Ambroxol :: pharmacology
The Miami Project to Cure Paralysis, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Symptoms of neuropathic spinal cord injury (SCI) pain include evoked cutaneous hypersensitivity and spontaneous pain, which can be present below the level of the injury. Adverse side-effects obtained with currently available analgesics complicate effective pain management in SCI patients. Voltage-gated Na(+) channels expressed in primary afferent nociceptors have been identified to mediate persistent hyperexcitability in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, which in part underlies the symptoms of nerve injury-induced pain. Ambroxol has previously demonstrated antinociceptive effects in rat chronic pain models and has also shown to potently block Na(+) channel current in DRG neurons. Ambroxol was tested in rats that underwent a mid-thoracic spinal cord compression injury. Injured rats demonstrated robust hind paw (below-level) heat and mechanical hypersensitivity. Orally administered ambroxol significantly attenuated below-level hypersensitivity at doses that did not affect performance on the rotarod test. Intrathecal injection of ambroxol did not ameliorate below-level hypersensitivity. The current data suggest that ambroxol could be effective for clinical neuropathic SCI pain. Furthermore, the data suggest that peripherally expressed Na(+) channels could lend themselves as targets for the development of pharmacotherapies for SCI pain.
Most cited papers:
University Hospital Bergmannsheil, Department of Internal Medicine, Bochum, Germany.
Highly reactive oxygen metabolites play an important role in inflammatory processes in the lung. Ambroxol (2-amino-3,5-dibromo-N-[trans-4- hydroxycyclohexyl]benzylamine) has been shown to reduce oxidant-mediated cell damage. However, the mechanism of this effect remains unclear. In order to evaluate oxidant scavenger function increasing concentrations of ambroxol (0-10(-3) mol/l) were compared with equimolar concentrations of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and glutathione (GSH) in vitro to reduce OH.(hydroxyl radical), HOC1 (hypochlorous acid), O-2 (superoxide anion) and H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide). OH. was measured spectrophotometrically (deoxyribose assay); O-2 (xanthine/x-oxidase), H2O2 and HOC1 (HOC1/OC1-) were determined by chemiluminescence. Ambroxol, NAC and reduced GSH scavenged OH. significantly at 10(-3) mol/l, while HOC1 was inhibited at concentrations > or = 10(-4) mol/l completely (P < 0.01). NAC and GSH had no anti-O-2 function, while ambroxol (10(-4) mol/l) reduced O-2 by 14.3 +/- 6.7%. In contrast, GSH and NAC scavenged H2O2 at > 10(-6) mol/l (P < 0.01), while ambroxol had no anti-H2O2 effect. Our data demonstrate direct oxidant-reducing capabilities of ambroxol, which may be directly related to the aromatic moiety of the molecule. However, high concentrations (micromolar concentrations) are needed. Due to differences in direct oxidant scavenger function, a combination of ambroxol and NAC could be beneficial in antioxidant therapy.
Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Bergmannsheil, Bochum, Germany.
This study quantifies the antioxidant function of ambroxol (2-amino-3,5-dibromo-N-[trans-4-hydroxycyclohexyl]benzylamine) in vitro. Polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and mononuclear cells were isolated from the blood of healthy volunteers (n = 46) to determine reactive oxygen species (ROS) by luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence. Ambroxol or the controls N-acetylcysteine (NAC), nacystelyn (NAL), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and the combination of SOD/catalase were incubated for 1 or 2 h with zymosan-activated cells in vitro using concentrations ranging from 10(-6) to 10(-3) mol/liter. Reduction of ROS-mediated luminescence was similar within the cell types. Ambroxol (10(-4) mol/liter) reduced ROS about 75%(1-h incubation) and 98%(2-h incubation), respectively (p < 0.001). SOD and SOD/catalase, but not the H2O2-catalyzing substances (NAC, NAL, GSH, and catalase), reduced cellular ROS. This indicates that inflammatory cells predominantly generate O2-, which can be scavenged by ambroxol. The antioxidant function of ambroxol with increasing incubation time suggests additional cellular antiinflammatory properties of this substance. Our results indicate that good antioxidant function of ambroxol is related mainly to direct scavenger function of reactive oxygen metabolites such as O2-. However, an antioxidative effect of ambroxol may also be associated with the reduction of prooxidative metabolism in inflammatory cells. Concluding from this observation, and because of the well known high affinity of ambroxol for lung tissue, ambroxol may be an alternative in antioxidant augmentation therapy, particularly in pulmonary diseases characterized by an overburden of toxic oxygen metabolites.
Ambroxol inhibits the release of histamine, leukotrienes and cytokines from human leukocytes and mast cells.
Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Lübeck, Germany.
OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: The effects of the mucolytic agents ambroxol and N-acetylcystein (NAC) were studied on the release of histamine, leukotrienes, cytokines and superoxide anions from a variety of cells involved in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation. SUBJECTS: Mast cells were isolated from human adenoids and skin (n = 5-6). Basophils, monocytes and granulocytes were obtained from Buffy-coat blood obtained from healthy blood donors (n = 4-7) and enriched by density centrifugation. TREATMENT AND METHODS: Ambroxol or NAC were added to the cells for different periods before stimulation with various immunological and non-immunological secretagogues. Histamine release from mast cells, basophils and monocytes was assayed either by radioimmunoassay or spectrofluorometrically. LTC4 (basophils), LTB4 (neutrophil/eosinophil granulocytes or monocytes), IL-4 and IL-13 (basophils) were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Ambroxol inhibited histamine release by more than 50% from human adenoidal mast cells (1000 microM ambroxol) and skin mast cells (100 microM ambroxol) stimulated by Con A and compound 48/80, respectively. Ambroxol (100 microM) strikingly inhibited anti-IgE induced release of both histamine, LTC4, IL-4 and IL-13 from basophils and reduced both histamine and LTB4 release induced by C5a or Zymosan in monocytes. The drug also reduced LTB4 and superoxide anion production in granulocytes stimulated by zymosan or fMLP. In all cell types studied, ambroxol was more efficacious following a short preincubation (5-15 min) of the drug with the cells before stimulation. In contrast, NAC produced no clear effects on any of the different cell types studied, regardless of the preincubation period, the concentration or the stimulus employed. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike NAC, ambroxol is able to not only inhibit acute mediator release from mast cells and leukocytes but also reduce immunomodulatory cytokine generation from basophils and may have beneficial effects in the treatment of allergic respiratory diseases.
IIIrd Department of Internal Medicine, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany.
Ambroxol is a mucolytic agent frequently used in the treatment of chronic bronchitis. It has been reported, following clinical and in-vitro studies, that ambroxol exhibits an anti-inflammatory action. This capability was investigated by activating bronchoalveolar lavage cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in-vitro to elicit the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-2 and interferon gamma, whilst simultaneously exposing them to varying pharmacological concentrations of ambroxol (10, 1, and 0.1 microM). After 24 h it was observed that the isolated tissue-culture supernatants showed a dose-dependent reduction in the concentration of the tested cytokines; 10 microM (12 to 37% reduction) and 1 microM to (6 to 27% reduction). At 0.1 microM, a significant reduction could only be observed in the release of interleukin-2 by bronchoalveolar lavage cells. These results demonstrate, that ambroxol exhibits anti-inflammatory actions in concentrations achievable in vivo.
Department of Pneumonology and Allergology, Medical University of Lodz, Poland.
A single intravenous injection of doxorubicin (DOX, 30 mg/kg body weight) caused a significant rise in the content of lipid peroxidation products in hearts of mice. The concentration of conjugated dienes (CD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) found 24 h after injection of DOX increased about 1.8- and 2.4-fold and reached values of 11.31 +/- 2.24 A233/g and 3.72 +/- 0.40 mumol/g, respectively. The same dose of 4'-epi-doxorubicin (EPI), a less cardiotoxic epimer of DOX, increased only the heart level of MDA. Both antracyclines were not able to induce increased formation of CD in murine liver and lungs. Ambroxol, an expectorant drug which possesses the ability to scavenge hydroxyl radicals, injected intravenously (70 mg/kg) 30 min prior to DOX, completely abolished the rise in heart content of CD and MDA. The heart levels of CD and MDA in animals treated with ambroxol and DOX were 3 and 2.7 times lower than those observed in mice treated with water and DOX, respectively. Ambroxol had no effect on DOX- and EPI-induced formation of MDA in the lungs. Our results indicate that (1) DOX is a more powerful inductor lipid peroxidation in the heart than EPI; and (2) ambroxol may be useful in preventing lipid peroxidation in the heart caused by DOX.
The perfused rat lung as a model for studies on the formation of surfactant and the effect of Ambroxol on this process.
The effect of surfactant on mucociliary transport has been studied in vitro on frog palate preparations. Surfactant obtained from pig lung was sprayed on frog palate and its effect on mucociliary transport, restored by the application of mucus, was compared with that of sprayed saline. Whereas saline induced a constant decrease in restored transport rate (mean +/- SEM =-37 +/- 3%, p less than 0.01), surfactant caused an increase in 5 of 6 experiments (+16 +/- 3%, p = NS). The difference between the 2 treatments was highly significant (p less than 0.001). Ambroxol has previously been shown to change the airway secretions of patients affected by chronic bronchitis; these secretions significantly improved mucociliary transport when applied to the frog palate. One may then speculate that the mucoactive effect of ambroxol in patients could be partly mediated by an antiadhesive effect of surfactant, production of which is increased by ambroxol, on cilia-mucus coupling on the surface of bronchial mucosa.
Proteases essential for human influenza virus entry into cells and their inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents.
Division of Enzyme Chemistry, Institute for Enzyme Research, The University of Tokushima, Kuramoto-cho 3-18-15, Tokushima 770-8503, Japan. email@example.com
Influenza A virus (IAV) is one of the most common infectious pathogens in humans. Since IVA genome does not have the processing protease for the viral membrane fusion glycoprotein precursors, entry of this virus into cells is determined primarily by host cellular, trypsin-type, processing proteases that proteolytically activate the fusion glycoprotein precursors of IAV. At least five different processing proteases have been identified in the airways of animals and humans. These proteases determine the infectious organ tropism of IAV infection as well as the efficiency of viral multiplication in the airway, and sometimes in the brain. Proteases in the upper respiratory tract are suppressed by secretory leukoprotease inhibitor, and those in the lower respiratory tract are suppressed by pulmonary surfactant which, by adsorption, inhibits the interaction between the proteases and viral membrane proteins. Since protease activities predominate over those of endogenous inhibitory compounds under normal airway conditions, administration of protease inhibitors in the early-stage of infection significantly suppresses viral entry and viral multiplication. Several viral neuraminidase inhibitors are used clinically as anti-influenza virus agents, based on their inhibitory action on viral release from infected cells. Furthermore, protease inhibitors of viral entry could be potentially useful against influenza virus as well as neuraminidase inhibitor-resistant viruses. We also found that ambroxol, a mucolytic and anti-oxidant agent, up-regulates the levels of endogenous protease inhibitory compounds in the airway fluids in early-phase infection, and that clarithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, increases IgA levels and mucosal immunity through augmentation of interleukin-12 levels in the airway. The combination of neuraminidase inhibitors and protease inhibitors, clarithromycin or ambroxol, could be potentially used as a potent anti-influenza therapy to minimize the emergence of drug-resistant mutant viruses.
The antioxidative activity of the mucoregulatory agents: ambroxol, bromhexine and N-acetyl-L-cysteine. A pulse radiolysis study.
Institut für Klinische Molekularbiologie and Tumorgenetik, GSF-Forschungszentrum, München, Germany.
Ambroxol and bromhexine are shown to be scavengers of both superoxide and hydroxyl radicals as determined by pulse radiolysis experiments. The dismutation of superoxide was accelerated 3-fold by bromhexine and 2.5-fold by ambroxol over the rate of spontaneous dismutation. The reaction constants of hydroxyl radicals with bromhexine and ambroxol were determined by competition kinetics to be 1.58 +/- 0.15 x 10(10) M-1S-1 and 1.04 +/- 0.1 x 10(10) M-1S-1, respectively. N-acetyl-L-cysteine also reacted with hydroxyl radicals (1.28 +/- 0.14 x 10(10) M-1S-1) but not with superoxide radical. These effects may be clinically relevant in the treatment of oxidant-associated lung damage induced by inflammatory agents and/or environmental pollutants.
Cytoprotective role of gastric surfactant in the ethanol-produced gastric mucosal injury of the rat.
The role of the gastric nonwettable hydrophobic layer (surfactant) was investigated in the mucosal protection against the damage induced by ethanol in the rat. Although aluminium hydroxide inhibited the development of ethanol-produced gastric hemorrhagic lesions, it did not increase the mucosal phospholipid content. Ambroxol, a known stimulant of pulmonary surfactant production, protected the gastric mucosa against ethanol by increasing the phospholipid content. Surface-active compounds such as dimethyl polysiloxane also inhibited the development of gastric injuries caused by ethanol in a dose-dependent manner. The essential phospholipid-containing drug (Essentiale) also showed a strong and dose-dependent cytoprotective effect. Among the possible constituents of the gastric surfactant, sphingomyelin was totally ineffective. Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylglycerol were able to reduce the extent of mucosal damage in a dose-dependent manner. Gastric mucosal injuries were significantly aggravated by pretreatment with phospholipase C. In conclusion, these results suggest that either the maintenance or the strengthening or even the replacement of the gastric nonwettable hydrophobic lining between the damaging agent and the gastric mucosa may contribute to the cytoprotective mechanism of certain compounds.