Abdominal Wall :: blood supply
Department of Plastic Surgery, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43212, USA.
Most cited papers:
David M Levi, Andreas G Tzakis, Tomoaki Kato, Juan Madariaga, Naveen K Mittal, Jose Nery, Seigo Nishida, Phillip Ruiz
Division of Transplantation, Department of Surgery, University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Medical Center, Miami, Florida 33101, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND Closure of the abdomen in patients undergoing intestinal transplantation can be extremely difficult, if not impossible. We describe our initial experience with abdominal wall allotransplantation to facilitate abdominal closure. METHODS We undertook nine cadaveric abdominal wall composite allograft transplants in eight patients. The graft's blood supply was based on the inferior epigastric vessels left in continuity with the donor femoral and iliac vessels. Skin biopsies were undertaken randomly and when rejection was suspected. Vessel patency was monitored by doppler ultrasound. FINDINGS Six patients have survived, five of whom have intact, viable abdominal wall grafts. Two patients have had a clinically mild episode of acute rejection of the skin of the abdominal wall that resolved with corticosteroid therapy. No clinically apparent graft-versus-host disease has been noted. INTERPRETATION Transplantation of an abdominal wall composite allograft can facilitate reconstruction and closure of the abdominal compartment in intestinal transplant recipients with complex abdominal wall defects.
Department of Plastic Surgery, Royal Melbourne Hospital, 7th Floor, 766 Elizabeth Street, Melbourne 3000, Australia.
An angiosome is a composite block of tissue that is supplied anatomically by source (segmental or distributing) vessels that span between the skin and bone. In addition to supplying the deep tissues, the source vessels of these angiosomes supply branches to the overlying skin, which pass either between the deep tissues or through the deep tissues, usually muscle, to pierce the outer layer of the deep fascia, usually at fixed skin sites. Hence, perforator flaps, when dissected to the underlying source vessels, involve tracing vessels either between the deep tissues, whether muscle tendon or bone, or through the deep tissues, usually muscle.
The DIEA branching pattern and its relationship to perforators: the importance of preoperative computed tomographic angiography for DIEA perforator flaps.
Warren M Rozen, Kate P Palmer, Hiroo Suami, Wei R Pan, Mark W Ashton, Russell J Corlett, G Ian Taylor
Jack Brockhoff Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Research Unit, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Abdominal donor-site flaps based on the deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) are the most common flaps used in autologous breast reconstruction. With significant variation in the vascular anatomy of the DIEA, preoperative imaging is desirable. Computed tomographic angiography, recently described for this purpose, uniquely demonstrates the branching pattern of the DIEA. The authors sought to correlate the DIEA branching pattern to the location and course of perforators as a preoperative planning tool for perforator flaps. METHODS Forty-five cadaveric hemi-abdominal walls were used for contrast injection of the DIEA with subsequent radiographic imaging. The branching pattern on radiography was thus correlated to the location and intramuscular course of perforators, from the main DIEA trunk to the point of the penetrating rectus sheath. RESULTS The DIEA branching pattern correlated closely with the course of perforators. A bifurcating (type II) branching pattern demonstrated a reduced transverse distance traversed by each perforator, whereas a trifurcating (type III) branching pattern demonstrated significantly greater transverse distances (p = 0.0002). Type I vessels were intermediate. Vessel branching type, however, displayed no significant correlation with the number of perforators (p = 0.56). CONCLUSIONS The distances traversed by perforators were significantly reduced with a bifurcating branching pattern of the DIEA, particularly those originating from the lateral branch, and were greatest with a trifurcating branching pattern. Increased transverse distances correlate with greater rectus muscle sacrificed during perforator flap surgery. As computed tomographic angiography is the optimal modality for demonstrating this pattern preoperatively, the authors suggest its use for preoperative assessment in transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous and DIEA perforator flaps.
Safety zones for anterior abdominal wall entry during laparoscopy: a CT scan mapping of epigastric vessels.
Department of Surgery, Michigan State University, Kalamazoo Center for Medical Studies, Kalamazoo, MI 49008, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy of CT scan in mapping the superior and inferior epigastric vessels, relative to landmarks apparent at laparoscopy. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA Trauma to abdominal wall blood vessels occurs in 0.2% to 2% of laparoscopic procedures. Both superficial and deep abdominal wall vessels are at risk. The superficial vessels may be located by transillumination; however, the deep epigastric vessels cannot be effectively located by transillumination and, thus, other techniques should be used to minimize the risk of injury to these vessels. METHODS Abdominal and pelvic CT images of 100 patients were studied. The location of the superior and inferior epigastric vessels from the midline were determined at five levels, correlated with each other and with the patient age, body mass index, and history of midline laparotomy using Pearson's correlation coefficient and multivariate analysis. RESULTS CT scan was successful in mapping the epigastric vessels in 95% of patients. At the xiphoid process level, the superior epigastric vessels (SEA) were 4.41 +/- 0.13 cm from the midline on the right and 4.53 +/- 0.14 cm on the left. Midway between xiphoid and umbilicus, the SEA were 5.50 +/- 0.16 cm on the right of the midline and 5.36 +/- 0.16 cm on the left. At the umbilicus, the epigastric vessels were 5.88 +/- 0.14 cm on the right and 5.55 +/- 0.13 on the left of the midline. Midway between the umbilicus and symphysis pubis, the inferior epigastric (IEA) were 5.32 +/- 0.12 cm on right and 5.25 +/- 0.11 cm on the left. At the symphysis pubis, the IEA were 7.47 +/- 0.10 cm on the right and 7.49 +/- 0.09 cm away from the midline on the left side. CONCLUSIONS Epigastric vessels are usually located in the area between 4 and 8 cm from the midline. Staying away from this area will determine the safe zone of entry of the anterior abdominal wall.
The Pathology of full-thickness cadaver skin transplant for large abdominal defects: a proposed grading system for skin allograft acute rejection.
Pablo A Bejarano, David Levi, Mehdi Nassiri, Vladimir Vincek, Monica Garcia, Deborah Weppler, Gennaro Selvaggi, Tamoaki Kato, Andreas Tzakis
Department of Pathology, University of Miami School of Medicine/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL 33136, USA. email@example.com
Closure of large abdominal defects after extensive abdominal surgery is a major technical surgical problem. Failure to close the abdomen leaves the patient at risk for grave complications. Full-thickness abdominal wall skin transplantation appears to solve this problem. This is the first time that detailed histopathologic features of skin abdominal wall transplantation from cadaver donors are described. Five adults and four children underwent 10 transplants because of large abdominal wall defects. Twenty-two posttransplantation skin specimens were evaluated during a mean follow-up of 23.5 weeks, and the findings were compared with the clinical appearance of the skin. Rejection was manifested as a maculopapular rash. The histologic features were categorized as perivascular infiltrates, epidermal changes, and stromal changes. A grading system is proposed based on the number of cases encountered: No rejection, grade 0 (n = 9): No perivascular infiltrates. Indeterminate for rejection, grade 1 (n = 2): Up to 10% of vessels show infiltrates of small lymphocytes. No eosinophils, large lymphocytes, spongiosis, epidermal, or stromal inflammation are seen. Mild rejection, grade 2 (n = 5): 11% to 50% of vessels are infiltrated by small lymphocytes. Eosinophils and mild spongiosis may or may not be present. No epidermal infiltrates, stromal infiltrates, or large lymphocytes are seen. Moderate rejection, grade 3 (n = 4): Greater than 50% of vessels show lymphocytic infiltrates that may be accompanied by epidermal and stromal inflammation. Spongiosis is absent or mild. Endothelial plumping, eosinophils, and large lymphocytes may be seen. Severe rejection, grade 4 (n = 2): Greater than 50% of vessels show infiltrates, but different from moderate rejection, there is dyskeratosis and the epidermis shows heavier lymphocytic infiltrates and moderate to severe spongiosis. The stroma shows infiltrates extending into the base of the epidermis. Endothelial plumping, eosinophils, and large lymphocytes are present. The mean number of weeks after transplantation for the development of clearcut rejection (grades 2-4) was 8.36. Among the 9 nonrejection cases, 4 specimens from 3 patients had thrombosis of the vessels feeding the graft. A grading system serves to better assess skin allograft rejection.
Department of General Surgery, Erasmus Medical Center, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND AND AIMS The choice of incision for laparotomy depends on the area that needs to be exposed, the elective or emergency nature of the operation and personal preference. Type of incision may however have its influence on the occurrence of postoperative wound complications. Techniques and features of various incisions are discussed, as well as the incidence of their postoperative complications. METHOD A medline search was conducted identifying prospective randomised trials, as well as retrospective studies with sufficient follow-up, comparing midline, paramedian, transverse and oblique incisions. RESULTS Significant differences in wound infection and wound dehiscence rates were not reported. Transverse, oblique and paramedian incisions caused significantly less incisional hernias than midline incisions. However, trials comparing transverse and midline incisions for larger laparotomies did not show significant differences. All four trials comparing lateral paramedian with midline incisions reported incisional hernia rates of 0% after the lateral paramedian incision. Differences with the midline incision were significant. CONCLUSION Transverse or oblique incisions should be preferred for small unilateral operations. The paramedian incision should be used for major elective laparotomies. The use of the midline incision should be restricted to operations in which unlimited access to the abdominal cavity is useful or necessary.
Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Hand Surgery, Burn Center, Klinikum Bogenhausen, Technical University Munich, and Pulsion Medical Systems AG, Munich, Germany. email@example.com
Abdominoplasty procedures involve a high risk of early complications, including hematomas, seromas, necrosis, and wound-healing problems. Their rationale is evident from the vascular anatomy of the abdominal wall, as traditional abdominoplasty includes a division of the main perforating vessels. No studies exist to quantitatively assess the consequences of abdominoplasty on the perfusion of the random pattern abdominal flap. To address this issue and quantify the influence of classic abdominoplasty on the perfusion of the abdominal skin, the authors performed a prospective clinical trial including 15 low-risk patients undergoing abdominoplasty for aesthetic purposes. Perfusion of the abdominal flap was measured intraoperatively using the technique of dynamic laser-fluorescence-videoangiography. In the region between the umbilicus and the transverse scar (zone 1), the increment of fluorescence (the slope of the intensity curve during inflow of the indocyanine green) was recorded and compared with the intensity curve of normal tissue that was not involved in surgery (thoracic wall). The results of the intraoperative indocyanine green perfusography showed a significant impairment of the vascular supply of zone 1 in all patients. The mean perfusion index in this region was 17.2 percent (range, 5 to 32 percent) of the perfusion of the surrounding skin that was not involved in surgery. The complication rate was 33 percent (five patients) and included two cases of hematoma and three cases of scar dehiscence with skin and/or fat necrosis. These data indicate that conventional abdominoplasty including extended undermining and division of the superficial and the deep arterial systems causes profound devascularization of the abdominal flap. This might explain the high incidence of complications following this procedure.
The tetrapeptide AcSDKP, an inhibitor of primitive hematopoietic cell proliferation, induces angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.
Jian-Miao Liu, Francoise Lawrence, Milica Kovacevic, Jérôme Bignon, Evangelia Papadimitriou, Jean-Yves Lallemand, Panagiotis Katsoris, Pierre Potier, Yves Fromes, Joanna Wdzieczak-Bakala
Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
The tetrapeptide acetyl-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro (AcSDKP), purified from bone marrow and constitutively synthesized in vivo, belongs to the family of negative regulators of hematopoiesis. It protects the stem cell compartment from the toxicity of anticancer drugs and irradiation and consequently contributes to a reduction in marrow failure. This current work provides experimental evidence for another novel biologic function of AcSDKP. We report that AcSDKP is a mediator of angiogenesis, as measured by its ability to modulate endothelial cell function in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo. AcSDKP at nanomolar concentrations stimulates in vitro endothelial cell migration and differentiation into capillary-like structures on Matrigel as well as enhances the secretion of an active form of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). In vivo, AcSDKP promotes a significant angiogenic response in the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and in the abdominal muscle of the rat. Moreover, it induces the formation of blood vessels in Matrigel plugs implanted subcutaneously in the rat. This is the first report demonstrating the ability of AcSDKP to interact directly with endothelial cells and to elicit an angiogenic response in vitro and in vivo.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
OBJECTIVE To describe the proximity of the major vessels in the retropubic space and anterior abdominal wall to the tension-free vaginal tape needle. METHODS Tension-free vaginal tape needles were inserted bilaterally in ten cadavers. Dissection of the superficial epigastric, inferior epigastric, external iliac, and obturator vessels was performed. Measurements from the lateral aspect of the needle to the medial edge of the vessels were recorded. In an additional cadaver, three planes were created by placing a string from the midlabia to the shoulder, mid-biceps brachii muscle, and 6 cm lateral to the mid-biceps brachii muscle of the cadaver's extended, ipsilateral arm. An operator, blinded to the retropubic space anatomy, passed the needle in these planes bilaterally. The distances from the needle to the external iliac and obturator vessels were measured. RESULTS All vessels measured were lateral to the tension-free vaginal tape needle. The mean distance from the tension-free vaginal tape needle to the obturator vessels was the closest: 3.2 cm (range 1.6-4.3 cm). The mean distance from the tension-free vaginal tape needle to the superficial epigastric vessels was 3.9 cm (range 0.9-6.7); to the inferior epigastric vessels, 3.9 cm (range 1.9-6.6 cm); and to the external iliac vessels, 4.9 cm (range 2.9-6.2 cm). When the needle was directed 6 cm lateral to the mid-biceps brachii muscle, the external iliac vein was punctured. CONCLUSION The major vessels in the retropubic space and anterior abdominal wall lie 0.9-6.7 cm lateral to the tension-free vaginal tape needles. If the tension-free vaginal tape needle is laterally aimed or rotated, major vascular injury can occur.
Lipolytic and nutritive blood flow response to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation in situ in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese men.
Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands.
OBJECTIVE beta-Adrenoceptor-mediated whole-body lipolysis is impaired in obesity. This study investigated whether local adipocyte beta-adrenergic sensitivity and changes in nutritive blood flow in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue contribute to this impaired response. METHODS Three microdialysis probes were placed in the subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue of eight obese and nine lean men. Each probe was perfused with either 0.1, 1 and 10 microM isoprenaline; 1, 10 and 100 microM dobutamine or 1, 10 and 100 microM salbutamol, each dose for 45 min. RESULTS At baseline, interstitial glycerol concentrations and ethanol out/in ratios were comparable between groups. During nonselective beta-, beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenergic stimulation, interstitial glycerol concentrations increased and ethanol out/in ratios decreased similarly in obese and lean men. CONCLUSION The lipolytic and nutritive blood flow response to beta(1)- beta(2)- and nonselective beta-adrenergic stimulation in situ is comparable in lean and obese male subjects. The present data suggest that a blunted beta-adrenergic sensitivity of the fat cell and an impaired local nutritive blood flow response do not contribute to the previously reported diminished whole-body beta-adrenoceptor-mediated lipolytic response in obese males.