Agiltron Incorporated, Woburn, Massachusetts 01801, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
We report the existence of polarization memory effect (PME) in optical coherence tomography and investigate its potential applications in dental imaging. We performed the study in three steps. First, microsphere scattering phantoms of different sizes were imaged in order to validate experimental results with PME theory. Both linearly and circularly polarized light were used to probe the samples. Second, healthy tooth samples were scanned and polarization memory effect was identified in dentin. In this step, specific verification and signal processing were performed to rule out possible image interpretation by birefringence effect. Third, we evaluated dentin demineralization with PME. Results show polarization memory can be useful to characterize this dynamic mineralization process for early caries detection and rehabilitation.
Most cited papers:
Department of Operative Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan.
The relative contribution of the matrix of dentin to the physical properties of dentin is unknown but thought to be small. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the demineralized matrix of dentin contributes little to the strength of dentin by measuring and comparing the ultimate tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of mineralized and demineralized dentin. Small slabs (4 x 0.5 x 0.5 mm) of bovine and human dentin were tested in a microtensile testing device in vitro. Human coronal mineralized dentin gave a mean ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 104 MPa. Bovine incisor coronal dentin exhibited a UTS of 91 MPa, and bovine root dentin failed at 129 MPa. The modulus of elasticity of mineralized bovine and human dentin varied from 13 to 15 MPa. When dentin specimens were demineralized in EDTA, the UTS and modulus of elasticity fell to 26-32 MPa and 0.25 GPa, respectively, depending on dentin species. The results indicate that collagen contributes about 30% of the UTS of mineralized dentin, which is higher than was expected.
Identification of a resin-dentin hybrid layer in vital human dentin created in vivo: durable bonding to vital dentin.
Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan.
The present study investigated the bond of 5% 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride in methyl methacrylate, initiated by partially oxidized tri-n-butyl borane in the presence of poly(methyl methacrylate) powder, to vital human dentin. In vivo dentinal substrates were pretreated for 10 or 30 seconds with an aqueous solution of 10% citric acid and 3% ferric chloride. Transmission electron microscopic examination of the bonded cross sections revealed the formation of a transitional, or "hybrid," layer of resin-reinforced dentin created by the impregnation, co-mingling and envelopment of collagen bundles, and encapsulation of hydroxylapatite crystals. The in vivo adhesion was assumed to be durable, because results of microscopic examinations were comparable to those of durable bonding of the same resin to extracted bovine dentin. Vital dentin exhibited greater resistance to demineralization by the acid solution than do extracted teeth. Carious extracted teeth were more easily dissolved in acid than were noncarious extracted teeth.
How can nanoleakage occur in self-etching adhesive systems that demineralize and infiltrate simultaneously?
Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Prince Philip Dental Hospital, Hong Kong SAR, China. email@example.com
PURPOSE Single-step adhesives which etch and prime simultaneously and are not rinsed should not exhibit areas of incomplete infiltration within hybrid layers produced in sound dentin. This study examined the extent of silver uptake using ammoniacal silver nitrate in three two-step, self-etching primers (Imperva Fluoro Bond, Shofu; UniFil Bond, GC, ABF system, Kuraray) and one single-step, self-etching adhesive (AQ Bond, Sun Medical) bonded to dentin and four poly(HEMA) resins used as controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS Flat dentin surfaces were bonded with these adhesives and sectioned into 0.8-mm-thick slabs that were then coated with nail varnish except for the bonded interfaces and immersed in AgNO3 for 24 h. Four types of poly(HEMA) resins were made: 100% HEMA; 90% HEMA-10% water; 75% HEMA-10% water, all polymerized with TBBO at 50 degrees C for 6 h; 100% HEMA polymerized at 25 degrees C for 30 min. After developing, undemineralized, unstained, epoxy resin-embedded sections were prepared for TEM. RESULTS Nanoleakage patterns were observed in all bonded specimens. Fine segregated silver particles and reticular silver-staining patterns were found within the thin hybrid layers created by the three self-etching primers. For the single-step, self-etching adhesive, heavy silver deposits were identified within the hybridized complex formed by this adhesive within the smear layer, the underlying intact dentin, and in the adhesive layer. Increasing amounts of silver uptake were observed in poly(HEMA) specimens containing more water or that were polymerized at 25 degrees C for a short time instead of 50 degrees C for 6 h. CONCLUSIONS Silver uptake in hybrid layers formed by self-etching adhesives in sound dentin is not necessarily caused by disparities between the depths of demineralization and resin infiltration. They represent areas of increased permeability within a polymerized resin matrix in which water is incompletely removed resulting in regions of incomplete polymerization and/or hydrogel formation.
Deletion of dentin matrix protein-1 leads to a partial failure of maturation of predentin into dentin, hypomineralization, and expanded cavities of pulp and root canal during postnatal tooth development.
Ling Ye, Mary MacDougall, Shubin Zhang, Yixia Xie, Jianghong Zhang, Zubing Li, Yongbo Lu, Yuji Mishina, Jian Q Feng
Department of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, University of Missouri-Kansas, City, Kansas City, Missouri 64108, USA.
The dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1) gene is identified in odontoblasts during both embryonic and postnatal development. In vitro study suggests that this noncollagen acidic phosphoprotein plays a role in mineralization. However, deletion of the Dmp-1 gene has little effect on tooth development during embryogenesis. To address the role of DMP-1 in tooth during postnatal development, we analyzed changes of dentinogenesis in Dmp-1 null mice from 3 days after birth to 1 year. Here we show that Dmp-1 null mice postnatally develop a profound tooth phenotype characterized by a partial failure of maturation of predentin into dentin, enlarged pulp chambers, increased width of predentin zone with reduced dentin wall, and hypomineralization. The tooth phenotype of these mice is strikingly similar to that in dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) null mice and shares some features of the human disease dentinogenesis imperfecta III. We have also demonstrated that DSPP levels are reduced in Dmp-1 null mice, suggesting that DSPP is probably regulated by DMP-1 during dentinogenesis. Finally, we show the absence or delayed development of the third molar in Dmp-1 null mice, which is probably secondary to defects in Dmp-1 null bone. Taken together, these studies suggest that DMP-1 is essential for later dentinogenesis during postnatal development.
Morphological field emission-SEM study of the effect of six phosphoric acid etching agents on human dentin.
Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saude, School of Dentistry, Monte da Caparica, Portugal.
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of six phosphoric acid-etching agents on dentin, the independent variables being two acid concentrations (10% and 32%-37%) and three thickener conditions (no thickener, silica, and polymer). The tested hypothesis was that the use of different etchants with similar concentrations of phosphoric acid would result in similar depths of dentin demineralization. METHODS: Thirty dentin disks were obtained from extracted human teeth by microtome sectioning. The dentin surfaces were etched with one of the etching agents, fixed, dehydrated and dried. The specimens were observed using a FE-SEM. The mean deepest demineralization of intertubular dentin was measured from fracture surfaces of the disks. These values were analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan's Test. The morphological appearance of the dentin surfaces was compared using the following observation criteria: 1) Presence of a cuff of peritubular dentin; 2) Relative thickness of the layer containing residual collagen or smear layer particles; and 3) Formation of a submicron hiatus at the bottom of the exposed collagen network. The pH of each of the etching agents was measured. A correlation analysis was made of the pH vs. the depth of dentin demineralization. RESULTS: Silica-thickened etchants did not demineralize dentin as deeply as did polymer-thickened etchants and unthickened etchants. High magnifications revealed three distinct zones within the demineralized dentin layer; an upper porous zone of residual smear layer or denatured collagen and residual silica particles (in groups etched with silica-thickened etchants), an intermediate area with randomly oriented collagen fibers, and a lower zone with submicron hiatus, few collagen fibers, and scattered hydroxyapatite inclusions. This hiatus was observable in all the specimens etched with the polymer-thickened etchants, in 90% of the specimens etched with the unthickened phosphoric acid liquids, and in 60% of the specimens etched with the silica-thickened gels. SIGNIFICANCE: The results obtained suggest that similar concentrations of phosphoric acid etchants containing distinct thickeners result in different demineralization depths as well as different morphology of etched dentin.
Department of Oral Biology and Pathology, School of Dental Medicine, SUNY at Stony Brook 11794-8702, USA.
PURPOSE: To determine the quantitative contribution of dentin hybridization to bonded assembly strength and demonstrate the micromorphology of the interface with and without collagen present. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four groups of 10 molar teeth were finished to a 320 grit dentin smear layer. Two groups served as controls and two experimental groups were subjected to collagenase digestion of the collagen exposed by acid conditioning. All-Bond 2 and Amalgambond were used to bond Bisfil and Epic resin composite, respectively. Stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours the assemblies were tested in a shear mode at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/minute. Means and standard deviations were subjected to analysis for statistical significance. Twenty four teeth in four groups were examined by scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for the relationship between resin and conditioned dentin with and without the collagen network. RESULTS: All-Bond 2 and Amalgambond controls were 28.41 +/- 3.9 and 19.04 +/- 5.96 MPa, collagenase-treated groups scored 26.43 +/- 2.90 and 19.70 +/- 4.25 MPa respectively. No significant difference existed between the control and experimental groups. SEM showed an intertubular collagen network with patent tubules and a pronounced porous, irregular dentin topography following collagen digestion. A distinct hybrid zone and tubular penetration was observed but the collagenase-treated specimens showed only resin in the tubules and their lateral extensions. TEM confirmed the absence of a distinct hybrid zone in the collagenase groups with a tight, gap-free junction between the resin and the undemineralized dentin. An electron dense zone (< 50 nm) at the leading edge of conditioning was observed for All-Bond 2 and Amalgambond groups. It was concluded that the resin-reinforced or hybridized, collagenous network does not detract from, nor contribute any significant quantitative value per se to dentin bonding with the systems tested.
Effect of acidic conditioners on dentin morphology, molecular composition and collagen conformation in situ.
Research Center for Biomaterials, Athens, Greece. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of some acidic conditioners on dentin morphology, molecular composition and collagen conformation in situ. METHODS: Smear layer-covered dentin specimens prepared from third molars immediately after extraction were imaged by tapping made AFM and analyzed by MIR-FTIR spectroscopy. The same specimens were subjected to conditioning treatments with CA Agent (Kuraray), Scotchbond Etchant (3M Dental Products) and Scotchbond MP Etchant (3M Dental Products) gels and then imaged and analyzed again. The extent of dentin decalcification at the uppermost 2 microns region was calculated from the percentage reduction in the-PO4/amide I peak area ratio of conditioned specimens relative to their individual smear layer-covered references. These results were compared by ANOVA and Scheffé statistical analyses. The conformational changes of dentin type I collagen at the region were studied qualitatively by deconvoluting the amide I bands of MIR-FTIR spectra and assigning the band components to carbonyl hydrogen bonding states related to the alpha-helix structure. RESULTS: All the conditioners removed the smear layer, funneled the tubules, increased the intertubular roughness and contaminated the dentin surfaces with residues from irreversibly adsorbed thickening agents. Conditioned dentin surfaces showed a reduction in orthophosphates and carbonates and an increase in amide I, II and III groups. CA Agent manifested a significantly lower extent of dentin decalcification than Scotchbond etchants (p < 0.05). Collagen conformational changes involved a decrease in intermolecular hydrogen bonded amide I carbonyls associated with the alpha-helix structure and enhancement of imide carbonyls hydrogen bonded to water, which suggest collagen denaturation. SIGNIFICANCE: Apart from dentin decalcification, the acidic conditioners induced considerable changes on dentin collagen conformation mostly associated with denaturation processes. In addition, irreversibly adsorbed residual thickeners substantially modified the morphology and composition of dentin surfaces. These findings show the complex interaction pathways between conditioners and dentin surfaces and the great potential of modern in situ imaging and analysis techniques in probing these interactions.
The effect of 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching material on microhardness of sound and demineralized enamel and dentin in situ.
Faculdade de Odontologia de Piracicaba-UNICAMP, Departamento de Odontologia Restauradora-Dentística, Avenida Limeira, 901-Areião, CEP: 13414-900 Piracicaba-SP Brazil.
This in situ study evaluated the microhardness of sound and demineralized enamel and dentin submitted to treatment with 10% carbamide peroxide for three weeks. A 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching agent--Opalescence/Ultradent (OPA)--was evaluated against a placebo agent (PLA). Two hundred and forty dental fragments--60 sound enamel fragments (SE), 60 demineralized enamel fragments (DE), 60 sound dentin fragments (SD) and 60 demineralized dentin fragments (DD)--were randomly fixed on the vestibular surface of the first superior molars and second superior premolars of 30 volunteers. The volunteers were divided into two groups that received bleaching or the placebo agent at different sequences and periods at a double blind 2 x 2 crossover study with a wash-out period of two weeks. Microhardness tests were performed on the enamel and dentin surface. The SE and DE submitted to treatment with OPA showed lower microhardness values than the SE and DE submitted to treatment with PLA. There were no statistical differences in microhardness values for SD and DD submitted to the treatment with OPA and PLA. The results suggest that treatment with 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching material for three weeks alters the enamel microhardness, although it does not seem to alter the dentin microhardness.
The in vitro effect of glass-ionomer cement restoration on enamel subjected to a demineralization and remineralization model.
Dentistry School of Piracicaba, University of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.
The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate differences in initiation and progression of carieslike lesions around restorations in enamel. A demineralization/remineralization cycling model was used to induce experimental secondary caries around cavities restored with glass-ionomer cement or composite resin. The effects of these materials were compared by microhardness profiles. The results indicated that glass-ionomer cement showed potential value as a restorative material for the prevention or reversal of caries in enamel adjacent to restorations, even in situations of high cariogenic challenge.
Interfacial structure between dentin and seven dentin bonding systems revealed using argon ion beam etching.
Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Operative Dentistry, Japan.
The interfacial structure of seven dentin adhesive systems was studied morphologically. Argon ion beam etching of an undecalcified section clearly revealed the resin-impregnated demineralized dentin at the adhesive interface of the seven systems when observed under the scanning electron microscope.