Industrial Waste :: adverse effects
New Solut. 2012 ;22 (1):79-107 22436208
Identifying at-risk communities for action on cancer prevention: a case study in new brunswick (Canada) communities.
Conservation Council of New Brunswick, 180 St. John Street Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 4A9, Canada. email@example.com
Health statistics reported by large geographic area such as province, state, county or health region offer little insight into disease conditions at the community level where people live and work, where occupational and environmental exposures occur, and where industrial emissions are often concentrated. This study investigated overall patterns of cancer incidence and socioeconomic status (SES) among 14 communities in the province of New Brunswick (Canada). A multivariate ordination technique, hierarchical clustering, and permutation procedures were used to identify and test significance of community clusters and whether the overall pattern of SES was correlated with patterns of cancer among communities. Communities with significantly high or significantly low overall rates of cancers were identified, patterns that were not related to SES. The potential influence of age, small populations, diagnostic screening, smoking and environmental risk factors contributing to locally elevated cancer rates are discussed. Cancer incidence reported at smaller spatial scales provides health officials and researchers with a basis for identifying communities potentially at-risk and aids in the development of appropriate community-based risk reduction actions and cancer prevention.
Most cited papers:
Cardiac arrhythmia induction after exposure to residual oil fly ash particles in a rodent model of pulmonary hypertension.
Experimental Toxicology Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA.
Recent epidemiological studies have reported a positive association between exposure to ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and the incidence of cardiopulmonary-related morbidity and mortality. The present study examined the effects of fugitive residual oil fly ash (ROFA) PM on cardiac arrhythmia induction in healthy and cardiopulmonary-compromised rodents. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with radiotelemetry transmitters capable of monitoring the electrocardiogram and were subjected to one of two treatment regimens. Rats in the first treatment regimen (n = 16) served as normal control animals whereas rats in the second treatment regimen (n = 16) were injected with monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg, ip) to induce pulmonary vascular inflammation and hypertension and served as a model of cardiopulmonary disease. Rats within each treatment regimen were equally divided into four dose groups (0.0, 0.25, 1.0, 2.5 mg ROFA), instilled intratracheally, and monitored for 96 h. In the animals in the first treatment regimen, ROFA instillation caused dose-related increases in the incidence and duration of serious arrhythmic events that appeared to be associated with impaired atrioventricular conduction and myocardial hypoxia. There were no lethalities in the normal animals following ROFA instillation. The frequency and severity of arrhythmias were greatly exacerbated in the MCT-treated animals in the second treatment regimen and were accompanied by one, three, and two deaths in the low-, medium-, and high-dose groups, respectively. The results of the present study demonstrate substantial cardiac effects in normal and compromised rats after exposure to ROFA PM and implicate both conductive and hypoxemic arrhythmogenic mechanisms in the observed cardiac-related lethalities. These results support previous epidemiological studies that suggest a link between preexisting cardiopulmonary disease and potentiation of adverse health effects following exposure to anthropogenic particulates.
Department of Microbiology, 3-432 Bowen Science Building, The University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242, USA.
A vast array of structurally diverse aromatic compounds is continually released into the environment due to the decomposition of green plants and as a consequence of human industrial activities. Increasing numbers of bacteria that utilize aromatic compounds in the absence of oxygen have been brought into pure culture in recent years. These include most major metabolic types of anaerobic heterotrophs and acetogenic bacteria. Diverse microbes utilize aromatic compounds for diverse purposes. Chlorinated aromatic compounds can serve as electron acceptors in dehalorespiration. Humic substances serve as electron shuttles to enable the use of inorganic electron acceptors, such as insoluble iron oxides, that are not always easily reduced by microbes. Substituents that are attached to aromatic rings may serve as carbon or energy sources for microbes. Examples include acyl side chains and methyl groups. Finally, aromatic compounds can be completely degraded to serve as carbon and energy sources. Routes by which various types of aromatic compounds, including toluene, ethylbenzene, phenol, benzoate, and dihydroxylated compounds, are degraded have been elucidated in recent years. Biochemical strategies employed by microbes to destabilize the aromatic ring in preparation for degradation have become apparent from this work.
A survey of atopic diseases among school children in Sør-Varanger community. Possible effects of subarctic climate and industrial pollution from Russia.
Department of Dermatology, University of Tromsø, Norway.
The occurrence of atopic diseases in school children in the community of Sør-Varanger was studied on the basis of a questionnaire sent to the parents of all the 575 children aged 7-12 years. 551 children (95.8%), 266 girls and 285 boys, completed the questionnaire. Atopic diseases were reported to be present or to have occurred in 249 (45.2%) of the 551 children, more frequently in girls (50.4%) than in boys (40.4%)(p < 0.02). Asthma occurred in 68 cases (12.3%), with almost the same frequency in girls (13.2%) and boys (11.2%). Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis was detected in 113 children (20.6%); it was slightly more frequent in boys (21.8%) than in girls (18.9%) but did not reach statistical significance. Urticaria occurred in 72 cases (13.1%), more frequently in girls (17.7%) than in boys (8.8%)(p < 0.002), while atopic dermatitis occurred in 130 cases (23.6%), again more frequently in girls (27.6%) than in boys (19.6%)(p < 0.03). Ninety-four (37.8%) of the children experienced more than one atopic symptom. In 75% of the children with dermatitis the age at onset was under 5 and more than 50% of the children with asthma had experienced symptoms before the age of 3. Parental history of atopic diseases was reported by 35.6% of all children, more frequently in mothers (30.2%) than in fathers (20.1%). On the other hand, 30.6% of children with no parental history of atopic diseases appeared to develop some kind of atopic disease; this increased to 48.0% with a single and to 56.1% with a double parental history.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Environmental particulate-mediated cytokine production in lung epithelial cells (A549): role of preexisting inflammation and oxidant stress.
Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Epidemiologic data show that air pollution particulates cause adverse pulmonary health effects, especially in individuals with preexisting lung disease. We sought to model in vitro preexisting lung inflammation in order to investigate the hypothesis that "primed" lung epithelial cells will exhibit enhanced phlogistic responses [e.g., interleukin-8 (IL-8) production] to particulate air pollution. Exposure of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) primed or control A549 cells to the air pollution particulates, residual oil fly ash (ROFA), and the known pathogenic dust alpha-quartz, but not inert TiO2, caused increased IL-8 production in primed cells compared to normal cells in a concentration-dependent manner (particle concentration range 0-200 microg/ml). We hypothesized that oxidant mechanisms may be involved in the cellular response to particulates. Addition of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 1.0 mM) decreased ROFA and alpha-quartz-mediated IL-8 production by approximately 50% in normal and TNF-alpha-primed A549 cells. In addition, exposure of A549 cells to ROFA caused a substantial (and NAC inhibitable) increase in oxidant levels as measured by fluorometry (DCFH oxidation). These data suggest that (1) lung epithelial cells primed by inflammatory mediators can show enhanced cytokine production after exposure to air pollution particulates, and (2) oxidant stress is a key mechanism for this response.
National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (MD-68), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
In excess of several million pounds of genotoxic and/or carcinogenic industrial wastes are released into the U.S. environment each year. Chemical characterization of these waste materials can rarely provide an adequate assessment of their genotoxicity and potential hazard. Bioassays do not require prior information about chemical composition and can effectively assess the genotoxicity of complex waste materials. The most commonly used genotoxicity assay has been the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Results with this system have shown that the genotoxic potency of industrial wastes can vary over 10 orders of magnitude, from virtually nondetectable to highly potent. Industries employing similar industrial processes generally release wastes of similar potency. Extremely high potency wastes include those from furazolidone and nitrofurfural production. Pulp and paper mills, steel foundries, and organic chemical manufacturing facilities also discharge wastes of noteworthy potency. Treatment and remediation of some wastes, such as pulp and paper mill effluents, have been shown to reduce or eliminate genotoxicity. However, in other cases, treatment and remediation have been shown to enhance genotoxicity, such as for fungal treatment of oils. Analyses of samples collected from areas known to receive industrial wastes and effluents have shown that genotoxins can accumulate in the receiving environment and have adverse effects on indigenous biota. The evaluation of hazardous wastes and effluents by genotoxicity assays may provide data useful not only for hazard identification but for comparative risk assessment.
Mutagenesis Section, Safe Environments Program, Health Canada, Tunney's Pasture 0803A, Ottawa, Ont., Canada K1A 0L2.
Sediments are the sink for particle-sorbed contaminants in aquatic systems and can serve as a reservoir of toxic contaminants that continually threaten the health and viability of aquatic biota. This work is a comprehensive review of published studies that investigated the genotoxicity of sediments in rivers, lakes and marine habitats. The Salmonella mutagenicity test is the most frequently used assay and accounts for 41.1% of the available data. The Salmonella data revealed mutagenic potency values for sediment extracts (in revertants per gram dry weight) that spans over seven orders of magnitude from not detectable to highly potent (10(5) rev/g). Analyses of the Salmonella data (n=510) showed significant differences between rural, urban/industrial, and heavily contaminated (e.g., dump) sites assessed using TA98 and TA100 with S9 activation. Additional analyses showed a significant positive correlation between Salmonella mutagenic potency (TA98 and TA100 with S9) and PAH contamination (r2=0.19-0.68). The second and third most commonly used assays for the analysis of sediments and sediment extracts are the SOS Chromotest (9.2%) and the Mutatox assays (7.8%), respectively. These assays are frequently used for rapid initial screening of collected samples. A variety of other in vitro endpoints employing cultured fish and mammalian cells have been used to investigate sediment genotoxic activity. Endpoints investigated include sister chromatid exchange frequency, micronucleus frequency, chromosome aberration frequency, gene mutation at tk and hprt loci, unscheduled DNA synthesis, DNA adduct frequency, and DNA strand break frequency. More complex in vivo assays have documented a wide range of effects including neoplasms and preneoplastic lesions in fish and invertebrate exposed ex situ. Although costly and time consuming, these assays have provided definitive evidence linking sediment contamination and a variety of genotoxic and carcinogenic effects observed in situ.
Association between clinical symptoms and lymphocyte abnormalities in a population with chronic domestic exposure to industrial solvent-contaminated domestic water supply and a high incidence of leukaemia.
Cancer Research Campaign Laboratories, University of Nottingham, U.K.
An unusually high incidence of leukaemia and recurrent infections was noted in children exposed in utero to domestic water supply contaminated with industrial solvents including trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene and 1,2-transdichloroethylene. Medical and laboratory investigations were carried out on 28 family members of the patients with leukaemia with particular emphasis on the immunological system to determine if they displayed symptoms associated with acute or chronic exposure to these chlorinated hydrocarbons. The principal organ systems affected were neurological, immunological and cardiological. Damage to these systems was found in all subjects by history, physical and laboratory parameters. Damage to the immunological system was manifest by altered ratios of T lymphocyte subpopulations, increased incidence of auto-antibodies, increased infections and recurrent rashes.
The improved Allium/Vicia root tip micronucleus assay for clastogenicity of environmental pollutants.
Department of Biological Sciences, Western Illinois University, Macomb 61455, USA.
The meristematic mitotic cells of plant roots are appropriate and efficient cytogenetic materials for the detection of clastogenicity of environmental pollutants, especially for in situ monitoring of water contaminants. Among several cytological endpoints in these fast dividing cells, such as chromosome/chromatid aberrations, sister-chromatid exchanges and micronuclei, the most effective and simplest indicator of cytological damage is micronucleus formation. Although the Allium cepa and Vicia faba root meristem micronucleus assays (Allium/Vicia root MCN) have been used in clastogenicity studies about 12 times by various authors in the last 25 years, there is no report on the comparison of the efficiency of these two plant systems and in different cell populations (meristem and F1) of the root tip as well as under adequate recovery duration. In order to maximize the efficiency of these bioassays, the current study was designed to compare the Allium and the Vicia root MCN assays on the basis of chromosome length, peak sensitivity of the mitotic cells, and the regions of the root tip where the MCN are formed. The total length of the 2n complement of Allium chromosomes is 14.4 microns and the total length of the 2n complement of Vicia is 9.32 microns. The peak sensitivity determined by serial fixation at 12-h intervals after 100 R of X-irradiation is 44 h. The slope of the X-ray dose-response curve of Allium roots derived from the meristematic regions was lower than that derived from cells in the F1 region. Higher efficiency was also demonstrated when the MCN frequencies were scored from the F1 cells in both Allium and Vicia treated with formaldehyde (FA), mitomycin C (MMC), and maleic hydrazide (MH). The results indicated that scoring of MCN frequencies from the F1 cell region of the root tip was more efficient than scoring from the meristematic region. The X-ray linear regression dose-response curves were established in both Allium and Vicia cell systems and the coefficients of correlations, slope values were used to verify the reliability and efficiency of these two plant cell systems. Based on the dose-response slope value of 0.894 for Allium and 0.643 for Vicia, the Allium root MCN was a more efficient test system. The greater sensitivity of the Allium roots is probably due to the greater total length of the diploid complement and the higher number of metacentric chromosomes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
The incidence of low birth weight among white live-born infants from 1940 through 1978 was studied in various sections of the Love Canal. A statistically significant excess was found in the historic swale area from 1940 through 1953, the period when various chemicals were dumped in this disposal site. Potential confounding factors such as medical-therapeutic histories, smoking, education, maternal age, birth order, length of gestation, and urban-rural difference did not appear to account for this observation. Low birth weight rates were comparable to those of upstate New York from 1954 through 1978, the period when there was no deposition of chemical wastes.
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Dundee, UK.
Microbially catalyzed reactions, which occur in the natural sulfur cycle, have been integrated in a microbiological process to remove toxic metals from contaminated soils. Bioleaching using sulfuric acid produced by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria was followed by precipitation of the leachate metals as insoluble sulfides by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Metal contaminants including Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn were efficiently leached from an artificially contaminated soil. Mn, Ni, and Zn were the only target elements that were significantly leached from soil minerals. Pb leaching was slow and remained incomplete over a period of 180 days. Mineral components such as Fe, Ca and Mg were also leached but the eventual reduction in soil mass was only approximately 10%. An industrially contaminated soil was also efficiently leached and approximately 69% of the main toxic metals present, Cu, Ni, and Mn, were removed after 175 days. The leachate that resulted from the action of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria on contaminated soil was stripped of metals using an anaerobic bioreactor containing a mixed culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria which precipitated soluble metal species as solid metal sulfides. More than 98% of the metals were removed from solution with the exception of Mn, Ni, and Pb, where 80-90% were removed. The metal content of the resultant effluent liquor was low enough to meet European criteria for discharge into the environment.