Counseling :: methods
Routine brief risk-reduction counseling with biannual STD testing reduces STD incidence among HIV-infected men who have sex with men in care.
Pragna Patel, Tim Bush, Kenneth Mayer, Joel Milam, Jean Richardson, John Hammer, Keith Henry, Turner Overton, Lois Conley, Gary Marks, John T Brooks
Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND We evaluated whether routine biannual sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing coupled with brief risk-reduction counseling reduces STD incidence and high-risk behaviors. METHODS The SUN study is a prospective observational HIV cohort study conducted in 4 US cities. At enrollment and every 6 months thereafter, participants completed a behavioral survey and were screened for STDs, and if diagnosed, were treated. Medical providers conducted brief risk-reduction counseling with all patients. Among men who have sex with men (MSM), we examined trends in STD incidence and rates of self-reported risk behaviors before and after exposure to the risk-reduction intervention. The "preintervention" visit was the study visit that was at least 6 months after enrollment STD screening and treatment and at which the participant was first exposed to the intervention. The "postintervention" visit was 12 months later. RESULTS Among 216 MSM with complete STD and behavioral data, median age was 44.5 years; 77% were non-Hispanic white; 83% were on highly active antiretroviral treatment; 84% had an HIV RNA level <400 copies/mL and the median CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) count was 511 cells/mm. Twelve months after first exposure to the risk-reduction intervention, STD incidence declined from 8.8% to 4.2%(P = 0.041). Rates of unprotected receptive or insertive anal intercourse with HIV-positive partners increased (19% to 25%, P = 0.024), but did not change with HIV-negative partners or partners of unknown HIV status (24% to 22%, P = 0.590). CONCLUSIONS STD incidence declined significantly among HIV-infected MSM after implementing frequent, routine STD testing coupled with risk-reduction counseling. These findings support adoption of routine STD screening and risk-reduction counseling for HIV-infected MSM.
Most cited papers:
Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in rape victims: a comparison between cognitive-behavioral procedures and counseling.
Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Rape victims with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; N = 45) were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: stress inoculation training (SIT), prolonged exposure (PE), supportive counseling (SC), or wait-list control (WL). Treatments consisted of nine biweekly 90-min individual sessions conducted by a female therapist. Measures of PTSD symptoms, rape-related distress, general anxiety, and depression were administered at pretreatment, posttreatment, and follow-up (M = 3.5 months posttreatment). All conditions produced improvement on all measures immediately post-treatment and at follow-up. However, SIT produced significantly more improvement on PTSD symptoms than did SC and WL immediately following treatment. At follow-up, PE produced superior outcome on PTSD symptoms. The implications of these findings and direction for treatment and future research are discussed.
Attributes of successful smoking cessation interventions in medical practice. A meta-analysis of 39 controlled trials.
Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905.
Meta-analysis was used to examine 108 intervention comparisons in 39 controlled smoking cessation trials. Type of intervention (face-to-face advice being better than all others), type of intervenor (both physician and nonphysician counselors better than either alone), the number of reinforcing sessions, and the duration of reinforcing sessions were related to success six months after the initiation of intervention. The number of modalities used by the intervention predicted success with borderline statistical significance. Multivariate analysis predicted that a team of physicians and nonphysicians using multiple intervention modalities to deliver individualized advice on multiple occasions would produce the best result. Program success 12 months after the initiation of intervention was related to the type of intervention session (group and individual sessions combined better than either alone), the number of intervention modalities, and the number of reinforcing sessions. With multivariate adjustment for confounding, the number of intervention modalities alone had a positive association with intervention success.
Effects of Internet behavioral counseling on weight loss in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial.
Brown University School of Medicine/Miriam Hospital, Weight Control and Diabetes Research Center, Providence, RI 02906, USA. email@example.com
CONTEXT Weight loss programs on the Internet appear promising for short-term weight loss but have not been studied for weight loss in individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes; thus, the longer-term efficacy is unknown. OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of an Internet weight loss program alone vs with the addition of behavioral counseling via e-mail provided for 1 year to individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A single-center randomized controlled trial conducted from September 2001 to September 2002 in Providence, RI, of 92 overweight adults whose mean (SD) age was 48.5 (9.4) years and body mass index, 33.1 (3.8). INTERVENTIONS Participants were randomized to a basic Internet (n = 46) or to an Internet plus behavioral e-counseling program (n = 46). Both groups received 1 face-to-face counseling session and the same core Internet programs and were instructed to submit weekly weights. Participants in e-counseling submitted calorie and exercise information and received weekly e-mail behavioral counseling and feedback from a counselor. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Measured weight and waist circumference at 0 and 12 months. RESULTS Intent-to-treat analyses showed the behavioral e-counseling group lost more mean (SD) weight at 12 months than the basic Internet group (-4.4 [6.2] vs -2.0 [5.7] kg; P =.04), and had greater decreases in percentage of initial body weight (4.8% vs 2.2%; P =.03), body mass index (-1.6 [2.2] vs -0.8 [2.1]; P =.03), and waist circumference (-7.2 [7.5] vs -4.4 [5.7] cm; P =.05). CONCLUSION Adding e-mail counseling to a basic Internet weight loss intervention program significantly improved weight loss in adults at risk of diabetes.
Oxford University, Department of Primary Health Care, Old Road Campus, Headington, Oxford, UK OX3 7LF. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND Telephone services can provide information and support for smokers. Counselling may be provided proactively or offered reactively to callers to smoking cessation helplines. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effect of proactive and reactive telephone support to help smokers quit. SEARCH STRATEGY We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group trials register for studies using free text term 'telephone*' or the keywords 'telephone counselling' or 'Hotlines' or 'Telephone'. Date of the most recent search: January 2006. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials in which proactive or reactive telephone counselling to assist smoking cessation was offered to smokers or recent quitters. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Trials were identified and data extracted by one person (LS) and checked by a second (TL). The main outcome measure was the odds ratio for abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow up. We selected the strictest measure of abstinence, using biochemically validated rates where available. We considered participants lost to follow-up to be continuing smokers. Where trials had more than one arm with a less intensive intervention we used only the most similar intervention without the telephone component as the control group in the primary analysis. We assessed statistical heterogeneity amongst sub groups of clinically comparable studies using the I(2) statistic. Where appropriate, we pooled studies using a fixed-effect model. A meta-regression was used to investigate the effect of differences in planned number of calls. MAIN RESULTS Forty-eight trials met the inclusion criteria. Among smokers who contacted helplines, quit rates were higher for groups randomised to receive multiple sessions of call-back counselling (eight studies,>18,000 participants, odds ratio (OR) for long term cessation 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27 to 1.57). Two of these studies showed a significant benefit of more intensive compared to less intensive intervention. Telephone counselling not initiated by calls to helplines also increased quitting (29 studies,>17,000 participants, OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.47). A meta-regression detected a significant association between the maximum number of planned calls and the effect size. There was clearer evidence of benefit in the subgroup of trials recruiting smokers motivated to quit. Of two studies that provided access to a hotline one showed a significant benefit and one did not. Two studies comparing different counselling approaches during a single session did not detect significant differences. A further seven studies were too diverse to contribute to meta-analyses and are discussed separately. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Proactive telephone counselling helps smokers interested in quitting. There is evidence of a dose response; one or two brief calls are less likely to provide a measurable benefit. Three or more calls increases the odds of quitting compared to a minimal intervention such as providing standard self-help materials, brief advice, or compared to pharmacotherapy alone. Telephone quitlines provide an important route of access to support for smokers, and call-back counselling enhances their usefulness.
Effect of preoperative smoking intervention on postoperative complications: a randomised clinical trial.
US Public Health Service, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, Maryland, USA.
BACKGROUND: Smokers are at higher risk of cardiopulmonary and wound-related postoperative complications than non-smokers. Our aim was to investigate the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on the frequency of postoperative complications in patients undergoing hip and knee replacement. METHODS: We did a randomised trial in three hospitals in Denmark. 120 patients were randomly assigned 6-8 weeks before scheduled surgery to either the control (n=60) or smoking intervention (60) group. Smoking intervention was counselling and nicotine replacement therapy, and either smoking cessation or at least 50% smoking reduction. An assessor, who was masked to the intervention, registered the occurrence of cardiopulmonary, renal, neurological, or surgical complications and duration of hospital admittance. The main analysis was by intention to treat. FINDINGS: Eight controls and four patients from the intervention group were excluded from the final analysis because their operations were either postponed or cancelled. Thus, 52 and 56 patients, respectively, were analysed for outcome. The overall complication rate was 18% in the smoking intervention group and 52% in controls (p=0.0003). The most significant effects of intervention were seen for wound-related complications (5% vs 31%, p=0.001), cardiovascular complications (0% vs 10%, p=0.08), and secondary surgery (4% vs 15%, p=0.07). The median length of stay was 11 days (range 7-55) in the intervention group and 13 days (8-65) in the control group. INTERPRETATION: An effective smoking intervention programme 6-8 weeks before surgery reduces postoperative morbidity, and we recommend, on the basis of our results, this programme be adopted.
ICRF General Practice Research Group, Division of Public Health and Primary Health Care, Institute of Health Sciences, Old Road, Headington, Oxford, UK, OX3 7LF. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Telephone services can provide information and support for smokers. Counselling may be provided proactively or offered reactively to callers to smoking cessation helplines. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effect of proactive and reactive telephone support to help smokers quit. SEARCH STRATEGY We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group trials register for studies using free text term 'telephone*' or the keywords 'telephone counselling' or 'Hotlines' or 'Telephone'. Date of the most recent search: August 2000. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials in which proactive or reactive telephone counselling to assist smoking cessation was offered to smokers or recent quitters. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Trials were identified and data extracted by one person and checked by a second. The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates where available. Participants lost to follow-up were considered to be continuing smokers. Where interventions were similar, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed effects model to give an odds ratio. MAIN RESULTS Twenty three trials met inclusion criteria. Ten trials compared proactive counselling to a minimal intervention control. There was statistical heterogeneity, with three trials showing a significant benefit, and seven showing non significant differences. Four trials adding telephone support to a face to face intervention control failed to detect a significant effect on long term quit rates. Four trials failed to detect an additional effect of telephone support in users of nicotine replacement therapy. Providing access to a hotline showed a significant benefit in one trial and no significant difference in two. Varying the type of counselling provided has not been shown to affect outcome. REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS Proactive telephone counselling can be effective compared to an intervention without personal contact. There was heterogeneity between trials so the size of effect is uncertain. The available evidence neither confirms nor rules out a benefit of telephone counselling as an adjunct to face to face counselling or pharmacotherapy. Further trials randomising access to helplines are unlikely to be done but indirect evidence suggests they can be a useful part of a smoking cessation service.
Shu-Hong Zhu, Christopher M Anderson, Gary J Tedeschi, Bradley Rosbrook, Cynthia E Johnson, Michael Byrd, Elsa Gutiérrez-Terrell
BACKGROUND: Telephone services that offer smoking-cessation counseling (quitlines) have proliferated in recent years, encouraged by positive results of clinical trials. The question remains, however, whether those results can be translated into real-world effectiveness. METHODS: We embedded a randomized, controlled trial into the ongoing service of the California Smokers' Helpline. Callers were randomly assigned to a treatment group (1973 callers) or a control group (1309 callers). All participants received self-help materials. Those in the treatment group were assigned to receive up to seven counseling sessions; those in the control group could also receive counseling if they called back for it after randomization. RESULTS: Counseling was provided to 72.1 percent of those in the treatment group and 31.6 percent of those in the control group (mean, 3.0 sessions). The rates of abstinence for 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, according to an intention-to-treat analysis, were 23.7 percent, 17.9 percent, 12.8 percent, and 9.1 percent, respectively, for those in the treatment group and 16.5 percent, 12.1 percent, 8.6 percent, and 6.9 percent, respectively, for those in the control group (P<0.001). Analyses factoring out both the subgroup of control subjects who received counseling and the corresponding treatment subgroup indicate that counseling approximately doubled abstinence rates: rates of abstinence for 1, 3, 6, and 12 months were 20.7 percent, 15.9 percent, 11.7 percent, and 7.5 percent, respectively, in the remaining subjects in the treatment group and 9.6 percent, 6.7 percent, 5.2 percent, and 4.1 percent, respectively, in the remaining subjects in the control group (P<0.001). Therefore, the absolute difference in the rate of abstinence for 12 months between the remaining subjects in the treatment and control groups was 3.4 percent. The 12-month abstinence rates for those who made at least one attempt to quit were 23.3 percent in the treatment group and 18.4 percent in the control group (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A telephone counseling protocol for smoking cessation, previously proven efficacious, was effective when translated to a real-world setting. Its success supports Public Health Service guidelines calling for greater availability of quitlines.
Efficacy of home-based peer counselling to promote exclusive breastfeeding: a randomised controlled trial.
A L Morrow, M L Guerrero, J Shults, J J Calva, C Lutter, J Bravo, G Ruiz-Palacios, R C Morrow, F D Butterfoss
Centre for Pediatric Research, Children's Hospital of The King's Daughters, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk 23510-1001, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended worldwide but not commonly practised. We undertook a randomised controlled study of the efficacy of home-based peer counselling to increase the proportion of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers and infants residing in periurban Mexico City. METHODS Two intervention groups with different counselling frequencies, six visits (44) and three visits (52), were compared with a control group (34) that had no intervention. From March, 1995, to September, 1996, 170 pregnant women were identified by census and invited to participate in the study. Home visits were made during pregnancy and early post partum by peer counsellors recruited from the same community and trained by La Leche League. Data were collected by independent interview. Exclusive breastfeeding was defined by WHO criteria. FINDINGS 130 women participated in the study. Only 12 women refused participation. Study groups did not differ in baseline factors. At 3 months post partum, exclusive breastfeeding was practised by 67% of six-visit, 50% of three-visit, and 12% of control mothers (intervention groups vs controls, p<0.001; six-visit vs three-visit, p=0.02). Duration of breastfeeding was significantly (p=0.02) longer in intervention groups than in controls, and fewer intervention than control infants had an episode of diarrhoea (12% vs 26%, p=0.03). INTERPRETATION This is the first reported community-based randomised trial of breastfeeding promotion. Early and repeated contact with peer counsellors was associated with a significant increase in breastfeeding exclusivity and duration. The two-fold decrease in diarrhoea demonstrates the importance of breastfeeding promotion to infant health.
Counselling in a general practice setting: controlled study of health visitor intervention in treatment of postnatal depression.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Edinburgh.
OBJECTIVE To determine whether counselling by health visitors is helpful in managing postnatal depression. DESIGN Controlled, random order trial. SETTING Health centres in Edinburgh and Livingston. PATIENTS Sixty women identified as depressed by screening at six weeks post partum and by psychiatric interview at about 13 weeks post partum. Five women did not wish to participate, and a further five did not complete the trial. Age, social and obstetric factors, and diagnosis were similar in women who completed the trial and those who withdrew. INTERVENTION Eight weekly counselling visits by health visitors who had been given a short training in counselling for postnatal depression. END POINT Reduction of depression. MEASUREMENTS and main results--Standardised psychiatric interviews and a 10 point self report scale were used to identify depression before and after intervention. The psychiatrist was not told to which group women were allocated. After three months 18 (69%) of the 26 women in the treatment group had fully recovered compared with nine (38%) of the 24 in the control group. The difference between the groups was thus 32%(95% confidence interval 5 to 58). CONCLUSIONS Counselling by health visitors is valuable in managing non-psychotic postnatal depression.
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, USA.
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To determine how educational and psychosocial care provided to adults with cancer affects seven outcomes--anxiety, depression, mood, nausea, vomiting, pain, and knowledge. DESIGN: Meta-analysis. SAMPLE: 116 intervention studies. A standardized mean difference between a treatment and control group (i.e., an effect-size value) was calculated for 98 studies; for 18 additional studies, it was only possible to code the direction of treatment effect (i.e., whether the treatment or control group had a higher score). Most analyses were limited to the 98 studies from which an effect-size value was obtainable. These studies were published between 1976 and 1993 and were based on data obtained from 5,326 patients with cancer. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search yielded more than 20,000 potentially relevant citations that were reviewed. Study, subject, treatment, and outcome characteristics of the studies meeting selection criteria were coded. MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES: Manner of subject assignment to treatment condition; type of control group; publication form; type of psychoeducational care; and the outcomes of anxiety, depression, mood, nausea, vomiting, pain, and knowledge. FINDINGS: Statistically significant, beneficial effects were found in relation to all seven of the outcomes. Three threats to validity were examined and were not found to be a problem related to the outcomes examined. CONCLUSIONS: Psychoeducational care was found to benefit adults with cancer in relation to anxiety, depression, mood, nausea, vomiting, pain, and knowledge. Differentiating among the effectiveness of various types of psychoeducational care was problematic. To maximize the utility of this knowledge for clinicians, more research is needed to evaluate the relative effectiveness of different types of psychoeducational care. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: A strong research base has established the beneficial effects of psychoeducational care. Clinicians should examine their practice to determine if research-based psychoeducational care is being used sufficiently.