Parahippocampal Gyrus :: anatomy & histology
Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Humans are remarkably efficient at categorizing natural scenes. In fact, scene categories can be decoded from functional MRI (fMRI) data throughout the ventral visual cortex, including the primary visual cortex, the parahippocampal place area (PPA), and the retrosplenial cortex (RSC). Here we ask whether, and where, we can still decode scene category if we reduce the scenes to mere lines. We collected fMRI data while participants viewed photographs and line drawings of beaches, city streets, forests, highways, mountains, and offices. Despite the marked difference in scene statistics, we were able to decode scene category from fMRI data for line drawings just as well as from activity for color photographs, in primary visual cortex through PPA and RSC. Even more remarkably, in PPA and RSC, error patterns for decoding from line drawings were very similar to those from color photographs. These data suggest that, in these regions, the information used to distinguish scene category is similar for line drawings and photographs. To determine the relative contributions of local and global structure to the human ability to categorize scenes, we selectively removed long or short contours from the line drawings. In a category-matching task, participants performed significantly worse when long contours were removed than when short contours were removed. We conclude that global scene structure, which is preserved in line drawings, plays an integral part in representing scene categories.
Most cited papers:
Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, San Diego, California 92161, USA. email@example.com
The medial temporal lobe includes a system of anatomically related structures that are essential for declarative memory (conscious memory for facts and events). The system consists of the hippocampal region (CA fields, dentate gyrus, and subicular complex) and the adjacent perirhinal, entorhinal, and parahippocampal cortices. Here, we review findings from humans, monkeys, and rodents that illuminate the function of these structures. Our analysis draws on studies of human memory impairment and animal models of memory impairment, as well as neurophysiological and neuroimaging data, to show that this system (a) is principally concerned with memory,(b) operates with neocortex to establish and maintain long-term memory, and (c) ultimately, through a process of consolidation, becomes independent of long-term memory, though questions remain about the role of perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices in this process and about spatial memory in rodents. Data from neurophysiology, neuroimaging, and neuroanatomy point to a division of labor within the medial temporal lobe. However, the available data do not support simple dichotomies between the functions of the hippocampus and the adjacent medial temporal cortex, such as associative versus nonassociative memory, episodic versus semantic memory, and recollection versus familiarity.
Center for Memory and Brain, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
The ability to recognize a previously experienced stimulus is supported by two processes: recollection of the stimulus in the context of other information associated with the experience, and a sense of familiarity with the features of the stimulus. Although familiarity and recollection are functionally distinct, there is considerable debate about how these kinds of memory are supported by regions in the medial temporal lobes (MTL). Here, we review evidence for the distinction between recollection and familiarity and then consider the evidence regarding the neural mechanisms of these processes. Evidence from neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and neurophysiological studies of humans, monkeys, and rats indicates that different subregions of the MTL make distinct contributions to recollection and familiarity. The data suggest that the hippocampus is critical for recollection but not familiarity. The parahippocampal cortex also contributes to recollection, possibly via the representation and retrieval of contextual (especially spatial) information, whereas perirhinal cortex contributes to and is necessary for familiarity-based recognition. The findings are consistent with an anatomically guided hypothesis about the functional organization of the MTL and suggest mechanisms by which the anatomical components of the MTL interact to support the phenomenology of recollection and familiarity.
Department of Psychiatry, Center for Neuroscience and California Regional Primate Research Center, University of California at Davis, 95616, USA.
The structures forming the medial temporal lobe appear to be necessary for the establishment of long-term declarative memory. In particular, they may be involved in the "consolidation" of information in higher-order associational cortices, perhaps through feedback projections. This review highlights the fact that the medial temporal lobe is organized as a hierarchy of associational networks. Indeed, associational connections within the perirhinal, parahippocampal, and entorhinal cortices enables a significant amount of integration of unimodal and polymodal inputs, so that only highly integrated information reaches the remainder of the hippocampal formation. The feedback efferent projections from the perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices to the neocortex largely reciprocate the afferent projections from the neocortex to these areas. There are, however, noticeable differences in the degree of reciprocity of connections between the perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices and certain areas of the neocortex, in particular in the frontal and temporal lobes. These observations are particularly important for models of hippocampal-neocortical interaction and long-term storage of information in the neocortex. Furthermore, recent functional studies suggest that the perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices are more than interfaces for communication between the neocortex and the hippocampal formation. These structures participate actively in memory processes, but the precise role they play in the service of memory or other cognitive functions is currently unclear.
Department of Anatomy, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. MP.Witter.Anat@med.vu.nl
The anatomical organization of the parahippocampal-hippocampal network indicates that it consists of different parallel circuits. Considering the topographical distribution of sensory cortical inputs, the hypothesis is that the major parallel circuits carry functionally different information. These functionally different parallel routes reach different portions of the hippocampal network along the longitudinal axis of all fields as well as along the perpendicularly oriented transverse axis of CA1 and the subiculum. In the remaining fields of the hippocampal formation, that is, the dentate gyrus and CA2/CA3, separation along the transverse axis is not present. By contrast, here the functionally different pathways converge onto the same neuronal population. The entorhinal cortex holds a pivotal position among the cortices that make up the parahippocampal region. By way of the networks of the superficial and deep layers, it mediates, respectively, the input and output streams of the hippocampal formation. Moreover, the intrinsic entorhinal network, particularly the interconnections between the deep and superficial layers, may mediate the comparison of hippocampal input and output signals. As such, the entorhinal cortex may form part of a novelty detection network. In addition, the organization of the entorhinal-hippocampal network may facilitate the holding of information. Finally, the terminal organization of the presubicular input to the medial entorhinal cortex indicates that the interactions between the deep and superficial entorhinal layers may be influenced by this input.
Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain, Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom. email@example.com
It is common clinical experience that anxiety about pain can exacerbate the pain sensation. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI), we compared activation responses to noxious thermal stimulation while perceived pain intensity was manipulated by changes in either physical intensity or induced anxiety. One visual signal, which reliably predicted noxious stimulation of moderate intensity, came to evoke low anxiety about the impending pain. Another visual signal was followed by the same, moderate-intensity stimulation on most of the trials, but occasionally by discriminably stronger noxious stimuli, and came to evoke higher anxiety. We found that the entorhinal cortex of the hippocampal formation responded differentially to identical noxious stimuli, dependent on whether the perceived pain intensity was enhanced by pain-relevant anxiety. During this emotional pain modulation, entorhinal responses predicted activity in closely connected, affective (perigenual cingulate), and intensity coding (mid-insula) areas. Our finding suggests that accurate preparatory information during medical and dental procedures alleviates pain by disengaging the hippocampus. It supports the proposal that during anxiety, the hippocampal formation amplifies aversive events to prime behavioral responses that are adaptive to the worst possible outcome.
Department of Psychology, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA. Rebecca_Burwell@Brown.edu
The parahippocampal region, as defined in this review, comprises the cortical regions that surround the rodent hippocampus including the perirhinal, postrhinal, and entorhinal cortices. The comparable regions in the primate brain are the perirhinal, parahippocampal, and entorhinal cortices. The perirhinal and postrhinal/parahippocampal cortices provide the major polysensory input to the hippocampus through their entorhinal connections and are the recipients of differing combinations of sensory information. The differences in the perirhinal and postrhinal cortical afferentation have important functional implications, in part, because these two regions project with different terminal patterns to the entorhinal cortex. The perirhinal cortex projects preferentially to the lateral entorhinal area (LEA), and the postrhinal cortex projects preferentially to the medial entorhinal area (MEA) and the caudal portion of LEA. Although the perirhinal and postrhinal cortices provide the major cortical input to the entorhinal cortex, the entorhinal cortex itself receives some direct cortical input. An examination of the cortical afferentation of the entorhinal cortex reveals an interesting principle of connectivity among these regions; the composition of the direct neocortical input to the LEA is more similar to that of the perirhinal cortex, and the composition of the direct neocortical input to the MEA is more similar to that of the postrhinal cortex. Thus, polymodal associational input to the LEA and the MEA exhibits some segregation and is organized in parallel. The organization of intrinsic connections for each of the parahippocampal regions also contributes to the segregation of information into parallel pathways.
Department of Psychology and Neurosciences Program, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-2130, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Recognition decisions can be based on familiarity, the sense that an item was encountered previously (item memory), and on recollection, the conscious recovery of contextual information surrounding a previous encounter with the item (e.g., source memory). Recognition with recollection is thought to depend on multiple mechanisms, including prefrontal "control" processes that guide retrieval and recapitulation mechanisms that reactivate posterior neocortical representations that were present at encoding. However, uncertainty remains regarding the precise nature of prefrontal contributions to recollection and the selectivity of recapitulation to veridical recollection. The present event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study sought to examine whether regions showing "old-new" effects support processes sensitive to recollection success or recollection attempt and whether recapitulation of neocortical representations emerge during veridical recollection as well as during false recognition (i.e., false alarms) or whether false recognition resembles familiarity-based responding. Results revealed that multiple left prefrontal cortical regions were engaged during attempts to recollect previous contextual (source) details, regardless of the nature of the to-be-recollected details and of source recollection outcome (successful vs unsuccessful). Recapitulation effects were observed in regions sensitive to the encoding task, suggesting that veridical recollection entails the reactivation of processes or representations present during encoding. Importantly, in contrast to leading models of recognition memory, false alarms also appeared to be based partially on recollection, as revealed through false recapitulation effects. Implications for neural and cognitive models of recognition are considered.
Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute and Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. email@example.com
Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the role of medial temporal regions during active maintenance of information over short delays or working memory. In experiment 1, we observed sustained bilateral hippocampal activation during maintenance of novel faces across a short delay period but not during face encoding or recognition. In contrast, we observed transient right parahippocampal activation during encoding and recognition but not during maintenance. We replicated these findings in experiment 2 and further determined that anterior hippocampal activation was greater during maintenance of novel than familiar faces. Our results reveal the importance of medial temporal lobe regions for the active maintenance of novel information in the absence of perceptual stimulation.
Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, Institute of Neurology, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom. firstname.lastname@example.org
The precise contribution of perirhinal cortex to human episodic memory is uncertain. Human intracranial recordings highlight a role in successful episodic memory encoding, but encoding-related perirhinal activation has not been observed with functional imaging. By adapting functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning parameters to maximize sensitivity to medial temporal lobe activity, we demonstrate that left perirhinal and hippocampal responses during word list encoding are greater for subsequently recalled than forgotten words. Although perirhinal responses predict memory for all words, successful encoding of initial words in a list, demonstrating a primacy effect, is associated with parahippocampal and anterior hippocampal activation. We conclude that perirhinal cortex and hippocampus participate in successful memory encoding. Encoding-related parahippocampal and anterior hippocampal responses for initial, remembered words most likely reflects enhanced attentional orienting to these positionally distinctive items.
Department of Psychology, Center for Neural Science, 6 Washington Place, Meyer Building, Room 866B, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA. email@example.com
Recent functional imaging work supports the view that item and relational memory depend upon distinct encoding operations within the medial temporal lobe. Specifically, emerging findings demonstrate that the level of engagement of perirhinal cortex predicts later memory for individual items, whereas the level of hippocampal processing correlates with later relational memory, or recovery of additional episodic details. Furthermore, recent functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence in humans suggests that medial temporal lobe cortical input structures, the perirhinal and posterior parahippocampal cortices, differentially participate in the encoding of objects and their context, providing domain-specific input to the hippocampus. Taken together, these data help to construct a working model of how distinct medial temporal lobe structures participate in episodic memory formation with domain-general relational binding mechanisms supported by the hippocampus and provide emerging evidence for domain-specificity within the perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices.