Latest papers on Quercetin, chemical synthesis
ChemMedChem. 2012 Feb 6;7 (2):229-32 22095956
Remarkable stability and cytostatic effect of a quercetin conjugate, 3,7-bis-O-pivaloxymethyl (POM) quercetin.
Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Bio/Molecular Informatics Center, Konkuk University, Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701, Republic of Korea.
Quercetin diacylglycoside analogues showing dual inhibition of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV as novel antibacterial agents.
Abugafar M L Hossion, Yoshito Zamami, Rafiya K Kandahary, Tomofusa Tsuchiya, Wakano Ogawa, Akimasa Iwado, Kenji Sasaki
Department of Molecular Design for Medicine, Okayama University, Kita-Ku, Okayama 700-8530, Japan.
A structure-guided molecular design approach was used to optimize quercetin diacylglycoside analogues that inhibit bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV and show potent antibacterial activity against a wide spectrum of relevant pathogens responsible for hospital- and community-acquired infections. In this paper, such novel 3,7-diacylquercetin, quercetin 6''-acylgalactoside, and quercetin 2'',6''-diacylgalactoside analogues of lead compound 1 were prepared to assess their target specificities and preferences in bacteria. The significant enzymatic inhibition of both Escherichia coli DNA gyrase and Staphylococcus aureus topoIV suggest that these compounds are dual inhibitors. Most of the investigated compounds exhibited pronounced inhibition with MIC values ranging from 0.13 to 128 μg/mL toward the growth of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive methicillin-resistant S. aureus, methicillin sensitive S. aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), vancomycin intermediate S. aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae bacterial strains. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that the acyl moiety was absolutely essential for activity against Gram-positive organisms. The most active compound 5i was 512-fold more potent than vancomycin and 16-32-fold more potent than 1 against VRE strains. It also has realistic in situ intestinal absorption in rats and showed very low acute toxicity in mice. So far, this compound can be regarded as a leading antibacterial agent.
Preparation, characterization, and DNA binding studies of water-soluble quercetin--molybdenum(VI) complex.
Seyed Mojtaba Ahmadi, Gholamreza Dehghan, Muhammad Ali Hosseinpourfeizi, Jafar Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi, Soheila Kashanian
Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Natural Science, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
DNA binding studies of flavonoids are needed to understand the reaction mechanism and improve drugs that target DNA. Quercetin (Q) is one of the most common flavonoids that can chelate metal ions and interact with double-stranded DNA. In the present work, UV absorption spectrophotometry, viscosimetry, circular dichroism, and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques were employed to study the interaction of water-soluble quercetin--molybdenum(VI) complex [Q-Mo(VI)] with calf thymus DNA. The binding constants (K(b)) for the complex with DNA were estimated to be 2.9 × 10(3) through spectroscopic titrations. Upon addition of the complex, significant decreases were observed in the viscosity of calf thymus DNA. Circular dichroic spectra indicated that there are certain detectable conformational changes in the DNA double helix when complex was added. Further, competitive methylene blue binding studies with fluorescence spectroscopy have shown that the complex can bind to DNA through nonintercalative mode. The experimental results suggest that Q-Mo(VI) binds to DNA via an outside binding mode.
Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. firstname.lastname@example.org
Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Astragalus beckari yielded four flavonol aglycones, namely kaempferol, quercetin, 5-deoxy kaempferol and fisitin. These isolated compounds were then synthesised in the laboratory using the Algar-Flyn-Oyamad reaction. Antioxidant activity of both the isolated and synthesised flavonoids was compared using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay method. The isolated flavonoids were found to be more active.
Design, synthesis and evaluation of mutual prodrug of 4-biphenylacetic acid and quercetin tetramethyl ether (BPA-QTME) as gastrosparing NSAID.
University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Sector-14, Chandigarh 160014, India.
A novel mutual prodrug consisting of 4-biphenylacetic acid (BPA) and quercetin tetramethyl ether (QTME) has been synthesized as a gastrosparing NSAID, devoid of ulcerogenic side effects. The physicochemical properties, including aqueous solubility, partition coefficient, chemical stability and enzymatic hydrolysis of synthesized derivative have been studied to assess its prodrug potential. Its antiinflammatory, antiulcer and analgesic activities were also evaluated. The results indicated that BPA-QTME derivative is chemically stable, biolabile and possesses optimum lipophilicity. The synthesized compound also exhibited retention of antiinflammatory activity with reduced ulcerogenicity. Based on these observations, the therapeutic potential of this mutual prodrug is discussed.
Seung Hwan Kim, Ch Naveen Kumar, Hyoung Ja Kim, Dong Han Kim, Jungsook Cho, Changbae Jin, Yong Sup Lee
Life Sciences Research Division, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, PO Box 131, Cheongryang, Seoul 130-650, Republic of Korea.
Due to high reactivity, reactive oxygen species can attack biological molecules leading to cell or tissue injury. In this study, glucose moiety was attached at the C-7 position of quercetin 3-O-methyl ether (1) and luteolin (2) through glycosidic bond or ether linkage. The glucose-containing compounds showed potent DPPH and superoxide anion radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition activities and nearly equivalent protective actions to the parent aglycons against the H2O2-induced oxidative neuronal damage in primary cultured rat cortical cells. Among the compounds tested, 3b and 3c were the most potent (IC50 values=7.33 and 5.34 microM, respectively), exhibiting nearly equivalent actions to the parent compounds 1 and 2 (IC50=3.50 and 3.75 microM, respectively).
Novel 3alpha-methoxyserrat-14-en-21beta-ol (PJ-1) and 3beta-methoxyserrat-14-en-21beta-ol (PJ-2)-curcumin, kojic acid, quercetin, and baicalein conjugates as HIV agents.
Reiko Tanaka, Hiroko Tsujii, Takeshi Yamada, Tetsuya Kajimoto, Fumio Amano, Junya Hasegawa, Yoshio Hamashima, Manabu Node, Kayoko Katoh, Yutaka Takebe
Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4-20-1 Nasahara, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-1094, Japan. email@example.com
Sixteen novel compounds; 3alpha-methoxyserrat-14-en-21beta-ol (1) and 3beta-methoxyserrat-14-en-21beta-ol (2) and their curcumin, kojic acid, quercetin, and baicalein conjugates (3)-(18) were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for in vitro anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) activity in infected C8166-CCR5 cells, a human CD4(+) T-lymphocyte cell line. Among them, kojic acid derivatives, 9-12 showed significant biological activity. In particular, the compound 13, the conjugate of two molecules of 3alpha-methoxyserrat-14-en-21beta-ol (1) and one molecule of kojic acid, exerted significant anti-HIV activity with an EC50 value of 0.12microg/mL.
Inhibition of heat shock induction of heat shock protein 70 and enhancement of heat shock protein 27 phosphorylation by quercetin derivatives.
Rongsheng E Wang, Jeffrey L-F Kao, Carolyn A Hilliard, Raj K Pandita, Joseph L Roti Roti, Clayton R Hunt, John-Stephen Taylor
Department of Chemistry, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63130, USA.
Inhibitors of heat-induced heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression have the potential to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of heat-induced radiosensitization of tumors. Among known small molecule inhibitors, quercetin has the advantage of being easily modified for structure-activity studies. Herein, we report the ability of five monomethyl and five carbomethoxymethyl derivatives of quercetin to inhibit heat-induced HSP70 expression and enhance HSP27 phosphorylation in human cells. While quercetin and several derivatives inhibit HSP70 induction and enhance HSP27 phosphorylation at Ser78, other analogues selectively inhibit HSP70 induction without enhancing HSP27 phosphorylation that would otherwise aid in cell survival. We also show that good inhibitors of HSP70 induction are also good inhibitors of both CK2 and CamKII, kinases that are known to activate HSP70 expression by phosphorylation of heat shock transcription factor 1. Derivatives that show poor inhibition of either or both kinases are not good inhibitors of HSP70 induction, suggesting that quercetin's effectiveness is due to its ability to inhibit both kinases.
Quercetin and its derivatives: synthesis, pharmacological uses with special emphasis on anti-tumor properties and prodrug with enhanced bio-availability.
Chemical Research, Dabur Research Foundation, Ghaziabad, U.P. India. firstname.lastname@example.org
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world. American Cancer Society reported 12 million new cases of malignancy diagnosed worldwide in 2007, with 7.6 million people dying from the disease. Plant-derived molecules have played an important role in cancer chemotherapy. Many cytotoxic plant-derived molecules such as vinblastine, vincristine, navelbine, etoposide, teniposide, taxol, taxotere, topotecan and irinotecan have been approved as anticancer drugs. Flavonoids, a plant-derived molecule has shown to regulate proliferation and cell death pathways leading to cancer. Some Flavonoids have already entered in clinical trials, among them Quercetin is emerging as prospective anticancer drug candidates and its prodrug QC12 has entered in phase-I clinical studies. In this review authors have tried to cover in brief but comprehensive way, the chemistry related to synthesis and uses of "Quercetin & its derivatives" with special emphasis on the anticancer properties.
College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul, 140-742, Korea.
Some C-benzylated flavonoids based on gericudranin A were synthesized and evaluated their cytotoxic activities for the elucidation of structure-activity relationship. 2,4,6-Trihydroxyacetophenone was converted to target molecules in 6 approximately 7 steps via sequential protection, aldol condensation, cyclization, regioselective C-benzylation, and deprotection. The cellular growth inhibition of the synthetic C-benzylated flavonoids was investigated against sixteen human cancer cell lines. Among these compounds, 5b showed the most potent cytotoxicities against several cell lines, especially as potent as adriamycin against SNB19 cell lines with an IC(50) value of 0.7 microM.
Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Republic of Korea.
In order to discover a quercetin prodrug with improved bioavailability, we synthesized nine quercetin-amion acid conjugates and estimated their pharmacokinetic properties including water solubility, stability against chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis, and cell permeability. Among the synthesized quercetin prodrugs, quercetin-glutamic acid conjugate Qu-E (4g/5g) showed remarkable increases in water solubility, stability, and cell permeability compared with quercetin, which warrants further development as a quercetin prodrug.
State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.
Pentabenzensulfonate (QPBS), a potential prodrug for quercetin, was designed and synthesized in high yield. It possesses better physical properties such as solubility, lipid/water partition coefficient, LogP, and hydrolysis kinetics than its original form. The LogP value (2.04) and the half-life of the hydrolysis value (3.85 h) show that oral bioavailability is improved evidently compared with that of quercetin. These results indicate that QPBS can be considered as a potential prodrug for quercetin.
Free Radical Research Laboratory, National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080, Pakistan. email@example.com
Quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) one of the most abundant dietary flavonoids, has been investigated in the presence of Cu(II) in methanol. The spectroscopic studies (UV-vis,(1)H NMR and IR) were useful to assess the relevant interaction of Quercetin with Cu(II) ions, the chelation sites and dependence of the complex structure from the metal/ligand ratio. A 1:2 (L:M) complex was indicated by Job's method of continuous variation, which was applied to ascertain the stoichiometric composition of the complex. The antioxidant activities of the compounds were evaluated by using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. The complexed flavonoid was much more effective free radical scavengers than the free flavonoids.
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.
Plant polyphenols exhibit a variety of potentially useful biochemical properties in vitro, but their evaluation and clinical exploitation in vivo is hampered by their limited bioavailability. Precursors exhibiting resistance to phase II metabolism during absorption are therefore desirable. We report here the synthesis as well as stability and solubility studies of several ester derivatives of quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxy flavone), most of which comprise an aminoacyl group. To model transepithelial absorption, we tested transport across supported tight monolayers of MDCK-1, MDCK-2, and Caco-2 cells. Quercetin itself was extensively conjugated by all three types of cells. A few of our precursors did not cross the monolayers, but others did, undergoing partial deacylation. No phase II conjugation was observed during transport of these compounds across MDCK or some Caco-2 clones. With other Caco-2 lines complete deacylation occurred, followed by metabolism of quercetin. Since elimination of residual acyl groups is expected to take place in vivo, ester derivatives of polyphenols may constitute a useful method to increase systemic aglycone concentrations.
Binding interaction of quercetin-3-beta-galactoside and its synthetic derivatives with SARS-CoV 3CL(pro): structure-activity relationship studies reveal salient pharmacophore features.
Lili Chen, Jian Li, Cheng Luo, Hong Liu, Weijun Xu, Gang Chen, Oi Wah Liew, Weiliang Zhu, Chum Mok Puah, Xu Shen, Hualiang Jiang
Drug Discovery and Design Center, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China.
The 3C-like protease (3CL(pro)) of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is one of the most promising targets for discovery of drugs against SARS, because of its critical role in the viral life cycle. In this study, a natural compound called quercetin-3-beta-galactoside was identified as an inhibitor of the protease by molecular docking, SPR/FRET-based bioassays, and mutagenesis studies. Both molecular modeling and Q189A mutation revealed that Gln189 plays a key role in the binding. Furthermore, experimental evidence showed that the secondary structure and enzymatic activity of SARS-CoV 3CL(pro) were not affected by the Q189A mutation. With the help of molecular modeling, eight new derivatives of the natural product were designed and synthesized. Bioassay results reveal salient features of the structure-activity relationship of the new compounds:(1) removal of the 7-hydroxy group of the quercetin moiety decreases the bioactivity of the derivatives;(2) acetoxylation of the sugar moiety abolishes inhibitor action;(3) introduction of a large sugar substituent on 7-hydroxy of quercetin can be tolerated;(4) replacement of the galactose moiety with other sugars does not affect inhibitor potency. This study not only reveals a new class of compounds as potential drug leads against the SARS virus, but also provides a solid understanding of the mechanism of inhibition against the target enzyme.
School of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310031, China.
AIM To search for flavonoids which possess stronger vasorelaxation action. METHODS Four quercetin glycosides (1a - d) were synthesized from quercetin in three steps i. e. selective protection of quercetin, condensation with corresponding acetyiglycosyl bromide, and then removal of the protecting group; Six flavone compounds (2a - f) were prepared from phloroglucinol according to the conventional methods; The structures of synthetic compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS. Vasorelaxation action of ten synthetic quercetin derivatives (or analogues) and four natural flavonoids compounds were examined on the isolated rat thoracic aorta rings; Comparative octanol-water partition coefficients (logP) were measured using a reversed-phase HPLC method. RESULTS Most of the tested flavonoids showed concentration dependent relaxation effects against PE-induced contractions of rat aortic rings. These compounds had stronger action with the augment of logP values. CONCLUSION Compound 3-bromo-5 ,7-dihydroxyflavone (2d) was identified to have the most potent vasodilating action. These compounds exert vasodilating effects that are related to the logP values. A structure-activity relationship of flavonoids was suggested.
State Key Laboratory of Catalyst, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, China.
Two isomeric flavonol 3-O-glycosides, tamarixetin and isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperidoside (1 and 2), were synthesized. The natural product from Costus spicatus assigned as the former compound is revised to the latter structure.
Joon Yeol Lee, Won-Hui Park, Min-Kyoung Cho, Hyun Jin Yun, Byung-Ho Chung, Youngmi Kim Pak, Hoh-Gyu Hahn, Seung Hoon Cheon
College of Pharmacy & Research Institute of Drug Development, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, Korea.
The synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a novel series of substituted quercetins that activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) are reported. The PPARgamma agonistic activity of the most potent compound in this series is comparable to that of the thiazolidinedione-based antidiabetic drugs currently in clinical use.
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mukogawa Women's University, Nishinomiya 663-8179, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
The constituents of Citrus plants were investigated to develop useful agents that are effective in cancer chemoprevention. We examined the roots and bark of the roots of various Citrus plants, resulting in the isolation of many novel compounds. Their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods, especially 2D-NMR spectra. The following new compounds of constituents were found: dimeric coumarins, dimeric acridone alkaloids, and acridone-coumarin dimers. Auraptene and nobiletin are known as useful constituents of the peel of Citrus plants for cancer chemoprevention. However, we found that 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (HPT) has both antitumor promotion and initiation activities and is more effective than auraptene and nobiletin. We synthesized pentaallyl quercetin (QPA), a useful antitumor compound that has the additional effects of a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor. The inhibitory effects of QPA on P-gp were more effective than those of the typical P-gp inhibitors cyclosporin A and verapamil. Both HPT and QPA have antitumor promotion activity and are potential candidates for effective multidrug resistance agents in cancer chemotherapy.
Laboratoire Arômes, Synthèses, Interactions, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, 06108 Nice 2, France.
Flavonoids are naturally occurring phenol derivatives present in substantial amounts in a large variety of plants, fruits and vegetables daily eaten by humans. Most of these compounds exhibit several interesting biological activities, such as antiradical and antioxidant actions. Indeed, by complexation with specific enzymes, flavonoids are notably liable to metabolize molecular dioxygen. On the basis of experimental results describing oxygenolysis of the flavonoid quercetin, activated by the enzyme quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase (2,3-QD),ur attention has focused on the role of metal center in the activation of the substrate quercetin. Thus, in the present study, by means of DFT calculations at the B3LYP/ 6-31(+)G* level on model molecular systems, we describe different mechanisms for dioxygen metabolization by quercetin. Stationary points are described, and energetic and structural analyses along the reaction paths are reported. Our calculations show that the copper cation must act as an oxidant towards the substrate and that the reaction proceeds through a 1,3-cycloaddition.