Quinine :: chemistry
Department of Biological Sciences, SUNY College of Optometry, New York, NY 10036, USA.
The anti-malarial drug quinine and its quaternary derivative N-benzylquininium (BQ(+)) have been shown to inhibit gap junction (GJ) channels with specificity for Cx50 over its closely related homologue Cx46. Here, we examined the mechanism of BQ(+) action using undocked Cx46 and Cx50 hemichannels, which are more amenable to analyses at the single-channel level. We found that BQ(+)(300 µM-1 mM) robustly inhibited Cx50, but not Cx46, hemichannel currents, indicating that the Cx selectivity of BQ(+) is preserved in both hemichannel and GJ channel configurations. BQ(+) reduced Cx50 hemichannel open probability (P(o)) without appreciably altering unitary conductance of the fully open state and was effective when added from either extracellular or cytoplasmic sides. The reductions in P(o) were dependent on BQ(+) concentration with a Hill coefficient of 1.8, suggesting binding of at least two BQ(+) molecules. Inhibition by BQ(+) was voltage dependent, promoted by hyperpolarization from the extracellular side and conversely by depolarization from the cytoplasmic side. These results are consistent with binding of BQ(+) in the pore. Substitution of the N-terminal (NT) domain of Cx46 into Cx50 significantly impaired inhibition by BQ(+). The NT domain contributes to the formation of the wide cytoplasmic vestibule of the pore and, thus, may contribute to the binding of BQ(+). Single-channel analyses showed that BQ(+) induced transitions that did not resemble pore block, but rather transitions indistinguishable from the intrinsic gating events ascribed to loop gating, one of two mechanisms that gate Cx channels. Moreover, BQ(+) decreased mean open time and increased mean closed time, indicating that inhibition consists of an increase in hemichannel closing rate as well as a stabilization of the closed state. Collectively, these data suggest a mechanism of action for BQ(+) that involves modulation loop gating rather than channel block as a result of binding in the NT domain.
Most cited papers:
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA.
Microfluidic devices made out of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) have many physical properties that are useful for cell culture applications, such as transparency and gas permeability. Another distinct characteristic of PDMS is its ability to absorb hydrophobic small molecules. Partitioning of molecules into PDMS can significantly change solution concentrations and could potentially alter experimental outcomes. Herein we discuss PDMS absorption and its potential impact on microfluidic experiments.
Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
We demonstrate that the antimalarial drug quinine specifically reduces currents through gap junctions formed by some connexins (Cx) in transfected mammalian cells, but does not affect other gap junction types. Quinine blocked Cx36 and Cx50 junctional currents in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner with half maximal blocking concentrations of 32 and 73 microM, respectively; Hill coefficients for block by quinine were about 2 for both connexins. In contrast, quinine did not substantially block gap junction channels formed by Cx26, Cx32, Cx40, and Cx43, and only moderately affected Cx45 junctions. To determine the location of the binding site of quinine (pKa = 8.7), we investigated the effect of quinine at various external and internal pH values and the effect of a permanently charged quaternary derivative of quinine. Our results indicate that the binding site for quinine is intracellular, possibly within the pore. Single-channel studies indicated that exposure to quinine induced slow transitions between open and fully closed states that decreased open probability of the channel. Quinine thus offers a potentially useful method to block certain types of gap junction channels, including those between neurons that are formed by Cx36. Moreover, quinine derivatives that are excluded from other types of membrane channels may provide molecules with connexin-specific as well as connexin-selective blocking activity.
Department of Chemistry, Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C. 20057, USA.
Paramagnetic metal centers [such as Fe(III) found within ferriprotoporphyrin IX heme (FPIX)] exert through space effects on the relaxation rate of nearby proton spins that depend critically on the metal-proton distance. We have measured these effects for all protons of several antimalarial drugs that bind to FPIX by systematically varying the drug:heme molar ratio in high field NMR experiments. These measurements allow us to determine precise FPIX Fe-drug H distances for the solution structures of noncovalent complexes formed between FPIX mu-oxo dimers and the antimalarial drugs chloroquine (CQ), quinine (QN), and quinidine (QD). Using these distances, we then performed distance restraint calculations to determine the lowest-energy solution structures of these complexes. Structures were solved for neutral, monoprotic (+1), and diprotic (+2) forms of the drugs. Analysis of these structures allows us to visualize for the first time the stereospecific differences between QN and QD binding to FPIX and the differences in populations of QN and QD solution structures upon changes in digestive vacuolar pH for drug resistant malarial parasites [Dzekunov, S. M., et al.(2000) Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 110, 107-124]. The data indicate a previously unrecognized key role for the CQ aliphatic chain in stabilizing FPIX-CQ complexes, and suggest how lengthening or shortening the chain might perturb stability. We also define FPIX:drug stoichiometries of 2:1 for the complexes formed at physiological FPIX concentrations, in contrast to the 4:1 and 5:1 stoichiometries previously determined at higher FPIX concentrations [Dorn, A., et al.(1998) Biochem. Pharmacol. 55, 727-736]. These atomic resolution antimalarial drug-heme structures should help elucidate how these drugs inhibit formation of hemozoin during metabolism of heme within the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum and assist ongoing development of strategies for circumventing antimalarial drug resistance.
Different characteristics of gustatory responses between the greater superficial petrosal and chorda tympani nerves in the rat.
Department of Oral Physiology, Kagoshima University Dental School, Japan.
The integrated responses to gustatory stimuli applied to the soft palate were recorded from the greater superficial petrosal nerve (GSP) and were compared with those from the chorda tympani nerve (CT) innervating the anterior part of the tongue in the rat. Stimuli included various concentrations of NaCl, sucrose, HCl and quinine hydrochloride, and 0.5 M of six sugars. The inhibitory effects of amiloride on the responses to sodium salts, including various concentration of NaCl, 0.1 M sodium acetate and 0.01 M sodium saccharin, were also tested. Both the phasic and tonic responses to sugars in the GSP were significantly larger than those in the CT, whereas both responses to NaCl in the GSP were significantly smaller than those in the CT. Although amiloride at 50 microM significantly depressed the phasic and tonic responses to NaCl with a wide range of concentration in the CT, little inhibitory effect was observed in the GSP. The tonic response to sodium acetate, when dissolved in amiloride solution, was depressed to 15% of the control in the CT, and slightly but significantly depressed to 70% in the GSP. These response characteristics of the GSP may play important roles in the processing of gustatory information.
Enantioselective anion exchangers based on cinchona alkaloid-derived carbamates: influence of C8/C9 stereochemistry on chiral recognition.
Institute of Analytical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
Four diastereomeric chiral stationary phases (CSPs) based on quinine, quinidine, epiquinine, and epiquinidine tert-butyl carbamate selectors were synthesized and evaluated under ion exchange HPLC conditions with a set of racemic N-acylated and N-oxycarbonylated alpha-amino acids as selectands. The enantioseparation potential of quinine- and quinidine-derived CSPs proved to be far superior to that of their C9-epimeric congeners. The absolute configuration of C9 stereogenic center of the cinchonan backbone of these selectors was identified as the structural feature controlling the elution order. Guided by an X-ray structure of a most favorable selector-selectand complex and the observed chromatographic enantioseparation data, a chiral recognition model was advanced. The contributions of ion-pairing, pi-pi donor-acceptor, hydrogen bonding and steric interactions were established as crucial factors.
Homology modeling of rat and human cytochrome P450 2D (CYP2D) isoforms and computational rationalization of experimental ligand-binding specificities.
Jennifer Venhorst, Antonius M ter Laak, Jan N M Commandeur, Yoshihiko Funae, Toyoko Hiroi, Nico P E Vermeulen
Department of Pharmacochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Division of Molecular Toxicology, Leiden/Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
The ligand-binding characteristics of rat and human CYP2D isoforms, i.e., rat CYP2D1-4 and human CYP2D6, were investigated by measuring IC(50) values of 11 known CYP2D6 ligands using 7-methoxy-4-(aminomethyl)coumarin (MAMC) as substrate. Like CYP2D6, all rat CYP2D isozymes catalyzed the O-demethylation of MAMC with K(m) and V(max) values ranging between 78 and 145 microM and 0.048 and 1.122 min(-1), respectively. To rationalize observed differences in the experimentally determined IC(50) values, homology models of the CYP2D isoforms were constructed. A homology model of CYP2D6 was generated on the basis of crystallized rabbit CYP2C5 and was validated on its ability to reproduce binding orientations corresponding to metabolic profiles of the substrates and to remain stable during unrestrained molecular dynamics simulations at 300 K. Twenty-two active site residues, sharing up to 59% sequence identity, were identified in the CYP2D binding pockets and included CYP2D6 residues Phe120, Glu216, and Asp301. Electrostatic potential calculations displayed large differences in the negative charge of the CYP2D active sites, which was consistent with observed differences in absolute IC(50) values. MD studies on the binding mode of sparteine, quinidine, and quinine in CYP2D2 and CYP2D6 furthermore concurred well with experimentally determined IC(50) values and metabolic profiles. The current study thus provides new insights into differences in the active site topology of the investigated CYP2D isoforms.
Quinine versus carbamoylated quinine-based chiral anion exchangers. A comparison regarding enantioselectivity for N-protected amino acids and other chiral acids.
Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Karl-Franzens-University of Graz, Austria.
First, a chiral stationary phase was prepared by immobilization of the naturally occurring alkaloid quinine onto a 3-mercaptopropyl-modified silica gel via a radical addition reaction and it was evaluated for direct HPLC enantioseparation of acidic chiral compounds under buffered hydro-organic mobile phase conditions. Second, its enantioselectivity and retention characteristics for a representative set of N-derivatized alpha-amino acids and other chiral acids were compared with those of a similar weak chiral anion exchanger based on tert.-butyl carbamoylated quinine derivative as chiral selector. The results clearly indicate that the introduction of the carbamoyl functionality at the secondary hydroxyl group at C9 of quinine provides new and additional sites for intermolecular interactions with chiral analytes and this can profoundly change and improve chiral recognition ability, especially for amide, carbamate and sulfonamide derivatives of amino acids including DNB, Bz, Ac, For, Z, Fmoc, Boc and DNS-protected amino acids. The impact of this new and rigid hydrogen donor-acceptor group--directing stereoselective selector-selectand complexation by intermolecular hydrogen bonding--in comparison to the plain quinine selector is further evaluated by alkylation of the nitrogen atom of either the selector carbamate and/or of the amino function of leucine (N-methyl leucine) derivatized either by DNB or DNP groups.
Effect of temperature and flow-rate on analysis of basic compounds in high-performance liquid chromatography using a reversed-phase column.
Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK. David.Mccalley@uwe.ac.uk
The peak shape and retention of some basic probes together with a neutral reference compound were investigated as a function of temperature and flow-rate using a reversed-phase HPLC column at both pH 3.0 and pH 7.0. The retention of bases often showed an anomalous increase with temperature; retention mechanisms are complex as shown by studies of the effect of buffer cation concentration on retention. Considerable improvements in column efficiency for bases may result from operation at elevated temperature. Improvements did not seem attributable either to incidental changes in the retention factor, or (in this particular study where low sample masses were utilised) to the influence of sample load. The optimum flow-rate for highest efficiency is generally lower for basic compounds than neutrals, and due to the steepness of the Van Deemter curves obtained, high flow-rates appear to be particularly detrimental in the chromatography of basic compounds.
The antimalarial drug resistance protein Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter binds chloroquine.
Department of Chemistry, Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, 3900 Reservoir Road, Washington, DC 20057, USA.
Recently, mutations in the novel polytopic integral membrane protein PfCRT were shown to cause chloroquine resistance (CQR) in the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. PfCRT is not a member of the well-known family of ABC proteins that have previously been associated with other drug resistance phenomena. Thus, the mechanism(s) whereby mutant PfCRT molecules confer antimalarial drug resistance is (are) unknown. Previously, we succeeded in overexpressing PfCRT to high levels in Pichia pastoris yeast by synthesizing a codon-optimized version of the pfcrt gene. Using purified membranes and inside-out plasma membrane vesicles (ISOV) isolated from strains harboring either wild-type or CQR-associated mutant PfCRT, we now show that under deenergized conditions the PfCRT protein specifically binds the antimalarial drug chloroquine (CQ) with a K(D) near 400 nM but does not measurably bind the related drug quinine (QN) at physiologically relevant concentrations. Transport studies using ISOV show that QN is passively accumulated as expected on the basis of previous measurement of the ISOV DeltapH for the different strains. However, passive accumulation of CQ is lower than expected for ISOV harboring mutant PfCRT, despite higher DeltapH for these ISOV.
pION Inc., Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
The apparent acid dissociation constants (p(s)Ka) of two water-insoluble drugs, ibuprofen and quinine, were determined pH-metrically in acetonitrile water, dimethylformamide water, dimethylsulfoxide water, 1,4-dioxane-water, ethanol water, ethylene glycol-water, methanol water and tetrahydrofuran water mixtures. A glass electrode calibration procedure based on a four-parameter equation (pH = alpha + SpcH + jH[H+]+jOH[OH-]) was used to obtain pH readings based on the concentration scale (pcH). We have called this four-parameter method the Four-Plus technique. The Yasuda Shedlovsky extrapolation (p(s)Ka + log [H2O]= A/epsilon + B) was used to derive acid dissociation constants in aqueous solution (pKa). It has been demonstrated that the pKa values extrapolated from such solvent water mixtures are consistent with each other and with previously reported measurements. The suggested method has also been applied with success to determine the pKa values of two pyridine derivatives of pharmaceutical interest.