Flowers :: growth & development
Genetika. 2012 Apr ;48 (4):556-60 22730776
Ontogeny of flower parts on naturally growing Iris pumila clones: implications for population differentiation and phenotypic plasticity studies.
Institute for Biological Research, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.
Previous studies revealed significant phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability and population differentiation of flower morphometric traits on dwarf bearded iris Iris pumila. Also, study of I. pumila flowering phenology revealed significant impact of habitat type as well as population differentiation for flowering time. Since the flowering time can influence other flower traits, we performed this analysis of flower morphometric traits in three time points during the flower bud ontogenic development in two habitat types (open vs. shaded). Analysis revealed that for most of the traits greater trait values were recorded for open habitat but only on latter time points. For most of the analyzed traits direction of differences in bud stage was the opposite to the direction of differences in mature flower stage detected in previous studies. However, length of the stem, a trait that showed the greatest variability between habitats and populations and therefore greatest genetic differentiation and phenotypic plasticity, was significantly greater in the samples from the late flowering shaded habitat in all time samples, indicating that in case of this trait different mechanisms were involved. Those findings have implications for design of the future studies on I. pumila.
Most cited papers:
Regulation of flowering time and floral organ identity by a MicroRNA and its APETALA2-like target genes.
E. I duPont de Nemours and Company, Agriculture & Nutrition, Newark, Delaware 19711, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 21-nucleotide noncoding RNAs that have been identified in both animals and plants. Although in animals there is direct evidence implicating particular miRNAs in the control of developmental timing, to date it is not known whether plant miRNAs also play a role in regulating temporal transitions. Through an activation-tagging approach, we demonstrate that miRNA 172 (miR172) causes early flowering and disrupts the specification of floral organ identity when overexpressed in Arabidopsis. miR172 normally is expressed in a temporal manner, consistent with its proposed role in flowering time control. The regulatory target of miR172 is a subfamily of APETALA2 (AP2) transcription factor genes. We present evidence that miR172 downregulates these target genes by a translational mechanism rather than by RNA cleavage. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function analyses indicate that two of the AP2-like target genes normally act as floral repressors, supporting the notion that miR172 regulates flowering time by downregulating AP2-like target genes.
Waksman Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA. email@example.com
Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) show a high degree of sequence complementarity to, and are believed to guide the cleavage of, their target messenger RNAs. Here, I show that miRNA172, which can base-pair with the messenger RNA of a floral homeotic gene, APETALA2, regulates APETALA2 expression primarily through translational inhibition. Elevated miRNA172 accumulation results in floral organ identity defects similar to those in loss-of-function apetala2 mutants. Elevated levels of mutant APETALA2 RNA with disrupted miRNA172 base pairing, but not wild-type APETALA2 RNA, result in elevated levels of APETALA2 protein and severe floral patterning defects. Therefore, miRNA172 likely acts in cell-fate specification as a translational repressor of APETALA2 in Arabidopsis flower development.
Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Colney, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK.
To ensure flowering in favourable conditions, many plants flower only after an extended period of cold, namely winter. In Arabidopsis, the acceleration of flowering by prolonged cold, a process called vernalization, involves downregulation of the protein FLC, which would otherwise prevent flowering. This lowered FLC expression is maintained through subsequent development by the activity of VERNALIZATION (VRN) genes. VRN1 encodes a DNA-binding protein whereas VRN2 encodes a homologue of one of the Polycomb group proteins, which maintain the silencing of genes during animal development. Here we show that vernalization causes changes in histone methylation in discrete domains within the FLC locus, increasing dimethylation of lysines 9 and 27 on histone H3. Such modifications identify silenced chromatin states in Drosophila and human cells. Dimethylation of H3 K27 was lost only in vrn2 mutants, but dimethylation of H3 K9 was absent from both vrn1 and vrn2, consistent with VRN1 functioning downstream of VRN2. The epigenetic memory of winter is thus mediated by a 'histone code' that specifies a silent chromatin state conserved between animals and plants.
Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding, Carl-von-Linne Weg 10, D-50829 Cologne, Germany.
Many plants flower in response to seasonal fluctuations in day length. The CONSTANS (CO) gene of Arabidopsis promotes flowering in long days. Flowering is induced when CO messenger RNA expression coincides with the exposure of plants to light. However, how this promotes CO activity is unknown. We show that light stabilizes nuclear CO protein in the evening, whereas in the morning or in darkness the protein is degraded by the proteasome. Photoreceptors regulate CO stability and act antagonistically to generate daily rhythms in CO abundance. This layer of regulation refines the circadian rhythm in CO messenger RNA and is central to the mechanism by which day length controls flowering.
Brandon Moore, Li Zhou, Filip Rolland, Qi Hall, Wan-Hsing Cheng, Yan-Xia Liu, Ildoo Hwang, Tamara Jones, Jen Sheen
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, and Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
Glucose modulates many vital processes in photosynthetic plants. Analyses of Arabidopsis glucose insensitive2 (gin2) mutants define the physiological functions of a specific hexokinase (HXK1) in the plant glucose-signaling network. HXK1 coordinates intrinsic signals with extrinsic light intensity. HXK1 mutants lacking catalytic activity still support various signaling functions in gene expression, cell proliferation, root and inflorescence growth, and leaf expansion and senescence, thus demonstrating the uncoupling of glucose signaling from glucose metabolism. The gin2 mutants are also insensitive to auxin and hypersensitive to cytokinin. Plants use HXK as a glucose sensor to interrelate nutrient, light, and hormone signaling networks for controlling growth and development in response to the changing environment.
Laurent Corbesier, Coral Vincent, Seonghoe Jang, Fabio Fornara, Qingzhi Fan, Iain Searle, Antonis Giakountis, Sara Farrona, Lionel Gissot, Colin Turnbull, George Coupland
Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Carl von Linne Weg 10, D-50829 Cologne, Germany.
In plants, seasonal changes in day length are perceived in leaves, which initiate long-distance signaling that induces flowering at the shoot apex. The identity of the long-distance signal has yet to be determined. In Arabidopsis, activation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) transcription in leaf vascular tissue (phloem) induces flowering. We found that FT messenger RNA is required only transiently in the leaf. In addition, FT fusion proteins expressed specifically in phloem cells move to the apex and move long distances between grafted plants. Finally, we provide evidence that FT does not activate an intermediate messenger in leaves. We conclude that FT protein acts as a long-distance signal that induces Arabidopsis flowering.
Patterns of auxin transport and gene expression during primordium development revealed by live imaging of the Arabidopsis inflorescence meristem.
Marcus G Heisler, Carolyn Ohno, Pradeep Das, Patrick Sieber, Gonehal V Reddy, Jeff A Long, Elliot M Meyerowitz
Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena 91125, USA.
BACKGROUND Plants produce leaf and flower primordia from a specialized tissue called the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Genetic studies have identified a large number of genes that affect various aspects of primordium development including positioning, growth, and differentiation. So far, however, a detailed understanding of the spatio-temporal sequence of events leading to primordium development has not been established. RESULTS We use confocal imaging of green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter genes in living plants to monitor the expression patterns of multiple proteins and genes involved in flower primordial developmental processes. By monitoring the expression and polarity of PINFORMED1 (PIN1), the auxin efflux facilitator, and the expression of the auxin-responsive reporter DR5, we reveal stereotypical PIN1 polarity changes which, together with auxin induction experiments, suggest that cycles of auxin build-up and depletion accompany, and may direct, different stages of primordium development. Imaging of multiple GFP-protein fusions shows that these dynamics also correlate with the specification of primordial boundary domains, organ polarity axes, and the sites of floral meristem initiation. CONCLUSIONS These results provide new insight into auxin transport dynamics during primordial positioning and suggest a role for auxin transport in influencing primordial cell type.
Simon W-L Chan, Daniel Zilberman, Zhixin Xie, Lisa K Johansen, James C Carrington, Steven E Jacobsen
Department of MCD Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 433 Babcock Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.
In biennials and winter annuals, flowering is typically blocked in the first growing season. Exposure to the prolonged cold of winter, through a process called vernalization, is required to alleviate this block and permit flowering in the second growing season. In winter-annual types of Arabidopsis thaliana, a flowering repressor, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), is expressed at levels that inhibit flowering in the first growing season. Vernalization promotes flowering by causing a repression of FLC that is mitotically stable after return to warm growing conditions. Here we identify a gene with a function in the measurement of the duration of cold exposure and in the establishment of the vernalized state. We show that this silencing involves changes in the modification of histones in FLC chromatin.
Liuling Yan, Artem Loukoianov, Ann Blechl, Gabriela Tranquilli, Wusirika Ramakrishna, Phillip SanMiguel, Jeffrey L Bennetzen, Viviana Echenique, Jorge Dubcovsky
Department of Agronomy and Range Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
Plants with a winter growth habit flower earlier when exposed for several weeks to cold temperatures, a process called vernalization. We report here the positional cloning of the wheat vernalization gene VRN2, a dominant repressor of flowering that is down-regulated by vernalization. Loss of function of VRN2, whether by natural mutations or deletions, resulted in spring lines, which do not require vernalization to flower. Reduction of the RNA level of VRN2 by RNA interference accelerated the flowering time of transgenic winter-wheat plants by more than a month.