Nat Chem Biol. 2012 Jun ;8 (6):562-8 22522319
Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA.
Anapleurosis is the filling of the tricarboxylic acid cycle with four-carbon units. The common substrate for both anapleurosis and glucose phosphorylation in bacteria is the terminal glycolytic metabolite phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). Here we show that Escherichia coli quickly and almost completely turns off PEP consumption upon glucose removal. The resulting buildup of PEP is used to quickly import glucose if it becomes available again. The switch-like termination of anapleurosis results from depletion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), an ultrasensitive allosteric activator of PEP carboxylase. E. coli expressing an FBP-insensitive point mutant of PEP carboxylase grow normally when glucose is steadily available. However, they fail to build up PEP upon glucose removal, grow poorly when glucose availability oscillates and suffer from futile cycling at the PEP node on gluconeogenic substrates. Thus, bacterial central carbon metabolism is intrinsically programmed with ultrasensitive allosteric regulation to enable rapid adaptation to changing environmental conditions.
Most cited papers:
Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.
Guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs) are directly responsible for the activation of Rho-family GTPases in response to diverse extracellular stimuli, and ultimately regulate numerous cellular responses such as proliferation, differentiation and movement. With 69 distinct homologues, Dbl-related GEFs represent the largest family of direct activators of Rho GTPases in humans, and they activate Rho GTPases within particular spatio-temporal contexts. The failure to do so can have significant consequences and is reflected in the aberrant function of Dbl-family GEFs in some human diseases.
Statins selectively inhibit leukocyte function antigen-1 by binding to a novel regulatory integrin site.
G Weitz-Schmidt, K Welzenbach, V Brinkmann, T Kamata, J Kallen, C Bruns, S Cottens, Y Takada, U Hommel
Novartis Pharma AG, Preclinical Research, Basel, Switzerland. email@example.com
The beta2 integrin leukocyte function antigen-1 (LFA-1) has an important role in the pathophysiology of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Here we report that statin compounds commonly used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia selectively blocked LFA-1-mediated adhesion and costimulation of lymphocytes. This effect was unrelated to the statins' inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A reductase; instead it occurred via binding to a novel allosteric site within LFA-1. Subsequent optimization of the statins for LFA-1 binding resulted in potent, selective and orally active LFA-1 inhibitors that suppress the inflammatory response in a murine model of peritonitis. Targeting of the statin-binding site of LFA-1 could be used to treat diseases such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, ischemia/reperfusion injury and transplant rejection.
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa 920-0934, Japan.
Mechanism of cholera toxin action: covalent modification of the guanyl nucleotide-binding protein of the adenylate cyclase system.
Treatment of pigeon erythrocyte membranes with cholera toxin and NAD(+) enhanced the GTP stimulation and suppressed the F(-) activation of the adenylate cylase [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 184.108.40.206]. In the presence of NAD(+) labeled with (32)P in the AMP moiety the toxin catalyzed the covalent incorporation of radioactivity into membrane proteins with molecular weights (M(r)s) of 200,000, 86,000, and 42,000. Extraction of toxin-treated membranes with Lubrol PX followed by affinity chromatography on a GTP-Sepharose column resulted in a 200-fold purification of the 42,000-M(r) labeled protein and in its complete separation from the other labeled proteins. The fraction containing the purified GTP-binding component from toxin-treated membranes conferred an enhanced GTP-stimulated activity on adenylate cyclase solubilized from nontreated membranes. Likewise, the addition of GTP-binding fraction from nontreated membranes to an enzyme solubilized from toxin-treated membranes restored F(-) stimulation of the adenylate cyclase. The toxin-induced modification of adenylate cyclase and the incorporation of radioactivity into the 42,000-M(r) protein were partially reversed upon incubation with toxin and nicotinamide at pH 6.1. The results indicate that cholera toxin affects the adenylate cyclase system by catalyzing an ADP-ribosylation of the 42,000-M(r) component bearing the guanyl nucleotide regulatory site.
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA.
Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) mediate excitatory synaptic transmission in vertebrates and invertebrates through ligand-induced opening of transmembrane ion channels. iGluRs are segregated into three subtypes according to their sensitivity to the agonists AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid), kainate (a structural analogue of glutamate) or NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate). iGluRs are important in the development and function of the nervous system, are essential in memory and learning, and are either implicated in or have causal roles in dysfunctions ranging from Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, schizophrenia, epilepsy and Rasmussen's encephalitis to stroke. Development of iGluR agonists and antagonists has been hampered by a lack of high-resolution structural information. Here we describe the crystal structure of an iGluR ligand-binding region in a complex with the neurotoxin (agonist) kainate. The bilobed structure shows the determinants of receptor-agonist interactions and how ligand-binding specificity and affinity are altered by remote residues and the redox state of the conserved disulphide bond. The structure indicates mechanisms for allosteric effector action and for ligand-induced channel gating. The information provided by this structure will be essential in designing new ligands.
Jill C Milne, Philip D Lambert, Simon Schenk, David P Carney, Jesse J Smith, David J Gagne, Lei Jin, Olivier Boss, Robert B Perni, Chi B Vu, Jean E Bemis, Roger Xie, Jeremy S Disch, Pui Yee Ng, Joseph J Nunes, Amy V Lynch, Hongying Yang, Heidi Galonek, Kristine Israelian, Wendy Choy, Andre Iffland, Siva Lavu, Oliver Medvedik, David A Sinclair, Jerrold M Olefsky, Michael R Jirousek, Peter J Elliott, Christoph H Westphal
Sirtris Pharmaceuticals Inc., 790 Memorial Drive, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.
Calorie restriction extends lifespan and produces a metabolic profile desirable for treating diseases of ageing such as type 2 diabetes. SIRT1, an NAD+-dependent deacetylase, is a principal modulator of pathways downstream of calorie restriction that produce beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Resveratrol, a polyphenolic SIRT1 activator, mimics the anti-ageing effects of calorie restriction in lower organisms and in mice fed a high-fat diet ameliorates insulin resistance, increases mitochondrial content, and prolongs survival. Here we describe the identification and characterization of small molecule activators of SIRT1 that are structurally unrelated to, and 1,000-fold more potent than, resveratrol. These compounds bind to the SIRT1 enzyme-peptide substrate complex at an allosteric site amino-terminal to the catalytic domain and lower the Michaelis constant for acetylated substrates. In diet-induced obese and genetically obese mice, these compounds improve insulin sensitivity, lower plasma glucose, and increase mitochondrial capacity. In Zucker fa/fa rats, hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp studies demonstrate that SIRT1 activators improve whole-body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver. Thus, SIRT1 activation is a promising new therapeutic approach for treating diseases of ageing such as type 2 diabetes.
The CBR Institute for Biomedical Research and Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
Integrins are important adhesion receptors in all Metazoa that transmit conformational change bidirectionally across the membrane. Integrin alpha and beta subunits form a head and two long legs in the ectodomain and span the membrane. Here, we define with crystal structures the atomic basis for allosteric regulation of the conformation and affinity for ligand of the integrin ectodomain, and how fibrinogen-mimetic therapeutics bind to platelet integrin alpha(IIb)beta3. Allostery in the beta3 I domain alters three metal binding sites, associated loops and alpha1- and alpha7-helices. Piston-like displacement of the alpha7-helix causes a 62 degrees reorientation between the beta3 I and hybrid domains. Transmission through the rigidly connected plexin/semaphorin/integrin (PSI) domain in the upper beta3 leg causes a 70 A separation between the knees of the alpha and beta legs. Allostery in the head thus disrupts interaction between the legs in a previously described low-affinity bent integrin conformation, and leg extension positions the high-affinity head far above the cell surface.
Christopher Pargellis, Liang Tong, Laurie Churchill, Pier F Cirillo, Thomas Gilmore, Anne G Graham, Peter M Grob, Eugene R Hickey, Neil Moss, Susan Pav, John Regan
Department of Biology, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Research and Development Center, 900 Ridgebury Road, Ridgefield, Connecticut 06877, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
The p38 MAP kinase plays a crucial role in regulating the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1. Blocking this kinase may offer an effective therapy for treating many inflammatory diseases. Here we report a new allosteric binding site for a diaryl urea class of highly potent and selective inhibitors against human p38 MAP kinase. The formation of this binding site requires a large conformational change not observed previously for any of the protein Ser/Thr kinases. This change is in the highly conserved Asp-Phe-Gly motif within the active site of the kinase. Solution studies demonstrate that this class of compounds has slow binding kinetics, consistent with the requirement for conformational change. Improving interactions in this allosteric pocket, as well as establishing binding interactions in the ATP pocket, enhanced the affinity of the inhibitors by 12,000-fold. One of the most potent compounds in this series, BIRB 796, has picomolar affinity for the kinase and low nanomolar inhibitory activity in cell culture.
Department of Pharmacology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia. email@example.com
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the largest family of cell-surface receptors. These receptors are natural allosteric proteins because agonist-mediated signaling by GPCRs requires a conformational change in the receptor protein transmitted between two topographically distinct binding sites, one for the agonist and another for the G protein. It is now becoming increasingly recognized, however, that the agonist-bound GPCR can also form ternary complexes with other ligands or "accessory" proteins and display altered binding and/or signaling properties in relation to the binary agonist-receptor complex. Allosteric sites on GPCRs represent novel drug targets because allosteric modulators possess a number of theoretical advantages over classic orthosteric ligands, such as a ceiling level to the allosteric effect and a potential for greater GPCR subtype-selectivity. Because of the noncompetitive nature of allosteric phenomena, the detection and quantification of such effects often relies on a combination of equilibrium binding, nonequilibrium kinetic, and functional signaling assays. This review discusses the development and properties of allosteric receptor models for GPCRs and the detection and quantification of allosteric effects. Moreover, we provide an overview of the current knowledge regarding the location of possible allosteric sites on GPCRs and candidate endogenous allosteric modulators. Finally, we discuss the potential for allosteric effects arising from the formation of GPCR oligomers or GPCRs complexed with accessory cellular proteins. It is proposed that the study of allosteric phenomena will become of progressively greater import to the drug discovery process due to the advent of newer and more sensitive GPCR screening technologies.