Catheter Ablation :: statistics & numerical data
Scott Med J. 2012 May ;57 (2):92-4 22555230
Trends in the surgical options for the treatment of menorrhagia in Scotland: examination of health episode statistics, 2000-2008.
Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
Menorrhagia is a common and important problem that has a significant impact on women's health. Menorrhagia is treated by surgical methods if primary medical methods fail. Surgical methods have changed over time and the traditional method of hysterectomy has been replaced by minimally invasive techniques. An examination of practice in Scotland suggests that minimally invasive techniques are now the most common surgical method of treating menorrhagia. Abdominal hysterectomies are still performed commonly, but the trend is towards a reduction in procedures performed annually. The changing technique of managing menorrhagia has an impact on the training of future gynaecologists.
Most cited papers:
Worldwide survey on the methods, efficacy, and safety of catheter ablation for human atrial fibrillation.
Riccardo Cappato, Hugh Calkins, Shih-Ann Chen, Wyn Davies, Yoshito Iesaka, Jonathan Kalman, You-Ho Kim, George Klein, Douglas Packer, Allan Skanes
Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology Center, Policlinico San Donato, Via Morandi 30, 20097 San Donato Milanese, Milan, Italy. email@example.com
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to conduct a worldwide survey investigating the methods, efficacy, and safety of catheter ablation (CA) of atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS AND RESULTS A detailed questionnaire was sent to 777 centers worldwide. Data relevant to the study purpose were collected from 181 centers, of which 100 had ongoing programs on CA of AF between 1995 and 2002. The number of patients undergoing this procedure increased from 18 in 1995 to 5050 in 2002. The median number of procedures per center was 37.5 (range, 1 to 600). Paroxysmal AF, persistent AF, and permanent AF were the indicated arrhythmias in 100.0%, 53.0%, and 20.0% of responding centers, respectively. The most commonly used techniques were right atrial compartmentalization between 1995 and 1997, ablation of the triggering focus in 1998 and 1999, and electrical disconnection of multiple pulmonary veins between 2000 and 2002. Of 8745 patients completing the CA protocol in 90 centers, of whom 2389 (27.3%) required >1 procedure, 4550 (52.0%; range among centers, 14.5% to 76.5%) became asymptomatic without drugs and another 2094 (23.9%; range among centers, 8.8% to 50.3%) became asymptomatic in the presence of formerly ineffective antiarrhythmic drugs over an 11.6+/-7.7-month follow-up period. At least 1 major complication was reported in 524 patients (6.0%). CONCLUSIONS The findings of this survey provide a picture of the variable and evolving methods, efficacy, and safety of CA for AF as practiced in a large number of centers worldwide and may serve as a guide to clinicians considering therapeutic options in patients suffering from this arrhythmia.
Radiofrequency catheter ablation as a cure for idiopathic tachycardia of both left and right ventricular origin.
D L Coggins, R J Lee, J Sweeney, W W Chein, G Van Hare, L Epstein, R Gonzalez, J C Griffin, M D Lesh, M M Scheinman
Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143.
OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was 1) to investigate the efficacy and safety of radiofrequency energy catheter ablation as curative treatment for idiopathic tachycardia of both left and right ventricular origin, and 2) to compare the usefulness of different methods used to map the site of origin of idiopathic ventricular tachycardia. BACKGROUND. Percutaneous radiofrequency catheter ablation has been used with dramatic success in the treatment of patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, atrioventricular node reentrant tachycardia and bundle branch reentrant tachycardia. Limited data are available on the use of radiofrequency energy catheter ablation as curative treatment for idiopathic tachycardia of both left and right ventricular origin. METHODS. Twenty-eight consecutive patients (13 to 71 years old) presenting with idiopathic ventricular tachycardia were enrolled in the study. The site of origin of both left and right ventricular tachycardia was mapped using earliest endocardial activation times during tachycardia and by pace mapping. These mapping techniques were compared. RESULTS. Radiofrequency ablation was successful in all eight patients (100%) with left ventricular tachycardia. Tachycardia recurred in one patient. The ablation procedure was complicated by mild aortic insufficiency in one patient. Right ventricular outflow tract tachycardia was successfully ablated in 17 (85%) of 20 patients. The success rate at follow-up was 85%. In one patient, the ablation procedure was complicated by acute ventricular perforation and death. Pace maps from successful ablation sites were better than pace maps from unsuccessful sites (p < 0.004). Endocardial activation times at successful ablation sites were not different from unsuccessful sites (p < 0.13). CONCLUSIONS. Radiofrequency catheter ablation is an effective treatment for idiopathic ventricular tachycardia. The site of origin of tachycardia is best identified using pace mapping. Significant complications can occur and should be considered in the risk/benefit analysis for each patient.
Radiofrequency ablation of renal cell carcinoma: part 1, Indications, results, and role in patient management over a 6-year period and ablation of 100 tumors.
Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit St., White 270, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
OBJECTIVE The objectives of our article are to review our experience with radiofrequency ablation of renal cell carcinoma and to assess size and location as predictors of the ability to achieve complete necrosis by imaging criteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS Over a 6-year period, 100 renal tumors in 85 patients underwent radiofrequency ablation at a single institution. The absence of enhancement on CT or MRI after radiofrequency ablation was interpreted as complete coagulation necrosis. Results were analyzed by tumor size and location using multivariate analysis. A p value of 0.05 or less was considered significant. RESULTS All 52 small (3 cm) and all 68 exophytic tumors underwent complete necrosis regardless of size, although many large tumors (> 3 cm) required a second ablation session. Using multivariate analysis, we found that both small size (p < 0.0001) and noncentral location (p = 0.0049) proved to be independent predictors of complete necrosis after a single ablation session. Location was a significant predictor (p = 0.015) of complete necrosis after any number of sessions, whereas size showed a strong trend (p = 0.059) toward predicting success after any number of sessions. Complications were either self-limited or readily treated and included hemorrhage (major, n = 2; minor, n = 3), inflammatory track mass (n = 1), transient lumbar plexus pain (n = 2), ureteral injury (n = 2), and skin burns (n = 1). CONCLUSION Radiofrequency ablation is a promising minimally invasive therapy for renal cell carcinoma in patients who are not good operative candidates. Small size and noncentral location are favorable tumor characteristics, although large tumors can sometimes be successfully treated with multiple ablation sessions.
The Multicentre European Radiofrequency Survey (MERFS): complications of radiofrequency catheter ablation of arrhythmias. The Multicentre European Radiofrequency Survey (MERFS) investigators of the Working Group on Arrhythmias of the European Society of Cardiology.
Radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation has developed into a new non-pharmacological therapy for the definitive treatment of patients with cardiac arrhythmias. Although an increasing number of recent reports have indicated the widespread use of the procedure, no data are available to estimate the number of procedures performed in Europe. Furthermore, currently no data on a large series of patients are available that provide information on the risk of procedure-related complications. This report presents the results of the Multicentre European Radiofrequency Survey (MERFS) that was conducted by the Working Group on Arrhythmias of the European Society of Cardiology. The objectives of this voluntary retrospective survey were to assess the number of radiofrequency catheter ablation procedures performed in 86 European institutions from January 1987 until March 1992 and the incidence of procedure-related complications with respect to the different types of ablative procedures. A total of 4398 patients were reported on from 68 out of 86 institutions (79%) from 15 European countries that agreed to participate in MERFS. From 1987 to 1991, the number of patients who underwent RF ablation per year increased from 45 to 2000. In the first 3 months of 1992, a total of 1640 patients were reported on. The number of patients reported on in relation to the different types of ablative procedures were: ablation of atrial tachycardialatrial flutter: n = 141 (3.2%); ablation of the atrioventricular junction: n = 900 (20.5%); modification of the atrioventricular junction in atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia: n = 815 (18.5%); ablation of accessory pathway: n = 2222 (50.5%); ablation of ventricular tachycardia: n = 320 (7.3%). Procedure-related complications occurred in 223 patients (5.1%). The incidence of complications in relation to the ablative procedure was: ablation of atrial tachycardia/atrial flutter: 5.0%; ablation of the atrioventricular junction: 3.2%; modification of the atrioventricular junction in atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia: 8.0%; ablation of accessory pathway: 4.4%; ablation of ventricular tachycardia: 7.5%. Complications occurred significantly more often in patients who underwent modification of the atrioventricular junction in atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia, when compared to ablation of the atrioventricular junction (P < 0.001) or ablation of accessory pathway (P < 0.001), and in patients who underwent ablation of ventricular tachycardia, when compared to ablation of the atrioventricular junction (P < 0.002) or ablation of accessory pathway (P < 0.02). The highest incidence of complications was reported after modification of the atrioventricular junction in atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Early and late complications after radiofrequency ablation of malignant liver tumors in 608 patients.
Steven A Curley, Paolo Marra, Karen Beaty, Lee M Ellis, J Nicolas Vauthey, Eddie K Abdalla, Courtney Scaife, Chan Raut, Robert Wolff, Haesun Choi, Evelyne Loyer, Paolo Vallone, Francesco Fiore, Fabrizio Scordino, Vincenzo De Rosa, Raffaele Orlando, Sandro Pignata, Bruno Daniele, Francesco Izzo
Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4095, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has become a common treatment of patients with unresectable primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. We performed this prospective analysis to determine early (within 30 days) and late (more than 30 days after) complication rates associated with hepatic tumor RFA. METHODS All patients treated between January 1, 1996 and June 30, 2002 with RFA for hepatic malignancies were entered into a prospective database. Patients were evaluated during RFA treatment, throughout the immediate post RFA course, and then every 3 months after RFA to assess for the development of treatment-related complications. RESULTS A total of 608 patients, 345 men (56.7%) and 263 women (43.3%), with a median age of 58 years (range 18-85 years) underwent RFA of 1225 malignant liver tumors. Open intraoperative RFA was performed in 382 patients (62.8%), while percutaneous RFA was performed in 226 (37.2%). The treatment-related mortality rate was 0.5%. Early complications developed in 43 patients (7.1%). Early complications were more likely to occur in patients treated with open RFA (33 [8.6%] of 382 patients) compared with percutaneous RFA (10 [4.4%] 226 patients, P < 0.01), and in patients with cirrhosis (25 [12.9%] complications in 194 patients) compared with noncirrhotic patients (31 [7.5%] complications in 414 patients, P < 0.05). Late complications arose in 15 patients (2.4%) with no difference in incidence between open and percutaneous RFA treatment. The combined overall early and late complication rate was 9.5%. CONCLUSIONS Hepatic tumor RFA can be performed with low mortality and morbidity rates. Though relatively rare, late complications can develop and physicians performing hepatic RFA must be cognizant of these delayed treatment-related problems.
Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA. email@example.com
The results of the NASPE Prospective Voluntary Registry are reported. A total of 3,357 patients were entered. For those undergoing atrioventricular (AV) junctional ablation (646 patients), the success rate was 97.4% and significant complications occurred in 5 patients. A total of 1,197 patients underwent AV nodal modification for AV nodal reentrant tachycardia, which was successful in 96.1% and the only significant complication was development of AV block (1%). Accessory pathway ablation was performed in 654 patients and was successful in 94%. Major complications included cardiac tamponade (7 patients), acute myocardial infarction (1 patient), femoral artery pseudoaneurysm (1 patient), AV block (1 patient), pneumothorax (1 patient), and pericarditis (2 patients). A total of 447 patients underwent atrial flutter ablation and acute success was achieved in 86% of patients. Significant complications included inadvertent AV block (3 patients), significant tricuspid regurgitation (1 patient), cardiac tamponade (1 patient), and pneumothorax (1 patient). Atrial tachycardia was attempted for 216 patients and the success rate was higher for those with right atrial (80%) or left atrial (72%) compared to those with septal foci (52%). A total of 201 patients underwent ablation for ventricular tachycardia. The success rate was higher for those with idiopathic ventricular tachycardia compared to those with ventricular tachycardia due to ischemic heart disease or cardiomyopathy. While the number of AV junction ablation were higher for those > 60 years of age, there was no significant difference in the success rate or incidence of complication comparing patients > or = 60 to those < 60 years of age. In addition, we found no differences in incidence of success or complications comparing large volume centers (> 100 ablation/year) with lower volume centers or between teaching and non-teaching hospitals.
Learning curve for radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors: prospective analysis of initial 100 patients in a tertiary institution.
Centre for the Study of Liver Disease and Department of Surgery, University of Hong Kong Medical Centre, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, China. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE This study aims to evaluate the effect of operator experience on the treatment outcomes of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for malignant liver tumors. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA RFA is gaining popularity as the ablative therapy of choice for liver tumors. It is generally considered a simple and safe technique, and little attention has been paid to the importance of operator experience in this treatment. A learning curve in this treatment modality has not been documented before. PATIENTS AND METHODS The clinical data and treatment outcomes of the initial 100 patients undergoing RFA for liver tumors (hepatocellular carcinoma, n = 84; metastasis, n = 15; cholangiocarcinoma n = 1) were collected prospectively. All patients were managed by a single team of surgeons and interventional radiologists. The data of the first 50 patients (group I) and the second 50 patients (group II) were compared. RESULTS RFA was performed by percutaneous (group I, n = 22; group II, n = 19), open (group I, n = 26; group II, n = 30) or laparoscopic (group I, n = 2; group II, n = 1) approach. In group I, 30 patients (60%) had a solitary tumor and 20 (40%) had multiple tumors; in group II, 35 patients (70%) had a solitary tumor and 15 (30%) had multiple tumors (P = 0.295). The size of the largest tumor was comparable between groups I and II (median, 2.8 cm in both groups; P = 0.508). Group II had significantly shorter hospital stay (median, 4.0 versus 5.5 days; P = 0.048), lower morbidity rate (4% versus 16%; P = 0.046) and higher complete ablation rate (100% versus 85.7%; P = 0.006) than group I. There was 1 hospital death (2%) in group I and 0 in group II. By multivariate analysis, treatment period (group I versus group II) was an independent significant factor affecting the morbidity rate and complete ablation rate. CONCLUSIONS A low complication rate and a high complete ablation rate could be achieved with the accumulated experience from the first 50 cases of RFA for liver tumors by a specialized team. This study demonstrates that there is a significant learning curve in RFA for liver tumors.
Development and validation of an ECG algorithm for identifying accessory pathway ablation site in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.
M S Arruda, J H McClelland, X Wang, K J Beckman, L E Widman, M D Gonzalez, H Nakagawa, R Lazzara, W M Jackman
Department of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Oklahoma City 73190-3048, USA.
INTRODUCTION: Delta wave morphology correlates with the site of ventricular insertion of accessory AV pathways. Because lesions due to radiofrequency (RF) current are small and well defined, it may allow precise localization of accessory pathways. The purpose of this study was to use RF catheter ablation to develop an ECG algorithm to predict accessory pathway location. METHODS and RESULTS: An algorithm was developed by correlating a resting 12-lead ECG with the successful RF ablation site in 135 consecutive patients with a single, anterogradely conducting accessory pathway (Retrospective phase). This algorithm was subsequently tested prospectively in 121 consecutive patients (Prospective phase). The ECG findings included the initial 20 msec of the delta wave in leads I, II, aVF, and V1 [classified as positive (+), negative (-), or isoelectric (+/-)] and the ratio of R and S wave amplitudes in leads III and V1 (classified as R > or = S or R < S). When tested prospectively, the ECG algorithm accurately localized the accessory pathway to 1 of 10 sites around the tricuspid and mitral annuli or at subepicardial locations within the venous system of the heart. Overall sensitivity was 90% and specificity was 99%. The algorithm was particularly useful in correctly localizing anteroseptal (sensitivity 75%, specificity 99%), and mid-septal (sensitivity 100%, specificity 98%) accessory pathways as well as pathways requiring ablation from within ventricular venous branches or anomalies of the coronary sinus (sensitivity 100%, specificity 100%). CONCLUSION: A simple ECG algorithm identifies accessory pathway ablation site in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. A truly negative delta wave in lead II predicts ablation within the coronary venous system.
Radiofrequency ablation of renal cell carcinoma: part 2, Lessons learned with ablation of 100 tumors.
Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit St., White 270, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
OBJECTIVE The objective of our study was to review radiofrequency ablation of 100 renal tumors and lessons learned with respect to electrode approach, effects on collecting system, bowel proximity, and patterns of residual disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS Over 6 years, 100 renal tumors in 85 patients underwent radiofrequency ablation. Images were reviewed to determine the following: effect of initial electrode approach at and parallel to the tumor-kidney interface; effect of collecting system proximity to the tumor and to the zone of ablation; bowel proximity to the tumor and strategies to protect bowel; patterns of residual disease; and approaches at subsequent sessions. RESULTS The initial placement of the electrode at and parallel to the tumor-kidney interface did not result in significantly fewer overlapping ablations (p = 0.91) or a lower rate of residual disease (p = 0.86). Direct contiguity of tumor or zone of ablation to the collecting system did not increase the complication rate. However, obscuration of calyces by a central tumor was a significant predictor of collecting system hemorrhage necessitating treatment (p < 0.001) seen in three of nine tumors obscuring calyces. Clinically significant urine leaks were rare (1/100) and related to downstream obstruction. There were no bowel complications despite the fact that 27 of the tumors were within 1 cm of bowel. Protective strategies progressed from reliance on electrode positioning to hydrodissection. Residual patterns were predominantly nodules or crescents, and straight electrodes were commonly used to approach residual disease. CONCLUSION Initial electrode position at and parallel to the tumor-kidney interface does not result in less difficult or more successful ablations. Contiguity of tumor or zone of ablation to the collecting system does not increase the risk of complications, but obscuration of calyces does. Bowel complications are rare, and protection with hydrodissection is becoming more common. Residual tumor presents as nodules or crescents of persistent enhancement.
Radiofrequency catheter ablation of supraventricular arrhythmias in patients with congenital heart disease: results and technical considerations.
Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Francisco School of Medicine 94143-0632.
OBJECTIVES. The aim of this study was to report the results and techniques of radiofrequency ablation for treatment of supraventricular arrhythmias in patients with congenital structural heart disease. BACKGROUND. The management of patients with congenital and other structural heart disease may be complicated by serious arrhythmias due to Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome or by atrial arrhythmias after cardiac surgery. Ablation techniques using radiofrequency current are revolutionizing the management of arrhythmias, but reports have included few with structural heart disease. METHODS. Fifteen patients with significant heart disease underwent radiofrequency ablation: 11 with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and 4 with intraatrial reentrant tachycardia after atrial surgery. Seven had Ebstein's anomaly, complex in two, and the rest had other defects. Coexistence of structural defects introduced significant technical difficulties to radiofrequency ablation in patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and was accomplished by adaptation of current techniques. Ablation of intraatrial reentrant tachycardia was performed by finding early atrial activation sites with electrogram fractionation for radio-frequency application. RESULTS. Radiofrequency ablation was initially successful in 14 of 15 patients, with cure in 10 and clinical improvement in 14. Two patients subsequently underwent cardiac surgery without perioperative arrhythmias. CONCLUSIONS. Radiofrequency ablation in patients with congenital heart disease and arrhythmias in both safe and effective and may be the preferred approach to treatment in some patients. In patients who are to undergo surgical correction or palliation, preoperative radiofrequency ablation of the tachycardia substrate is effective and may be preferred to operative accessory pathway division. The ablation of intraatrial reentrant tachycardia shows promise in the management of patients who have undergone extensive atrial surgery, and it may eventually become the preferred approach, particularly when there are contraindications to the use of antiarrhythmic agents.