Hexokinase :: deficiency
Disruption of hexokinase II-mitochondrial binding blocks ischemic preconditioning and causes rapid cardiac necrosis.
Kirsten M A Smeele, Richard Southworth, Rongxue Wu, Chaoqin Xie, Rianne Nederlof, Alice Warley, Jessica K Nelson, Pepijn van Horssen, Jeroen P van den Wijngaard, Sami Heikkinen, Markku Laakso, Anneke Koeman, Maria Siebes, Otto Eerbeek, Fadi G Akar, Hossein Ardehali, Markus W Hollmann, Coert J Zuurbier
Department of Anesthesiology, Laboratory of Experimental Intensive Care and Anesthesiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
RATIONALE Isoforms I and II of the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase (HKI and HKII) are known to associate with mitochondria. It is unknown whether mitochondria-bound hexokinase is mandatory for ischemic preconditioning and normal functioning of the intact, beating heart. OBJECTIVE We hypothesized that reducing mitochondrial hexokinase would abrogate ischemic preconditioning and disrupt myocardial function. METHODS AND RESULTS Ex vivo perfused HKII(+/-) hearts exhibited increased cell death after ischemia and reperfusion injury compared with wild-type hearts; however, ischemic preconditioning was unaffected. To investigate acute reductions in mitochondrial HKII levels, wild-type hearts were treated with a TAT control peptide or a TAT-HK peptide that contained the binding motif of HKII to mitochondria, thereby disrupting the mitochondrial HKII association. Mitochondrial hexokinase was determined by HKI and HKII immunogold labeling and electron microscopy analysis. Low-dose (200 nmol/L) TAT-HK treatment significantly decreased mitochondrial HKII levels without affecting baseline cardiac function but dramatically increased ischemia-reperfusion injury and prevented the protective effects of ischemic preconditioning. Treatment for 15 minutes with high-dose (10 μmol/L) TAT-HK resulted in acute mitochondrial depolarization, mitochondrial swelling, profound contractile impairment, and severe cardiac disintegration. The detrimental effects of TAT-HK treatment were mimicked by mitochondrial membrane depolarization after mild mitochondrial uncoupling that did not cause direct mitochondrial permeability transition opening. CONCLUSIONS Acute low-dose dissociation of HKII from mitochondria in heart prevented ischemic preconditioning, whereas high-dose HKII dissociation caused cessation of cardiac contraction and tissue disruption, likely through an acute mitochondrial membrane depolarization mechanism. The results suggest that the association of HKII with mitochondria is essential for the protective effects of ischemic preconditioning and normal cardiac function through maintenance of mitochondrial potential.
Most cited papers:
Antisense repression of hexokinase 1 leads to an overaccumulation of starch in leaves of transgenic potato plants but not to significant changes in tuber carbohydrate metabolism.
Max Planck Institut für Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie, Karl Liebknecht Strasse 25, 14476 Golm, Germany. email@example.com
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants transformed with sense and antisense constructs of a cDNA encoding the potato hexokinase 1 (StHK1) exhibited altered enzyme activities and expression of StHK1 mRNA. Measurements of the maximum catalytic activity of hexokinase revealed a 22-fold variation in leaves (from 22% of the wild-type activity in antisense transformants to 485% activity in sense transformants) and a 7-fold variation in developing tubers (from 32% of the wild-type activity in antisense transformants to 222% activity in sense transformants). Despite the wide range of hexokinase activities, no change was found in the fresh weight yield, starch, sugar, or metabolite levels of transgenic tubers. However, there was a 3-fold increase in the starch content of leaves from the antisense transformants after the dark period. Starch accumulation at the end of the night period was correlated with a 2-fold increase of glucose and a decrease of sucrose content. These results provide strong support for the hypothesis that glucose is a primary product of transitory starch degradation and is the sugar that is exported to the cytosol at night to support sucrose biosynthesis.
Institute of Biochemistry, Charité, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
Red blood cells can only fulfil their functions over the normal period of approximately 120 days with 1.7 x 10(5) circulatory cycles efficiently if they withstand external and internal loads. This requires ATP and redox equivalents, which have to be permanently regenerated by the energy and redox metabolism. These pathways are necessary to maintain the biconcave shape of the cells, their specific intracellular cation concentrations, the reduced state of hemoglobin with a divalent iron and the sulfhydryl groups of enzymes, glutathione and membrane components. If an enzyme deficiency of one of these metabolic pathways limits the ATP and/or NADPH production, distinct membrane alterations result causing a removal of the damaged cells by the monocyte-macrophage system. Most metabolic needs of erythrocytes are covered by glycolysis, the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP), the glutathione cycle, nucleotide metabolism and MetHb reductase. Hereditary enzyme deficiencies of all these pathways have been identified; those that cause non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia are listed in Table 4. Their frequencies differ markedly both with respect to the affected enzyme and geographic distribution. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzymopathies (G6PD) are with more than 400 million cases by far the most common deficiency. The highest gene frequency has been found with 0.7 among Kurdish Jews. G6PD deficiencies are furthermore prevalent with frequencies of about 0.1 among Africans, Black Americans, and populations of Mediterranean countries and South East Asia. In Middle and Northern Europe the frequency of G6PD is much lower, and with approximately 0.0005, comparable with the frequency of pyruvate kinase (PK) enzymopathies, the most frequent enzyme deficiency in glycolysis in this area (Luzzatto, 1987; Beutler and Kuhl, 1990). The relationship between the degree of enzyme deficiency and the extent of metabolic dysfunction in red blood cells and other tissues depend on several factors: on the importance of the affected enzyme; its expression rate; the stability of the mutant enzyme against proteolytic degradation and functional abnormalities; the possibility to compensate the deficiency by an overexpression of the corresponding isoenzyme or by the use of an alternative metabolic pathway. Difficulties in estimating the quantitative degree of disorder in severe cases are due to the fact that these populations contain many reticulocytes, which generally have higher enzyme activities and concentrations of intermediates than erythrocytes. An alternative approach to predict metabolic changes is the analysis by mathematical modeling. Mathematical modeling of the main metabolic pathways of human erythrocytes has reached an advanced level (Rapoport et al., 1976; Holzhütter et al., 1985; Schuster et al., 1988). Models have been successfully employed to describe stationary and time-dependent metabolic states of the cell under normal conditions as well as in the presence of enzyme deficiencies. Figure 5 shows computational results of erythrocyte enzyme deficiencies. This analysis is based on the comprehensive mathematical model of the energy and redox metabolism for human erythrocyte presented in Fig. 6. Stationary states of the cell metabolism have been calculated by varying the activity of each of the participating enzymes by several orders of magnitude. To predict consequences of enzyme deficiencies a performance function has been introduced (Schuster and Holzhütter, 1995). It takes into account the homeostasis of three essential metabolic variables: the energetic state (ATP), the reductive capacity (reduced glutathione) and the osmotic state. From the data given in Fig. 5 one can conclude that generally the metabolic impairment resulting in deficiencies occurs earlier for enzymes with high control coefficients than for those catalyzing equilibrium reactions. On the other hand the flux curves of latter enzymes decrease more steeply below a critica
Hexokinase II partial knockout impairs exercise-stimulated glucose uptake in oxidative muscles of mice.
Patrick T Fueger, Sami Heikkinen, Deanna P Bracy, Carlo M Malabanan, R Richard Pencek, Markku Laakso, David H Wasserman
Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232-0615, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Muscle glucose uptake (MGU) is distributively controlled by three serial steps: delivery of glucose to the muscle membrane, transport across the muscle membrane, and intracellular phosphorylation to glucose 6-phosphate by hexokinase (HK). During states of high glucose fluxes such as moderate exercise, the HK activity is of increased importance, since augmented muscle perfusion increases glucose delivery, and increased GLUT4 at the cell membrane increases glucose transport. Because HK II overexpression augments exercise-stimulated MGU, it was hypothesized that a reduction in HK II activity would impair exercise-stimulated MGU and that the magnitude of this impairment would be greatest in tissues with the largest glucose requirement. To this end, mice with a HK II partial knockout (HK+/-) were compared with their wild-type control (WT) littermates during either sedentary or moderate exercise periods. Rg, an index of glucose metabolism, was measured using 2-deoxy-[3H]glucose. No differences in glucose metabolism were detected between sedentary groups. The increase in Rg due to exercise was impaired in the highly oxidative heart and soleus muscles of HK+/- compared with WT mice (7 +/- 10 vs. 29 +/- 9 and 8 +/- 3 vs. 25 +/- 7 micromol. 100 g-1. min-1, respectively). However, the increase in Rg due to exercise was not altered in gastrocnemius and superficial vastus lateralis muscles in HK+/- and WT mice (8 +/- 2 vs. 12 +/- 3 and 5 +/- 2 vs. 8 +/- 2 micromol. 100 g-1. min-1, respectively). In conclusion, MGU is impaired by reductions in HK activity during exercise, a physiological condition characterized by high glucose flux. This impairment is critically dependent on the tissue's glucose metabolic rate and correlates with tissue oxidative capacity.
Frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase and hexokinase deficiency in the Saudi population.
The frequencies of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), pyruvate kinase (PK) and hexokinase (HK) deficiency were determined in different regions of Saudi Arabia. G-6-PD deficiency was found to range from 0.045 to 0.220 for the male and 0.020 to 0.125 for the female population. The highest frequencies were found to exist in the regions which are endemic to malarial parasite and have high frequencies of sickle cell and thalassaemia genes. Partial deficiencies of PK and HK were encountered in each region, however, no case of complete deficiency of these enzymes was identified. Further investigations are in progress to determine the clinical manifestations of enzyme deficiencies in the Saudi population.
Methods for assaying 16 erythrocyte enzymes have been adapted to the miniature centrifugal analyzer. Less than 15 micro L of whole blood is required for all 16 assays. Variation attributable to temporal effects, rotor effects, and random residual error is minor. Initial population studies of blood from adults and cord-blood samples suggest a CV of less than 12% for 12 of the 16 enzymes; thus it should be possible to identify the heterozygous deficient individual. Preliminary data suggest that three such individuals, with enzyme activity (adenylate kinase, pyruvate kinase, phosphoglycerate kinase) about half the expected, have been identified, as well as two individuals deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.
Hexokinase II-deficient mice. Prenatal death of homozygotes without disturbances in glucose tolerance in heterozygotes.
Department of Medicine, University of Kuopio, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland.
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by decreased rates of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and utilization, reduced hexokinase II mRNA and enzyme production, and low basal levels of glucose 6-phosphate in insulin-sensitive skeletal muscle and adipose tissues. Hexokinase II is primarily expressed in muscle and adipose tissues where it catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose to glucose 6-phosphate, a possible rate-limiting step for glucose disposal. To investigate the role of hexokinase II in insulin action and in glucose homeostasis as well as in mouse development, we generated a hexokinase II knock-out mouse. Mice homozygous for hexokinase II deficiency (HKII(-/-)) died at approximately 7.5 days post-fertilization, indicating that hexokinase II is vital for mouse embryogenesis after implantation and before organogenesis. HKII(+/-) mice were viable, fertile, and grew normally. Surprisingly, even though HKII(+/-) mice had significantly reduced (by 50%) hexokinase II mRNA and activity levels in skeletal muscle, heart, and adipose tissue, they did not exhibit impaired insulin action or glucose tolerance even when challenged with a high-fat diet.
Institute of Biological Chemistry G. Fornaini, University of Urbino, Italy.
Among glycolytic enzyme defects, hexokinase (ATP: D-hexose 6-phosphotransferase, EC 22.214.171.124; HK) deficiency is a very rare disease where the predominant clinical effect is nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. Here we report the characterization at molecular level of the HK type I cDNA from a patient with hemolytic anemia due to hexokinase deficiency. PCR amplification and sequence of the cDNA revealed the presence of a deletion and of a single nucleotide substitution, both in heterozygous form. In particular, the deletion, 96 bp long, concerns nucleotides 577 to 672 in the HK cDNA sequence and was never found in the cDNAs of 14 unrelated normal subjects. The sequence of the HK allele without deletion showed a single nucleotide substitution from T to C at position 1667 which causes the amino acid change from Leu529 to Ser. This heterozygous mutation at nt 1667 was confirmed by direct sequencing of the patient genomic DNA, but when DNAs from 10 normal controls were examined by this technique the substitution at nt 1667 was never found. From these results we concluded that the patient is carrying a point mutation at nt 1667 of one HK allele and a 96 nt deletion in the other allele. In normal subjects two differences from the published cDNA sequence were documented.
Human erythrocyte hexokinase deficiency. Characterization of a mutant enzyme with abnormal regulatory properties.
In the erythrocytes of a patient with hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia, a homozygous expression of hexokinase deficiency was detected. The mutant enzyme was characterized by normal kinetic parameters with respect to its substrates, glucose and MgATP2-, normal pH optimum, normal heat stability at 40 degrees C, but abnormal behavior with respect to its regulation by glucose-1,6-diphosphate and inorganic phosphate, and an altered electrophoretic pattern. Interpretation of the results revealed the presence of two different hexokinases type I in normal human erythrocytes: one enzyme with a high affinity for glucose-1,6-diphosphate, the inhibition of which is regulated by inorganic phosphate; and another enzyme with a lower affinity for the inhibitor, not regulated by inorganic phosphate. The former enzyme was not detectable in the erythrocytes of the patient, whereas the presence of the latter enzyme could be demonstrated.
Generalized hexokinase deficiency in the blood cells of a patient with nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia.
In a patient with nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia, a hexokinase deficiency was detected in the red cells (residual activity about 25% of normal) and in blood platelets (20%-35% of normal activity). Although the total hexokinase activity in lymphocytes was normal, the amount of hexokinase type I was decreased to about 50% of normal. However, the deficiency was compensated for by the appearance of type III hexokinase. Compartmentation studies with controlled digitonin-induced cell lysis showed that this type III enzyme was localized in the cytosol, while almost all hexokinase activity in normal lymphocytes is particulate. No abnormal lymphocyte functions could be detected. The patient was homozygous for the defect. The parents and three of five sibs of the patient were apparently heterozygous with residual activities of 50%-67% of normal in their red cells, but did not show any clinical signs of hexokinase deficiency. The variant enzyme had a slightly decreased affinity for MgATP2- and a strongly increased inhibition constant for glucose-1,6-P2. Affinity for glucose, heat stability, and pH optimum were normal. In the electrophoretic pattern of red cell hexokinase, only one subtype of hexokinase I could be detected, while in normal red cells, at least three subtypes are present. In the heterozygous individuals, no enzymatic abnormalities could be detected, except for an aberration in the electropherogram of one sib.