Water Purification :: methods
Assessment of waterborne protozoan passage through conventional drinking water treatment process in Venezuela.
Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research, Microbiology and Cell Biology Center, Caracas, Venezuela. email@example.com
Three drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) differing in source water and treatment capacity were investigated for the potential passage of waterborne protozoan (oo)cysts through conventional processing. DWTP I (15,000 L/s), DWTP II (7,500 L/s) and DWTP III (4,300 L/s) provide drinking water for approximately 2.7 million inhabitants of the Metropolitan District of Caracas (Venezuela). The US Environmental Protection Agency Method 1623 for detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia was used to analyze raw water and finished drinking water samples collected from the three plants.(Oo)cyst recovery efficiencies varied between 23 and 84%. The concentration of confirmed (oo)cysts detected in raw water samples ranged between 1 and 100 per 100 L.(Oo)cyst levels in finished water samples ranged from 2 to 25 per 100 L. These data indicated that the conventional treatment process to produce finished water at two filtration plants was not effective in preventing the passage of protozoan (oo)cysts. Monitoring strategies that include multiple microbial indicators and waterborne pathogens are strongly recommended for accurate source water characterization and for verification of the effectiveness of treatment process barriers to microbial breakthrough in the finished water.
Most cited papers:
John F Heidelberg, Ian T Paulsen, Karen E Nelson, Eric J Gaidos, William C Nelson, Timothy D Read, Jonathan A Eisen, Rekha Seshadri, Naomi Ward, Barbara Methe, Rebecca A Clayton, Terry Meyer, Alexandre Tsapin, James Scott, Maureen Beanan, Lauren Brinkac, Sean Daugherty, Robert T DeBoy, Robert J Dodson, A Scott Durkin, Daniel H Haft, James F Kolonay, Ramana Madupu, Jeremy D Peterson, Lowell A Umayam, Owen White, Alex M Wolf, Jessica Vamathevan, Janice Weidman, Marjorie Impraim, Kathy Lee, Kristy Berry, Chris Lee, Jacob Mueller, Hoda Khouri, John Gill, Terry R Utterback, Lisa A McDonald, Tamara V Feldblyum, Hamilton O Smith, J Craig Venter, Kenneth H Nealson, Claire M Fraser
The Institute for Genomic Research, 9712 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA.
Shewanella oneidensis is an important model organism for bioremediation studies because of its diverse respiratory capabilities, conferred in part by multicomponent, branched electron transport systems. Here we report the sequencing of the S. oneidensis genome, which consists of a 4,969,803-base pair circular chromosome with 4,758 predicted protein-encoding open reading frames (CDS) and a 161,613-base pair plasmid with 173 CDSs. We identified the first Shewanella lambda-like phage, providing a potential tool for further genome engineering. Genome analysis revealed 39 c-type cytochromes, including 32 previously unidentified in S. oneidensis, and a novel periplasmic [Fe] hydrogenase, which are integral members of the electron transport system. This genome sequence represents a critical step in the elucidation of the pathways for reduction (and bioremediation) of pollutants such as uranium (U) and chromium (Cr), and offers a starting point for defining this organism's complex electron transport systems and metal ion-reducing capabilities.
Thomas A Ternes, Martin Meisenheimer, Derek McDowell, Frank Sacher, Heinz-Jürgen Brauch, Brigitte Haist-Gulde, Gudrun Preuss, Uwe Wilme, Ninette Zulei-Seibert
ESWE-Institute for Water Research and Water Technology, Wiesbaden, Germany. Thomas.ternes@ESWE.com
The elimination of selected pharmaceuticals (bezafibrate, clofibric acid, carbamazepine, diclofenac) during drinking water treatment processes was investigated at lab and pilot scale and in real waterworks. No significant removal of pharmaceuticals was observed in batch experiments with sand under natural aerobic and anoxic conditions, thus indicating low sorption properties and high persistence with nonadapted microorganisms. These results were underscored by the presence of carbamazepine in bank-filtrated water with anaerobic conditions in a waterworks area. Flocculation using iron(III) chloride in lab-scale experiments (Jar test) and investigations in waterworks exhibited no significant elimination of the selected target pharmaceuticals. However, ozonation was in some cases very effective in eliminating these polar compounds. In lab-scale experiments, 0.5 mg/L ozone was shown to reduce the concentrations of diclofenac and carbamazepine by more than 90%, while bezafibrate was eliminated by 50% with a 1.5 mg/L ozone dose. Clofibric acid was stable even at 3 mg/L ozone. Under waterworks conditions, similar removal efficiencies were observed. In addition to ozonation, filtration with granular activated carbon (GAC) was very effective in removing pharmaceuticals. Except for clofibric acid, GAC in pilot-scale experiments and waterworks provided a major elimination of the pharmaceuticals under investigation.
CSIRO Land and Water, Adelaide Laboratory, SA, Australia. firstname.lastname@example.org
Alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEs) are widely used surfactants in domestic and industrial products, which are commonly found in wastewater discharges and in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents. Degradation of APEs in wastewater treatment plants or in the environment generates more persistent shorter-chain APEs and alkylphenols (APs) such as nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP) and AP mono- to triethoxylates (NPE1, NPE2 and NPE3). There is concern that APE metabolites (NP, OP, NPE1-3) can mimic natural hormones and that the levels present in the environment may be sufficient to disrupt endocrine function in wildlife and humans. The physicochemical properties of the APE metabolites (NP, NPE1-4, OP, OPE1-4), in particular the high K(ow) values, indicate that they will partition effectively into sediments following discharge from STPs. The aqueous solubility data for the APE metabolites indicate that the concentration in water combined with the high partition coefficients will provide a significant reservoir (load) in various environmental compartments. Data from studies conducted in many regions across the world have shown significant levels in samples of every environmental compartment examined. In the US, levels of NP in air ranged from 0.01 to 81 ng/m3, with seasonal trends observed. Concentrations of APE metabolites in treated wastewater effluents in the US ranged from < 0.1 to 369 microg/l, in Spain they were between 6 and 343 microg/l and concentrations up to 330 microg/l were found in the UK. Levels in sediments reflected the high partition coefficients with concentrations reported ranging from < 0.1 to 13,700 microg/kg for sediments in the US. Fish in the UK were found to contain up to 0.8 microg/kg NP in muscle tissue. APEs degraded faster in the water column than in sediment. Aerobic conditions facilitate easier further biotransformation of APE metabolites than anaerobic conditions.
Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, EAWAG, Ueberlandstr 133, CH-8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland. email@example.com
The oxidation of organic and inorganic compounds during ozonation can occur via ozone or OH radicals or a combination thereof. The oxidation pathway is determined by the ratio of ozone and OH radical concentrations and the corresponding kinetics. A huge database with several hundred rate constants for ozone and a few thousand rate constants for OH radicals is available. Ozone is an electrophile with a high selectivity. The second-order rate constants for oxidation by ozone vary over 10 orders of magnitude, between < 0.1 M(-1)s(-1) and about 7 x 10(9) M(-1)s(-1). The reactions of ozone with drinking-water relevant inorganic compounds are typically fast and occur by an oxygen atom transfer reaction. Organic micropollutants are oxidized with ozone selectively. Ozone reacts mainly with double bonds, activated aromatic systems and non-protonated amines. In general, electron-donating groups enhance the oxidation by ozone whereas electron-withdrawing groups reduce the reaction rates. Furthermore, the kinetics of direct ozone reactions depend strongly on the speciation (acid-base, metal complexation). The reaction of OH radicals with the majority of inorganic and organic compounds is nearly diffusion-controlled. The degree of oxidation by ozone and OH radicals is given by the corresponding kinetics. Product formation from the ozonation of organic micropollutants in aqueous systems has only been established for a few compounds. It is discussed for olefines, amines and aromatic compounds.
Environmental Technology Program, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology (SIIT), Thammasat University, P.O. Box 22, 12121, Pathumthani, Thailand. firstname.lastname@example.org
In this article, the technical feasibility of various low-cost adsorbents for heavy metal removal from contaminated water has been reviewed. Instead of using commercial activated carbon, researchers have worked on inexpensive materials, such as chitosan, zeolites, and other adsorbents, which have high adsorption capacity and are locally available. The results of their removal performance are compared to that of activated carbon and are presented in this study. It is evident from our literature survey of about 100 papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for certain metal ions as compared to activated carbon. Adsorbents that stand out for high adsorption capacities are chitosan (815, 273, 250 mg/g of Hg(2+), Cr(6+), and Cd(2+), respectively), zeolites (175 and 137 mg/g of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+), respectively), waste slurry (1030, 560, 540 mg/g of Pb(2+), Hg(2+), and Cr(6+), respectively), and lignin (1865 mg/g of Pb(2+)). These adsorbents are suitable for inorganic effluent treatment containing the metal ions mentioned previously. It is important to note that the adsorption capacities of the adsorbents presented in this paper vary, depending on the characteristics of the individual adsorbent, the extent of chemical modifications, and the concentration of adsorbate.
Geun-Cheol Gil, In-Seop Chang, Byung-Hong Kim, Mia Kim, Jae-Kyung Jang, Hyung Soo Park, Hyung-Joo Kim
Water Environment Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1 Hawolgok, Sungpook, Seoul 136-791, South Korea.
A mediator-less microbial fuel cell was optimized in terms of various operating conditions. Current generation was dependent on several factors such as pH, resistance, electrolyte used, and dissolved oxygen concentration in the cathode compartment. The highest current was generated at pH 7. Under the operating conditions, the resistance was the rate-determining factor at over 500 omega. With resistance lower than 500 omega, proton transfer and dissolved oxygen (DO) supply limited the cathode reaction. A high strength buffer reduced the proton limitation to some extent. The DO concentration was around 6 mg l(-1) at the DO limited condition. The fact that oxygen limitation was observed at high DO concentration is believed to be due to the poor oxygen reducing activity of the electrode used, graphite. The current showed linear relationship with the fuel added at low concentration, and the electronic charge was well correlated with substrate concentration from up to 400 mg l(-1) of COD(cr). The microbial fuel cell might be used as a biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensor.
Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology (EAWAG), Ueberlandstrasse 133, CH-8600 Duebendorf, Switzerland.
This study investigates the oxidation of pharmaceuticals during conventional ozonation and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) applied in drinking water treatment. In a first step, second-order rate constants for the reactions of selected pharmaceuticals with ozone (k(O3)) and OH radicals (k(OH)) were determined in bench-scale experiments (in brackets apparent k(O3) at pH 7 and T = 20 degrees C): bezafibrate (590 +/- 50 M(-1) s(-1)), carbamazepine (approximately 3 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)), diazepam (0.75 +/- 0.15 M(-1) s(-1)), diclofenac (approximately 1 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)), 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (approximately 3 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)), ibuprofen (9.6 +/- 1.0 M(-1) s(-1)), iopromide (<0.8 M(-1) s(-1)), sulfamethoxazole (approximately 2.5 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)), and roxithromycin (approximately 7 x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)). For five of the pharmaceuticals the apparent k(O3) at pH 7 was >5 x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1), indicating that these compounds are completely transformed during ozonation processes. Values for k(OH) ranged from 3.3 to 9.8 x 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). Compared to other important micropollutants such as MTBE and atrazine, the selected pharmaceuticals reacted about two to three times faster with OH radicals. In the second part of the study, oxidation kinetics of the selected pharmaceuticals were investigated in ozonation experiments performed in different natural waters. It could be shown that the second-order rate constants determined in pure aqueous solution could be applied to predict the behavior of pharmaceuticals dissolved in natural waters. Overall it can be concluded that ozonation and AOPs are promising processes for an efficient removal of pharmaceuticals in drinking waters.
Chlorination disinfection byproducts in water and their association with adverse reproductive outcomes: a review.
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College School of Medicine at St Mary's, London, UK.
OBJECTIVES AND METHODS Chlorination has been the major disinfectant process for domestic drinking water for many years. Concern about the potential health effects of the byproducts of chlorination has prompted the investigation of the possible association between exposure to these byproducts and incidence of human cancer, and more recently, with adverse reproductive outcomes. This paper evaluates both the toxicological and epidemiological data involving chlorination disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and adverse reproductive outcomes, and makes recommendations for future research. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Relatively few toxicological and epidemiological studies have been carried out examining the effects of DBPs on reproductive health outcomes. The main outcomes of interest so far have been low birth weight, preterm delivery, spontaneous abortions, stillbirth, and birth defects--in particular central nervous system, major cardiac defects, oral cleft, and respiratory, and neural tube defects. Various toxicological and epidemiological studies point towards an association between trihalomethanes (THMs), one of the main DBPs and marker for total DBP load, and (low) birth weight, although the evidence is not conclusive. Administered doses in toxicological studies have been high and even though epidemiological studies have mostly shown excess risks, these were often not significant and the assessment of exposure was often limited. Some studies have shown associations for DBPs and other outcomes such as spontaneous abortions, stillbirth and birth defects, and although the evidence for these associations is weaker it is gaining weight. There is no evidence for an association between THMs and preterm delivery. The main limitation of most studies so far has been the relatively crude methodology, in particular for assessment of exposure. RECOMMENDATIONS Large, well designed epidemiological studies focusing on well defined end points taking into account relevant confounders and with particular emphasis on exposure characterisation are ideally needed to confirm or refute these preliminary findings. In practice, these studies may be impracticable, partly due to the cost involved, but this is an issue that can be put right--for example, by use of subsets of the population in the design of exposure models. The studies should also reflect differences of culture and water treatment in different parts of the world. To identify the specific components that may be of aetiological concern and hence to fit the most appropriate exposure model with which to investigate human exposure to chlorinated DBPs, further detailed toxicological assessments of the mixture of byproducts commonly found in drinking water are also needed.
Factors influencing numbers of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and other Mycobacteria in drinking water distribution systems.
Fralin Biotechnology Center, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061-0346, USA. email@example.com
Eight water distribution systems were sampled over an 18-month period (528 water and 55 biofilm samples) to measure the frequency of recovery and number of mycobacteria, particularly Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare, in raw source waters before and after treatment and within the distribution system. The systems were chosen to assess the influence of source water, treatment, and assimilable organic carbon levels on mycobacterial numbers. Overall, mycobacterial recovery from the systems was low (15% of samples). Numbers of mycobacteria ranged from 10 to 700,000 CFU liter(-1). The number of M. avium in raw waters was correlated with turbidity. Water treatment substantially reduced the number of mycobacteria in raw waters by 2 to 4 log units. Mycobacterial numbers were substantially higher in the distribution system samples (average, 25,000-fold) than in those collected immediately downstream from the treatment facilities, indicating that mycobacteria grow in the distribution system. The increase in mycobacterial numbers was correlated with assimilable organic carbon and biodegradable organic carbon levels (r(2)= 0.65, P = 0.03). Although M. intracellulare was seldom recovered from water samples, it was frequently recovered (six of eight systems) in high numbers from biofilms (average, 600 CFU/cm(2)). Evidently, the ecological niches of M. avium and M. intracellulare are distinct.
Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Que. H3A 2B2, Montreal, Canada.
The passive removal of toxic heavy metals such as Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Pb(2+), Cr(3+), and Hg(2+) by inexpensive biomaterials, termed biosorption, requires that the substrate displays high metal uptake and selectivity, as well as suitable mechanical properties for applied remediation scenarios. In recent years, many low-cost sorbents have been investigated, but the brown algae have since proven to be the most effective and promising substrates. It is their basic biochemical constitution that is responsible for this enhanced performance among biomaterials. More specifically, it is the properties of cell wall constituents, such as alginate and fucoidan, which are chiefly responsible for heavy metal chelation. In this comprehensive review, the emphasis is on outlining the biochemical properties of the brown algae that set them apart from other algal biosorbents. A detailed description of the macromolecular conformation of the alginate biopolymer is offered in order to explain the heavy metal selectivity displayed by the brown algae. The role of cellular structure, storage polysaccharides, cell wall and extracellular polysaccharides is evaluated in terms of their potential for metal sequestration. Binding mechanisms are discussed, including the key functional groups involved and the ion-exchange process. Quantification of metal-biomass interactions is fundamental to the evaluation of potential implementation strategies, hence sorption isotherms, ion-exchange constants, as well as models used to characterize algal biosorption are reviewed. The sorption behavior (i.e., capacity, affinity) of brown algae with various heavy metals is summarized and their relative performance is evaluated.