Entamoeba :: classification
Development of a thermostabilized, one-step, nested, tetraplex PCR assay for simultaneous identification and differentiation of Entamoeba species, Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar from stool samples.
Phiaw Chong Foo, Yean Yean Chan, Wei Cun See Too, Zi Ning Tan, Weng Kin Wong, Pattabhiraman Lalitha, Boon Huat Lim
School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
Entamoeba histolytica is the only Entamoeba species that causes amoebiasis in humans. Approximately 50 million people are infected, with 100, 000 deaths annually in endemic countries. Molecular diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica is important to differentiate it from the morphologically identical Entamoeba dispar to avoid unnecessary medication. Conventional molecular diagnostic tests require trained personnel, cold-chain transportation and/or are storage-dependent, which make them user-unfriendly. The aim of this study was to develop a thermostabilized, one-step, nested, tetraplex PCR assay for the detection of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba species in cold-chain-free and ready-to-use form. The PCR test was designed based on the Entamoeba small subunit rRNA (SSU-rRNA) gene, which detects the presence of any Entamoeba species, and simultaneously can be used to differentiate Entamoeba histolytica from Entamoeba dispar. In addition, a pair of primers was designed to serve as an internal amplification control to help identify inhibitors in the samples. All PCR reagents together with the designed primers were thermostabilized by lyophilization and were stable at 24 °C for at least 6 months. The limit of detection of the tetraplex PCR was found to be 39 pg DNA or 1000 cells for Entamoeba histolytica and 78 pg DNA or 1000 cells for Entamoeba dispar, and the specificity was 100 %. In conclusion, this cold-chain-free, thermostabilized, one-step, nested, multiplex PCR assay was found to be efficacious in differentiating Entamoeba histolytica from other non-pathogenic Entamoeba species.
Most cited papers:
A redescription of Entamoeba histolytica Schaudinn, 1903 (Emended Walker, 1911) separating it from Entamoeba dispar Brumpt, 1925.
Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.
Explaining the low incidence of invasive disease (10%) in humans infected with Entamoeba histolytica has occupied the attention of generations of both clinical and nonclinical investigators. One possible explanation would be the existence of two morphologically identical species-one an invasive pathogen, the other noninvasive. This was first proposed by Brumpt in 1925, but his explanation was virtually ignored until 1978 when the first of several publications appeared suggesting that E. histolytica did indeed consist of two species. We have reexamined Brumpt's claim in light of recent biochemical, immunological and genetic studies and conclude that the data derived from these investigations provide unequivocal evidence supporting his hypothesis. With this in mind, we redescribe the invasive parasite retaining the name Entamoeba histolytica Schaudinn, 1903 (Emended Walker, 1911), and set it apart from the noninvasive parasite described by Brumpt, Entamoeba dispar Brumpt, 1925.
The analysis of 100 genes supports the grouping of three highly divergent amoebae: Dictyostelium, Entamoeba, and Mastigamoeba.
Eric Bapteste, Henner Brinkmann, Jennifer A Lee, Dorothy V Moore, Christoph W Sensen, Paul Gordon, Laure Duruflé, Terry Gaasterland, Philippe Lopez, Miklós Müller, Hervé Philippe
Unité Mixte de Recherche 7622 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université Paris 6, 9 Quai Saint Bernard, Bât C, 75005 Paris, France.
The phylogenetic relationships of amoebae are poorly resolved. To address this difficult question, we have sequenced 1,280 expressed sequence tags from Mastigamoeba balamuthi and assembled a large data set containing 123 genes for representatives of three phenotypically highly divergent major amoeboid lineages: Pelobionta, Entamoebidae, and Mycetozoa. Phylogenetic reconstruction was performed on approximately 25,000 aa positions for 30 species by using maximum-likelihood approaches. All well-established eukaryotic groups were recovered with high statistical support, validating our approach. Interestingly, the three amoeboid lineages strongly clustered together in agreement with the Conosa hypothesis [as defined by T. Cavalier-Smith (1998) Biol. Rev. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 73, 203-266]. Two amitochondriate amoebae, the free-living Mastigamoeba and the human parasite Entamoeba, formed a significant sister group to the exclusion of the mycetozoan Dictyostelium. This result suggested that a part of the reductive process in the evolution of Entamoeba (e.g., loss of typical mitochondria) occurred in its free-living ancestors. Applying this inexpensive expressed sequence tag approach to many other lineages will surely improve our understanding of eukaryotic evolution.
Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892.
A small number of Entamoeba isolates from humans, the best known of which is the 'Laredo' strain, have the ability to grow at room temperature. This peculiarity, along with other characteristics, distinguishes the strains from the human pathogen E. histolytica despite their being morphologically inseparable. In contrast, these 'E. histolytica-like' strains share several features with E. moshkovskii, which is most frequently isolated from polluted water. To examine the taxonomic relationships among these morphologically similar organisms, we have used polymerase chain reaction amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis,'riboprinting'. The results clearly show that the 'E. histolytica-like' amoebae are indeed strains of E. moshkovskii, and not closely related to E. histolytica.
Rapid diagnosis of Entamoeba infection by using Entamoeba and Entamoeba histolytica stool antigen detection kits.
International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Humans are infected by two morphologically identical species of Entamoeba: Entamoeba histolytica causes amebic colitis and liver abscess, and Entamoeba dispar is noninvasive. Several weeks of culture and isoenzyme (zymodeme) analysis are required to differentiate E. histolytica from E. dispar. Here we report a field trial of commercial antigen detection kits designed to rapidly detect and differentiate E. histolytica from E. dispar in stool specimens. Stool specimens from 202 patients with diarrhea were examined for E. histolytica and E. dispar by microscopy, culture, and antigen detection. Compared with culture, microscopic identification of the E. histolytica-E. dispar complex was 60% sensitive and 79% specific, while the screening antigen detection test for the E. histolytica-E. dispar complex was 80% sensitive and 99% specific. Differentiation of E. dispar from E. histolytica by the E. histolytica-specific test was 95% sensitive and 93% specific compared with zymodeme analysis. We conclude that the antigen detection test for the E. histolytica-E. dispar complex is more sensitive and specific than microscopy and that the E. histolytica-specific antigen detection test is as reliable and much more rapid than zymodeme analysis for the differentiation of E. histolytica from E. dispar.
Department of Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Etlik, Ankara 06018, Turkey.
The detection of Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amebiasis, is an important goal of the clinical microbiology laboratory. To assess the scope of E. histolytica infection, it is necessary to utilize accurate diagnostic tools. As more is discovered about the molecular and cell biology of E. histolytica, there is great potential for further understanding the pathogenesis of amebiasis. Molecular biology-based diagnosis may become the technique of choice in the future because establishment of these protozoa in culture is still not a routine clinical laboratory process. In all cases, combination of serologic tests with detection of the parasite (by antigen detection or PCR) offers the best approach to diagnosis, while PCR techniques remain impractical in many developing country settings. The detection of amebic markers in serum in patients with amebic colitis and liver abscess appears promising but is still only a research tool. On the other hand, stool antigen detection tests offer a practical, sensitive, and specific way for the clinical laboratory to detect intestinal E. histolytica. All the current tests suffer from the fact that the antigens detected are denatured by fixation of the stool specimen, limiting testing to fresh or frozen samples.
Molecular phylogeny of the free-living archezoan Trepomonas agilis and the nature of the first eukaryote.
Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
We have sequenced the small ribosomal subunit RNA gene of the diplozoan Trepomonas agilis. This provides the first molecular information on a free-living archezoan. We have performed a phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood, parsimony, and distance methods for all available nearly complete archezoan small subunit ribosomal RNA genes and for representatives of all major groups of more advanced eukaryotes (metakaryotes). These show Diplozoa as the earliest-diverging eukaryotic lineage, closely followed by microsporidia. Trepomonas proves to be much more closely related to Hexamita, and, to a lesser degree, to Spironucleus, than to Giardia. The close relationship between the free-living Trepomonas on our trees and the parasites Hexamita inflata and Spironucleus refutes the idea that the early divergence of the amitochondrial Archezoa is an artefact caused by parasitism. The deep molecular divergence between the three phagotrophic genera with two cytostomes (Hexamita, Trepomonas, Spironucleus) and the saprotrophic Giardia that lacks cytostomes is in keeping with the classical evidence for a fundamental difference in the symmetry of the cytoskeleton between the two groups. We accordingly separate the two groups as two orders: Distomatida for those with two cytostomes/cytopharynxes and Giardiida ord. nov. for Giardia and Octomitus that lack these, and divide each order into two families. We suggest that this fundamental divergence in manner of feeding and in the symmetry of the cytoskeleton evolved in a free-living diplozoan very early indeed in the evolution of the eukaryotic cell, possibly very soon after the origin of the diplokaryotic state (having two nuclei linked together firmly by the cytoskeleton) and before the evolution of parasitism by distomatids and giardiids, which may have colonized animal guts independently. We discuss the possible relationship between the two archezoan phyla (Metamonada and Microsporidia) and the nature of the first eukaryotic cell in the light of our results and other recent molecular data.
Joerg Blessmann, Pham Van Linh, Phuong Anh Ton Nu, Hao Duong Thi, Bertram Muller-Myhsok, Heidrun Buss, Egbert Tannich
Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany.
The recent identification of Entamoeba dispar as a separate species, which is nonpathogenic for humans but morphologically indistinguishable from Entamoeba histolytica, has prompted the World Health Organization to recommend reinforced efforts for reassessment of the epidemiology of amebiasis and, in particular, of E. histolytica. In this regard, the distribution of amebic liver abscess (ALA) cases were analyzed in the province of Thua Thien Hué (TT Hué) in central Vietnam, a region known for its high incidence of invasive amebiasis. In addition, in a particular area of Hué City, a parasitologic and seroepidemiologic survey was performed to identify possible risk factors for transmission of E. histolytica. Based on the analysis of hospital charts from April 1990 to April 1998, 2,031 cases of ALA were identified, indicating an ALA incidence of at least 21 per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Incidence varied substantially between the various districts of TT Hué and directly correlated with population density. The risk for ALA was significantly higher in summer and was age and sex dependent because 95% of the cases were adults, of which more than 80% were males. There was no clustering of cases within households and recurrent cases of ALA occured more frequently than predicted in the study population. Despite the higher incidence of ALA in males, the parasitologic and seroepidemiologic survey revealed a significant higher infection rate for intestinal protozoon parasites, including E. histolytica in females. Besides level of education and access to a toilet or tapwater, use of river water was identified as an important risk factor for E. histolytica infection.
Intraspecific variation and phylogenetic relationships in the genus Entamoeba as revealed by riboprinting.
Laboratory of Parastitic Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. g.clark@Ishtm.ac.uk
Eighty-seven isolates of amebae assigned to the genus Entamoeba have been studied by riboprinting (restriction enzyme polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA genes). Twenty-four distinct patterns were obtained, most of which corresponded to previously described species. In three species (Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba gingivalis and Entamoeba moshkovskii) intraspecific variation was detected that led to the grouping of isolates into 'ribodemes'(populations of amebae that share the same riboprint pattern). The riboprint data were used to estimate genetic distances among and within species for the construction of phylogenetic trees based on parsimony and distance analyses. The trees obtained with the two methods are largely congruent. In some cases the estimated distances between species were greater than the upper limit recommended for the fragment comigration method of analysis indicating unusually deep branches within this genus. However, it appears that those species producing cysts with eight nuclei, those producing cysts with one nucleus, and those producing cysts with four nuclei form morphologically based groups that are supported by the riboprint data. The oral parasite Entamoeba gingivalis, which does not encyst, clusters with the third group indicating secondary loss of this ability.
Real-time PCR for detection and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar in fecal samples.
Joerg Blessmann, Heidrun Buss, Phuong A Ton Nu, Binh T Dinh, Quynh T Viet Ngo, An Le Van, Mohamed D Abd Alla, Terry F H G Jackson, Jonathan I Ravdin, Egbert Tannich
Department of Molecular Parasitology, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany.
A closed-tube, real-time PCR assay was developed for sensitive and specific detection and differentiation of the two closely related intestinal protozoan parasites Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar directly from human feces. The assay is performed with the LightCycler system using fluorescence-labeled detection probes and primers amplifying a 310-bp fragment from the high-copy-number, ribosomal DNA-containing ameba episome. The assay was able to detect as little as 0.1 parasite per g of feces. The two pairs of primers used were specific for the respective ameba species, and results were not influenced by the presence of other Entamoeba species even when present in exceeding amounts. PCR was evaluated using several hundred stool samples from areas of amebiasis endemicity in Vietnam and South Africa, and results were compared with those of microscopy and ameba culture. PCR was found to be significantly more sensitive than microscopy or culture, as all samples positive by microscopy and 22 out of 25 (88%) samples positive by culture were also positive by PCR, but PCR revealed a considerable number of additional E. histolytica- or E. dispar-positive samples. Compared to culture and subsequent ameba differentiation by isoenzyme analysis, PCR was 100% specific for each of the two Entamoeba species. Interestingly, the comparison with PCR revealed that culture, in particular, underestimates E. histolytica infections. Given the high sensitivity and specificity of the developed PCR assay, the inability of microscopy to distinguish between the two ameba species, and the time it takes to culture and subsequently differentiate entamoebae by isoenzyme analysis, this assay is more suitable than microscopy or culture to correctly diagnose intestinal E. histolytica or E. dispar infection.