Fracture Fixation, Internal :: adverse effects
Most cited papers:
Problems in the management of type III (severe) open fractures: a new classification of type III open fractures.
Between 1976-1979, 87 Type III open fractures (in 75 patients) were treated at the Hennepin County Medical Center. Factors leading to increased morbidity in Type III fractures were: massive soft-tissue damage; compromised vascularity; severe wound contamination; and marked fracture instability. This study demonstrates, because of varied severity and prognosis, that the current designation of Type III open fracture is too inclusive. We recommend, therefore, that Type III open fractures be divided, in order of worsening prognosis, into three subtypes. Type IIIA--Adequate soft-tissue coverage of a fractured bone despite extensive soft-tissue laceration or flaps, or high-energy trauma irrespective of the size of the wound. Type IIIB--Extensive soft-tissue injury loss with periosteal stripping and bone exposure. This is usually associated with massive contamination. Type IIIC--Open fracture associated with arterial injury requiring repair. Wound sepsis in the three subtypes were: Type IIIA, 4%, IIIB, 52%; and IIIC, 42%; while amputation rates were, respectively, 0%, 16%, and 42%. Only two patients developed osteomyelitis, and 12 patients had delayed or nonunions. Five patients died, all as a result of multisystem trauma. The bacterial pathogens in infected open fractures have changed dramatically over the years. In the present series (1976-1979), 77% of infections were due to Gram-negative bacteria, compared with 24% previously (1961-1975). A change of antibiotic therapy from a first-generation cephalosporin alone to a combination of a cephalosporin and an aminoglycoside, or a third-generation cephalosporin, is currently indicated in Type III open fractures.
Fondaparinux vs enoxaparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in major orthopedic surgery: a meta-analysis of 4 randomized double-blind studies.
Department of Medicine, Hamilton Health Sciences-General Hospital, 237 Barton, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8L 2X2. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Orthopedic surgery remains a condition at high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Fondaparinux, the first of a new class of synthetic selective factor Xa inhibitors, may further reduce this risk compared with currently available thromboprophylactic treatments. METHODS A meta-analysis of 4 multicenter, randomized, double-blind trials in patients undergoing elective hip replacement, elective major knee surgery, and surgery for hip fracture (N = 7344) was performed to determine whether a subcutaneous 2.5-mg, once-daily regimen of fondaparinux sodium starting 6 hours after surgery was more effective and as safe as approved enoxaparin regimens in preventing VTE. The primary efficacy outcome was VTE up to day 11, defined as deep vein thrombosis detected by mandatory bilateral venography or documented symptomatic deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. The primary safety outcome was major bleeding. RESULTS Fondaparinux significantly reduced the incidence of VTE by day 11 (182 [6.8%] of 2682 patients) compared with enoxaparin (371 [13.7%] of 2703 patients), with a common odds reduction of 55.2%(95% confidence interval, 45.8% to 63.1%; P<.001); this beneficial effect was consistent across all types of surgery and all subgroups. Although major bleeding occurred more frequently in the fondaparinux-treated group (P =.008), the incidence of clinically relevant bleeding (leading to death or reoperation or occurring in a critical organ) did not differ between groups. CONCLUSION In patients undergoing orthopedic surgery, 2.5 mg of fondaparinux sodium once daily, starting 6 hours postoperatively, showed a major benefit over enoxaparin, achieving an overall risk reduction of VTE greater than 50% without increasing the risk of clinically relevant bleeding.
Open reduction and internal fixation of displaced, comminuted intra-articular fractures of the distal end of the radius.
Department of Orthopedics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905.
The results in sixteen patients who had a displaced, comminuted intra-articular fracture of the distal end of the radius and who were treated by open reduction and internal fixation were retrospectively reviewed. At a mean follow-up of 4.8 years, 81 per cent of the patients had a rating of good or excellent by the scoring system of Gartland and Werley, but only 56 per cent had such a rating when the modified scoring system of Green and O'Brien was used. All of the fractures healed at an average of nine weeks. A step-off of two millimeters or more in the distal radial articular surface at the time of healing was important, because the four patients in whom the fracture healed with this amount of incongruity all had post-traumatic arthritis at follow-up, compared with only three of twelve in whom the incongruity was less than two millimeters.
Outcomes after displaced fractures of the femoral neck. A meta-analysis of one hundred and six published reports.
Department of Community and Family Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755.
Methods of meta-analysis, a technique for the combination of data from multiple sources, were applied to analyze 106 reports of the treatment of displaced fractures of the femoral neck. Two years or less after primary internal fixation of a displaced fracture of the femoral neck, a non-union had developed in 33 per cent of the patients and avascular necrosis, in 16 per cent. The rate of performance of a second operation within two years ranged from 20 to 36 per cent after internal fixation and from 6 to 18 per cent after hemiarthroplasty (relative risk, 2.6; 95 per cent confidence interval, 1.4 to 4.6). Conversion to an arthroplasty was the most common reoperation after internal fixation and accounted for about two-thirds of these procedures. The remaining one-third of the reoperations were for removal of the implant or revision of the internal fixation. For the patients who had had a hemiarthroplasty, the most common reoperations were conversion to a total hip replacement, removal or revision of the prosthesis, and débridement of the wound. Although we observed an increase in the rate of mortality at thirty days after primary hemiarthroplasty compared with that after primary internal fixation, the difference was not significant (p = 0.22) and did not persist beyond three months. The absolute difference in perioperative mortality between the two groups was small. An anterior operative approach for arthroplasty consistently was associated with a lower rate of mortality at two months than was a posterior approach. Some reports showed promising results after total hip replacement for displaced fractures of the femoral neck; however, randomized clinical trials are still needed to establish the value of this treatment.
This abridged account of a report to the British Medical Research Council describes a long-term investigation of 1,503 subcapital fractures of the femur, almost all of which were treated by reduction and internal fixation. With three exceptions, union occurred in all Garden Stage I and Stage II fractures and in 67% of Stage III and Stage IV fractures, of which only 14-5% were united at six months. In women, late segmental collapse was seen after union had occurred in 16% of Stage I and in 27-6% of Stage III and Stage IV fractures. Delay of up to one week before operation had no significant effect on the incidence of non-union or of late segmental collapse. The incidence of union followed by late segmental collapse was higher in women with normal bone density than in those with osteoporosis. Smith-Petersen nailing was found to be the least effective form of fixation in displaced fractures. The age and physical state of the patient, the accuracy of reduction, and the security of fixation had the greatest influence on union.
External skeletal fixators (ESF) have a reputation for causing problems. Effective solutions exist for some of these problems. Delayed union can be avoided by accurate reduction, early bone grafting, and early removal of the ESF. Nerve and vessel injury can be avoided by special attention to the anatomy of the lateral arm and forearm, the upper medial thigh, and the junction of the third and fourth quarters of the leg. Pin tract infections continue to haunt ESF systems but are minimized by special attention to necrosis of tissue at the pin-skin and pin-bone interfaces. Undue soft tissue or bone motion can be reduced by bulky pin wraps placed over mobile soft tissue area and by use of threaded rather than smooth pins.
Department of Orthopaedics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
STUDY DESIGN. This retrospective clinical study evaluates complications occurring during or immediately after surgery of posterior cervical plating. OBJECTIVES. The present study quantifies risks associated with posterior cervical plating using lateral mass screw fixation. The observed clinical complications are compared with theoretical risks previously studied in cadavers. Unanticipated complications are identified. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. There are many reports that describe posterior cervical plating and attempt to describe the indications for using this type of fixation, but few studies have discussed the clinical complications incurred by application of these plates and screws. METHODS. Seventy-eight consecutive patients whose treatment included posterior cervical lateral mass plating were independently reviewed to identify associated complications. The average patient age was 52.9 years, and the average follow-up period was 2 years (range, 10-47 months). Multiple indications for surgery were present, but complex reconstructive procedures were required in 70.5% of cases. Complication rates were calculated as either a percentage of the number of screws inserted or as a percentage of the number of cases performed or both. RESULTS. Six hundred fifty-four screws were inserted--an average of 8.4 screws per patient. Complication rates as a function of the number of screws inserted included nerve root injury, 0.6%; facet violations, 0.2%; vertebral artery injury, 0%; broken screw, 0.3%; screw avulsion, 0.2%; and screw loosening 1.1%. Complications as a percentage of the number of cases performed included spinal cord injury, 2.6%; iatrogenic foraminal stenosis, 2.6%; broken plate, 1.3%; lost reduction, 2.6%; adjacent segment degeneration, 3.8%; infection, 1.3%; and pseudoarthrosis, 1.4%. CONCLUSIONS. Cadaveric work has predicted certain anatomic complication rates associated with lateral mass screw insertion. This study finds the risk of lateral mass screw insertion to be considerably less than predicted in vitro. The present study reports other complications that were not predicted in laboratory studies.
Foreign body reactions to resorbable poly(L-lactide) bone plates and screws used for the fixation of unstable zygomatic fractures.
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital, Groningen, The Netherlands.
In a previous article in the Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, the initial results of treating 10 patients with solitary, unstable, displaced zygomatic fractures using resorbable poly(L-lactide)(PLLA) plates and screws was reported (Bos et al, 1987). This article describes the long-term results in these patients. Three years postoperatively, four patients returned because they were concerned about an intermittent swelling at the site of implantation. The remaining patients were recalled after the same postoperative period. All patients were examined clinically, and six patients were operated on again for evaluation of the swelling and to investigate the nature of the tissue reaction. The explanted material showed remnants of degraded PLLA surrounded by a dense fibrous capsule. The swelling was classified as a nonspecific foreign body reaction to the degraded PLLA material. Ultrastructural investigation of the degraded material showed an internalization of crystal-like PLLA material in the cytoplasm of various cells.
Sunnybrook Medical Center, Toronto, Ont., Canada.
Comminuted intraarticular fractures of the distal radius present a difficult problem in management. It is well established that unreduced significant articular incongruency will result in early degenerative osteoarthritis. The technical demands of, and the results to be expected from, formal open reduction and internal fixation of these comminuted articular fractures have not been addressed in the current literature. From 1981 to 1986, 20 patients were treated by open reduction after failure of closed means. Seventeen patients were personally reviewed at an average follow-up of 3.25 years. The results indicate that the procedures are technically demanding and have high early (15%) and late (35%) complication rates. This gives an overall complication rate of 50%, including the need for further operative procedures. However, patient satisfaction is very high, most patients (89%) returning to previous occupations. Function and radiographic results are excellent. Articular congruency was restored in 88%.