial fragility, goblet cell hyperplasia, enlarged submucosal mucus glands, angiogenesis, increased matrix deposition in the airway wall, increased airway smooth muscle mass, wall thickening and abnormalities in elastin. Genetic influences, as well as fetal and early life exposures, may contribute to structural changes such as subepithelial fibrosis from an early age. Other structural alterations are related to duration of disease and/or long-term uncontrolled inflammation. The increase in smooth muscle mass in both large and small airways probably occurs via multiple mechanisms, and there are probably changes in the phenotype of smooth muscle cells, some showing enhanced synthetic capacity, others enhanced proliferation or contractility. Fixed airflow limitation is probably due to remodelling, whereas the importance of structural changes to the phenomenon of airways hyperresponsiveness may be dependent on the specific clinical phenotype of asthma evaluated. Reduced compliance of the airway wall secondary to enhanced matrix deposition may protect against airway narrowing. Conversely, in severe asthma, disruption of alveolar attachments and adventitial thickening may augment airway narrowing. The encroachment upon luminal area by submucosal thickening may be disadvantageous by increasing the risk of airway closure in the presence of the intraluminal cellular and mucus exudate associated with asthma exacerbations. Structural changes may increase airway narrowing by alteration of smooth muscle dynamics through limitation of the ability of the smooth muscle to periodically lengthen.