Insecticides :: classification
Assessment of toxicity risk of insecticides used in rice ecosystem on Trichogramma japonicum, an egg parasitoid of rice lepidopterans.
State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control/Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue detection of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021, China.
Both chemical and biological methods are essential for control of insects, for example, lepidopterans, on rice. Thus, it is important to know the effect of chemicals on the biological control agents. In this study, we assessed the toxicity of commonly used insecticides on a biological control agent, Trichogramma japonicum Ahmead (an egg parasitoid of rice lepidopterans) by using a dry film residue method. Results showed that thirty insecticides from seven chemical classes exhibited various degree of toxicity to this parasitoid. Among the seven classes of chemicals tested, organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, phoxim, profenofos, and triazophos) and carbamates (carbaryl, carbsulfan, isoprocarb, metolcarb, and promecarb) exhibited the highest intrinsic toxicity to T. japponicum, with an LC50 of 0.035 (0.029-0.044) to 0.49 (0.34-0.87) mg active ingredient (a.i.) L(-1), followed by antibiotics (abamectin, emamectin benzoate, and ivermectin), phenylpyrazoles (butane-fipronil, ethiprole, and fipronil), pyrethroids (cyhalthrin, cypermethrin, fenpropathrin, and lambda-cyhaothrin), and neonicotinoids (acetamiprid, imidacloprid, imidaclothiz, nitenpyram, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam). Moreover, the insect growth regulator insecticides (chlorfluazuron, fufenozide, hexaflumuron and tebufenozide) exhibited the lowest toxicity to the wasps with an LC50 of 3,383 (2406-5499) to 30206 (23107-41008) mg ai. L(-1). Risk quotient analysis showed that phenylpyrazoles, pyrethroids, insect growth regulators, neonicotinoids (with the exception of thiamethoxam), and antibiotics (with the exception of abamectin) are classified as safe agents to the parasitoid, while organophosphates and carbamates are classified as slightly, moderately, or highly toxic agents to the parasitoid. The data presented in this paper provided useful information on the selection of compatible insecticides with T. japonicum.
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Department of Molecular Biology and the Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.
A member of the Bacillus-produced vegetative insecticidal proteins (VIPs) possesses high specificity against the major insect pest, corn rootworms, and belongs to a class of binary toxins and regulators of biological pathways distinct from classical A-B toxins. The 1.5 A resolution crystal structure of the enzymatic ADP-ribosyltransferase component, VIP2, from Bacillus cereus reveals structurally homologous N- and C-terminal alpha/beta domains likely representing the entire class of binary toxins and implying evolutionary relationships between families of ADP-ribosylating toxins. The crystal structure of the kinetically trapped VIP2-NAD complex identifies the NAD binding cleft within the C-terminal enzymatic domain and provides a structural basis for understanding the targeting and catalysis of the medically and environmentally important binary toxins. These structures furthermore provide specific experimental results to help resolve paradoxes regarding the specific mechanism of ADP-ribosylation of actin by implicating ground state destabilization and nicotinamide product sequestration as the major driving forces for catalysis.
Comparative and Ecological Phytochemistry Section, Institute of Botany, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, 1030 Vienna, Austria. firstname.lastname@example.org
Stemona alkaloids represent a unique class of natural products exclusively isolated from the monocotyledonous family Stemonaceae comprising three genera mainly distributed in southeast Asia. Structurally the alkaloids are characterised by a pyrrolo[1,2- a]azepine nucleus usually linked with two carbon chains mostly forming terminal lactone rings. Based on biosynthetic considerations and their various distribution the present review describes 82 Stemona alkaloids grouped into three skeletal types. Due to different carbon chains attached to C-9 of the pyrroloazepine nucleus they were classified into stichoneurine-, protostemonine- and croomine-type alkaloids. The genera Croomia and Stichoneuron only accumulate croomine or stichoneurine derivatives, respectively, whereas the genus Stemona produces all three types of alkaloids. However, species-specific accumulation trends towards certain structural types represent valuable chemosystematic criteria. Bioassays with larvae of Spodoptera littoralis exhibited very high insect toxicity for the roots of Stemona species containing certain protostemonine derivatives, especially didehydrostemofoline, whereas those with dominating stichoneurine or croomine derivatives showed low toxicity but sometimes remarkable repellence due to an accumulation of tuberostemonine. Tuberostemonine also showed effects on the motility of helminth worms and reduced the excitatory transmission at the crayfish neuromuscular junction. Significant antitussive activity was shown for the stereoisomeric neotuberostemonine in guinea-pig after cough induction by citric acid aerosol stimulation. Studies on structure-activity relationship with seven related compounds revealed that the saturated tricyclic pyrrolobenzazepine nucleus of tuberostemonines is the prerequisite for antitussive activity.
A literature review of freshwater (model) ecosystem studies with neurotoxic insecticides was performed to assess ecological threshold levels, to compare these levels with the first tier approach within European Union (EU) administration procedures, and to evaluate the ecological consequences of exceeding these thresholds. Studies published between 1980 and 2001 were reviewed. Most studies covered organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroids in lentic waters. The most sensitive taxa were representatives of crustaceans, insects and fish. Based on toxic units, threshold values were equivalent for compounds with a similar mode of action. This also accounted for the nature and magnitude of direct effects at higher concentrations. Although laboratory single species toxicity tests may not allow predictions on precise ecological effects, some generalisations on effects and recovery can be made with respect to acute standard laboratory EC50 data. The NOEC(ecosystem) usually is a factor of 10 or more higher than first tier acceptable concentrations, particularly in the case of single applications and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Acceptable concentrations, as set by the EU first tier approach, appear to be protective. Recovery of sensitive endpoints usually occurs within 2 months of the (last) application when peak concentrations remain lower than (0.1-1) x EC50 of the most sensitive standard test species. The consistency of response patterns found in model ecosystem studies can be useful when estimating the ecological risks of pesticides. The use of an effect classification system was also helpful in evaluating effects.
Illinois Animal Poison Information Center, Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana 61801.
Natural pyrethrin and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides have been considered among the safest classes of insecticides available. Pyrethrins and pyrethroids are classified on the basis of their chemical structures and their toxicologic, neurophysiologic and pharmacologic effects. Cellular effects of pyrethrin and pyrethroid insecticides have been postulated to involve interactions with sodium channels, receptor-ionophore complexes, neurotransmitters, and ATPases. Toxicity is a function of chemical structure, metabolism, route of exposure, and the presence or absence of synergists. Pyrethroid insecticides are neurotoxic, and the development and severity of clinical signs is proportional to the nervous tissue pyrethroid concentration. Type I pyrethroid poisoning in mice and rats produces a syndrome characterized by tremors, prostration and altered startle reflexes. Type II pyrethroid poisoning in mice and rats causes ataxia, convulsions, hyperactivity, choreoathetosis and profuse salivation. A presumptive diagnosis of pyrethrin/pyrethroid poisoning is based upon history of exposure, development of appropriate clinical signs, and chemical analysis for insecticide residues. Treatment of pyrethrin and pyrethroid toxicosis involves basic life support, seizure control when needed, and the prevention of further insecticide absorption.
Crop Protection Consultant, Saxon Way, Saffron Walden CB11 4EG, UK. email@example.com
Many compounds derived from living organisms have found a use in crop protection. These compounds have formed the basis of chemical synthesis programmes to derive new chemical products; they have been used to identify new biochemical modes of action that can be exploited by industry-led discovery programmes; some have been used as starting materials for semi-synthetic derivatives; and many have been used or continue to be used directly as crop protection agents. This review examines only those compounds derived from living organisms that are currently used as pesticides. Plant growth regulators and semiochemicals have been excluded from the review, as have living organisms that exert their effects by the production of biologically active secondary metabolites.
Department of Public Health Services, Regional Municipality of Hamilton-Wentworth, Ontario.
Head lice are cosmopolitan and endemic. While they are not responsible for the spread of any disease, they are the cause of considerable social distress. They can infest anybody and do not discriminate between class or cleanliness. Head lice are transmitted primarily by direct contact. The only satisfactory method to clear an infestation is by chemical treatment. The most effective pediculicides to date are those which contain permethrin (Nix) or malathion (Prioderm). Compliance with product instructions eliminates the need for nit removal after treatment. Treatment of inanimate objects and the environment should be discouraged. To obtain effective control of head lice, the whole community needs to be involved. Parents must be encouraged to screen themselves and their children regularly in the home, and to treat themselves only when necessary.
Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, 301 Funchess Hall, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5413, USA.
The susceptibility of four strains of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) to permethrin, deltamethrin, resmethrin, chlorpyrifos, malathion, propoxur, fipronil, imidacloprid, spinosad, and Bacillus thuringiensis variety israelensis (Bti) was determined. The HAmAal and MAmAal strains were collected in 2002 and 2003, respectively, from Huntsville and Mobile, AL, and the VBFmAal and SFmAal strains were collected in 1998 from Vero Beach and southern Florida, respectively. The HAmAal strain showed a 22-fold elevated level of resistance to deltamethrin compared with the susceptible Ikaken laboratory strain, whereas the VBFmAal strain showed a six-fold lower sensitivity to deltamethrin compared with Ikaken. However, comparison of resistance ratios for deltamethrin at LC50 and LC90 (21-fold) and the gradual slopes of dose-response curves indicated that the field population of this mosquito strain was heterogenous in response to deltamethrin. All four mosquito strains showed elevated levels of resistance to chlorpyrifos, with resistance ratios from 10 to 33. Nevertheless, except for the relatively low resistance to deltamethrin and chlorpyrifos, all mosquito strains showed a similar susceptibility or lower tolerance to the remaining insecticides tested compared with the susceptible Ikaken strain, even though some, such as permethrin, resmethrin, malathion, and Bti, have been used in the field for a long time, especially in Alabama. These results indicate that the development of resistance to insecticides in Ae. albopictus is slow and conventional insecticides, such as permethrin, resmethrin, malathion, and Bti, and relatively new insecticides, such as fipronil, imidacloprid, and spinosad, may all be valuable for the management of this important mosquito.
Letterman Army Institute of Research, Presidio of San Francisco, CA 94129-6800.
Fifteen apparent errors of observation, reporting, interpretation, or attribution occurring in the insect repellent and attractant literature were examined. Topics discussed are the boiling point effect, solvents and solutions, repellent-treated netting, terpineol and diphenyl oxide, lactic acid, the smell and feel of deet (diethylmethylbenzamide), effective half-life, protection time, protection time of deet for men and women, McGuire's formula,"plussing out", King's classification, exorbitant doses, extrapolated doses, and extreme observations. The decay constant (1.36 hr-1) and half-life (0.51 hr) of a mosquito-repellent bath oil (Skin-So-Soft) are reported for the first time.
Evidence for a separate mechanism of toxicity for the Type I and the Type II pyrethroid insecticides.
Charles B Breckenridge, Larry Holden, Nicholas Sturgess, Myra Weiner, Larry Sheets, Dana Sargent, David M Soderlund, Jin-Sung Choi, Steve Symington, J Marshall Clark, Steve Burr, David Ray
Syngenta Crop Protection Inc., P.O. Box 18300, Greensboro, NC 27419-8300, USA. Charles.Breckenridge@syngenta.com
Neurotoxicity and mechanistic data were collected for six alpha-cyano pyrethroids (beta-cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, fenpropathrin and lambda-cyhalothrin) and up to six non-cyano containing pyrethroids (bifenthrin, S-bioallethrin [or allethrin], permethrin, pyrethrins, resmethrin [or its cis-isomer, cismethrin] and tefluthrin under standard conditions. Factor analysis and multivariate dissimilarity analysis were employed to evaluate four independent data sets comprised of (1) fifty-six behavioral and physiological parameters from an acute neurotoxicity functional observatory battery (FOB),(2) eight electrophysiological parameters from voltage clamp experiments conducted on the Na(v)1.8 sodium channel expressed in Xenopus oocytes,(3) indices of efficacy, potency and binding calculated for calcium ion influx across neuronal membranes, membrane depolarization and glutamate released from rat brain synaptosomes and (4) changes in chloride channel open state probability using a patch voltage clamp technique for membranes isolated from mouse neuroblastoma cells. The pyrethroids segregated into Type I (T--syndrome-tremors) and Type II (CS syndrome--choreoathetosis with salivation) groups based on FOB data. Of the alpha-cyano pyrethroids, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, cyfluthrin and cypermethrin arrayed themselves strongly in a dose-dependent manner along two factors that characterize the CS syndrome. Esfenvalerate and fenpropathrin displayed weaker response profiles compared to the non-cyano pyrethroids. Visual clustering on multidimensional scaling (MDS) maps based upon sodium ion channel and calcium influx and glutamate release dissimilarities gave similar groupings. The non-cyano containing pyrethroids were arrayed in a dose-dependent manner along two different factors that characterize the T-syndrome. Bifenthrin was an outlier when MDS maps of the non-cyano pyrethroids were based on sodium ion channel characteristics and permethrin was an outlier when the MDS maps were based on calcium influx/glutamate release potency. Four of six alpha-cyano pyrethroids (lambda-cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and fenpropathrin) reduced open chloride channel probability. The R-isomers of lambda-l-cyhalothrin reduced open channel probability whereas the S-isomers, antagonized the action of the R-isomers. None of the non-cyano pyrethroids reduced open channel probability, except bioallethrin, which gave a weak response. Overall, based upon neurotoxicity data and the effect of pyrethroids on sodium, calcium and chloride ion channels, it is proposed that bioallethrin, cismethrin, tefluthrin, bifenthrin and permethrin belong to one common mechanism group and deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, cyfluthrin and cypermethrin belong to a second. Fenpropathrin and esfenvalerate occupy an intermediate position between these two groups.