Latest papers on Phyllanthus emblica, chemistry
Pharm Biol. 2012 Apr ;50 (4):497-505 22133060
Influence of Emblica officinalis aqueous extract on growth and antioxidant defense system of human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).
Bioscience Group, Unilever Research Centre, Whitefield, Bengaluru, India.
CONTEXT Amla [Emblica officinalis Gaertn.(Euphorbiaceae)], a major constituent of several herbal formulations, is a well-known hepatoprotectant. Despite its extensive use, mechanistic understanding of its antioxidant action is rather limited. OBJECTIVE In the current study, we investigated the effects of E. officinalis extracts (from dried fruits) on cellular oxidative state using a hepatocyte cell line (HepG2). We hypothesize that E. officinalis aqueous extracts have potency to modulate basal oxidative markers and enhance endogenous antioxidant defenses. MATERIALS AND METHODS Cells were incubated with aqueous extracts of E. officinalis (1-100 μg/ml) for varied time points (4-24 h) and biochemical markers of oxidative stress were determined in cell lysate. DISCUSSION Aqueous extracts of E. officinalis at 100 μg/ml can significantly modulate the basal levels of oxidative markers and enhance antioxidant defenses of the cells. CONCLUSIONS Our findings clearly indicate the propensity of E. officinalis aqueous extracts to improve endogenous antioxidant defenses in HepG2 cells. Although further studies are required to assess their efficacy under experimentally induced oxidative, our data suggest that the hepatoprotective effects of E. officinalis reported earlier may be largely due to its potential to enhance the antioxidant defenses in vivo. RESULTS Because E. officinalis up to 100 μg/ml concentrations had no effect on cell viability; it was considered noncytotoxic. Incubation with E. officinalis for 24 h resulted in significant diminution in the levels of lipid hydroperoxide (18-42%) and reactive oxygen species (11-29%). Furthermore; E. officinalis increased the levels of glutathione (GSH; 18-32%); antioxidant capacity (19-31%); and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase; 25-41%; catalase; 39-50%; GSH peroxidase; 20-35%; GSH reductase; 26-35%; and GSH S-transferase; 12-30%).
Comparative study of antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of methanolic and aqueous extracts of the fruit of Emblica officinalis against pathogenic bacteria.
Institute of Applied Medicines & Research, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.
OBJECTIVE To investigate antimicrobial potential of aqueous (infusions, decoctions) and methanlic extracts (1:2 and 1:5 concentrations) of Emblica officinalis (amla) against seven pathogenic bacteria namely Staphylococcs aureus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus cloacae, Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumoniae. METHODS The well diffusion technique was employed. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using micro-broth dilution methods and phytochemical screening was done as per standard procedures. RESULTS Aqueous infusion extract of amla exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against E. cloacae followed by E. coli. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of E. officinalis aqueous extracts (infusions and decoctions) only showed presence of tannins, saponins, flavanoids, Terpenoids and phenols. MIC of aqueous extract of E. officinalis was most active against K. pneumoniae. Whereas MIC of methanol extract of E. officinalis shows maximum activity against E. coli. CONCLUSION Emblica officinalis definitely possesses potent antimicrobial activities and this can serve as an important platform for the development of inexpensive, safe and effective medicines
Hydroalcoholic extract of Emblica officinalis protects against kainic acid-induced status epilepticus in rats: evidence for an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective intervention.
Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
CONTEXT Emblica officinalis (Euphorbiaceae), commonly known as amla, is traditionally used for central nervous system (CNS) disorders. OBJECTIVE In the present study, the effect of standardized hydroalcoholic extract of E. officinalis fruit (HAEEO), an Indian medicinal plant with potent antioxidant activity, was studied against kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures, cognitive deficits and on markers of oxidative stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS Rats were administered KA (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and observed for behavioral changes, incidence, and latency of convulsions over 4 h. The rats were thereafter sacrificed for estimation of oxidative stress parameters: thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and glutathione (GSH). The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was also determined in the rat brain. RESULTS Pretreatment with HAEEO (500 and 700 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly (P < 0.001) increased the latency of seizures as compared with the vehicle-treated KA group. HAEEO significantly prevented the increase in TBARS levels and ameliorated the fall in GSH. Furthermore, HAEEO dose-dependently attenuated the KA-induced increase in the TNF-α level in the brain. HAEEO also significantly improved the cognitive deficit induced by KA, as evidenced by increased latency in passive avoidance task. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION HAEEO at the dose of 700 mg/kg, i.p., was most effective in suppressing KA-induced seizures, cognitive decline, and oxidative stress in the brain. These neuroprotective effects may be due to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of HAEEO.
In vitro anti-oxidant activity, fluorescence quenching study and structural features of carbohydrate polymers from Phyllanthus emblica.
Natural Products Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, The University of Burdwan, India.
The water-extracted carbohydrate polymers (WE) of Phyllanthus emblica are analyzed using chemical, chromatographic, and spectroscopic methods. Anion-exchange-chromatography of WE yielded four fractions (F1-F4) with different chemical compositions and all of them contain phenolics. The major fraction F4 possesses 50% polysaccharide and 26% phenol, and is a glycoconjugate. The antioxidant capacities of WE and F4 are comparable to standard anti-oxidants. Notably, activities of F1-F4 correlate with their phenol content. Evidence for the complexation of F4 with bovine serum albumin is presented by fluorescence quenching measurement. The results also indicate conformational change of protein at high carbohydrate polymer concentration.
Antiviral activity and possible mechanisms of action of pentagalloylglucose (PGG) against influenza A virus.
Ge Liu, Sheng Xiong, Yang-Fei Xiang, Chao-Wan Guo, Feng Ge, Chong-Ren Yang, Ying-Jun Zhang, Yi-Fei Wang, Kaio Kitazato
Division of Molecular Pharmacology of Infectious agents, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-14 Bunkyo-machi, Nagasaki, Nagasaki, 852-8521, Japan.
Influenza A virus (IAV) infection is a major public health threat leading to significant morbidity and mortality. The emergence of drug-resistant virus strains highlights the urgent need to develop novel antiviral drugs with alternative modes of action. Pentagalloylglucose (PGG), a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound, possesses a broad spectrum of biological activities. In this study, we found that PGG has anti-influenza-virus activity, and investigated its possible mechanism(s) of action in vitro. Both pre-incubation of virus prior to infection and post-exposure of infected cells with PGG significantly inhibited virus yields. Influenza-virus-induced hemagglutination of chicken red blood cells was inhibited by PGG treatment, suggesting that PGG can inhibit IAV infection by interacting with the viral hemagglutinin. PGG did not affect viral protein synthesis or nuclear transport of viral nucleoprotein (NP) but greatly reduced plasma membrane accumulation of NP protein at the late stage of the replication cycle. Furthermore, PGG significantly reduced virus budding and progeny virus release from infected cells. This study revealed for the first time that PGG can inhibit IAV replication with a dual mode of action and offers new insights into its underlying mechanisms of antiviral action.
Father Muller Medical College, Kankanady, Mangalore, Karnataka, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
Emblica officinalis Gaertn. or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, commonly known as Indian gooseberry or amla, is arguably the most important medicinal plant in the Indian traditional system of medicine, the Ayurveda. Various parts of the plant are used to treat a range of diseases, but the most important is the fruit. The fruit is used either alone or in combination with other plants to treat many ailments such as common cold and fever; as a diuretic, laxative, liver tonic, refrigerant, stomachic, restorative, alterative, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, hair tonic; to prevent peptic ulcer and dyspepsia, and as a digestive. Preclinical studies have shown that amla possesses antipyretic, analgesic, antitussive, antiatherogenic, adaptogenic, cardioprotective, gastroprotective, antianemia, antihypercholesterolemia, wound healing, antidiarrheal, antiatherosclerotic, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and neuroprotective properties. In addition, experimental studies have shown that amla and some of its phytochemicals such as gallic acid, ellagic acid, pyrogallol, some norsesquiterpenoids, corilagin, geraniin, elaeocarpusin, and prodelphinidins B1 and B2 also possess antineoplastic effects. Amla is also reported to possess radiomodulatory, chemomodulatory, chemopreventive effects, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and immunomodulatory activities, properties that are efficacious in the treatment and prevention of cancer. This review for the first time summarizes the results related to these properties and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its activity and utility as a cancer preventive and therapeutic drug in humans.
In vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of water extracts of Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia bellerica.
Khosit Pinmai, Wanwarang Hiriote, Noppamas Soonthornchareonnon, Krisada Jongsakul, Seewaboon Sireeratawong, Siripen Tor-Udom
Division of Microbiology, Department of Preclinical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, Thailand. email@example.com
To evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activity and the cytotoxicity of Phyllanthus emblica Linn, Terminalia chebula Retz, and Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn) Roxb extracts. Standard phytochemical screening tests were used to detect metabolites in the plant extract. The water extracts of medicinal plants were tested for their antiplasmodial activity in vitro by assessing their ability to inhibit the uptake of [3H] hypoxanthine into the Plasmodium falciparum K1 multidrug-resistant strain. Cytotoxicity of all extracts was determined on Vero cell line. The in vivo antiplasmodial activity in Plasmodium berghei infected mice was evaluated by the standard 4-day suppressive test. Phytochemical screening of the water extracts of three plants revealed the presence of flavonoids, hydrolysable tannins, saponin and terpenes. All plant extracts showed antimalarial activity (IC50 values ranging from 14.33 +/- 0.25-15.41 +/- 0.61 microg/ml). The water extract of Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn) Roxb had the highest in vitro antiplasmodial activity followed by Phyllanthus emblica Linn. and Terminalia chebula Retz. The cytotoxic activity was exhibited by all plant extracts on Vero cells with IC50 values of 157.86 to 238.70 mg/ml. All of the plant extracts showed selectivity with the selectivity index (SI) ranged from 11 to 17. A standard 4-day suppressive test on P. berghei infected mice was used to evaluate the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of the extracts at 250 mg/kg/day. The results revealed that in vivo antiplasmodial activity with good suppression activity ranged from 53.40% to 69.46%. All of the plant extracts exhibited interesting in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activity with good selectivity.
Progallin A isolated from the acetic ether part of the leaves of Phyllanthus emblica L. induces apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7404 cells by up-regulation of Bax expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression.
Center of Research & Development of New Drugs, Guangxi Traditional Chinese Medical University, Nanning 530001, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.
AIM OF THE STUDY This study was aimed to investigate the effects of Progallin A isolated from the acetic ether part of the leaves of Phyllanthus emblica L. on apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7404 cells and its possible mechanisms, and to measure the immune toxicity of Progallin A in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS Progallin A was isolated from the acetic ether part of the leaves of Phyllanthus emblica L. with column chromatography. The proliferation of spleen lymphocytes and the viability of BEL-7404 cells were assessed with MTT assay. Inverted microscope, light microscope and fluorescence microscope were utilized to observe the morphological changes of BEL-7404 cells respectively. AnnexinV/PI double labeling and TUNEL assay were used to detect early apoptosis and DNA fragmentations of BEL-7404 cells respectively. In addition, cell cycle distribution was analyzed by using flow cytometry (FCM). Bax and Bcl-2 protein levels were determined by immunofluorescence staining and western blot respectively. RESULTS The results showed that Progallin A had low immune toxicity and the proliferation of BEL-7404 cells was strongly inhibited by Progallin A in a time- and dose-dependent manner and that the characteristics of apoptosis of BEL-7404 cells were observed. The results also showed that apoptosis rates and the number of apoptotic cells significantly increased with prolongation of the action time. The results of flow cytometry (FCM) indicated that Progallin A induced significant G1/M and G2/M arrest of BEL-7404 cells. Immunofluorescence staining and western blot showed that the expression of Bax was found to be noticeably up-regulated and the expression of Bcl-2 was down-regulated significantly. CONCLUSIONS These results indicate that Progallin A has low immune toxicity in vitro and induces apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7404 cells which is related to the G1/M and G2/M arrest, and it exerts its apoptotic effect by up-regulation of Bax expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression.
Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Canal Road, Jammu Tawi 180001, Jammu and Kashmir India.
Comparative study of the antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging properties in the extracts of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis.
Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12 CIT Scheme VIIM, Kolkata-700054, India.
Antinociceptive property of Emblica officinalis Gaertn (Amla) in high fat diet-fed/low dose streptozotocin induced diabetic neuropathy in rats.
Department of Pharmacology, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy,# 5, Sarjapur road, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
Diabetic neuropathic pain is an important microvascular complication in diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress plays a vital role in associated neural and vascular complications. The present study investigated flavonoid rich fruit extract (ethyl acetate:methanol fraction) of E. officinalis (10 mg/kg), in type II diabetes (high fat diet fed/low dose streptozotocin) induced diabetic neuropathy in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Diabetic rats exhibited a significant hyperalgesia (nociception) as compared to control rats. Treatment with E. officinalis extract (EOE) and quercetin in diabetic rats showed significant increase in tail flick latency in hot immersion test and pain threshold level in hot plate test compared to control rats. The changes in lipid peroxidation status and anti-oxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) levels observed in diabetic rats were significantly restored by E. officinalis extract and quercetin treatment. Both, E. officinalis extract and quercetin attenuated diabetic induced axonal degeneration. The study provides experimental evidence of the preventive and curative effect of E. officinalis on nerve function and oxidative stress in animal model of diabetic neuropathy. Since, E. officinalis fruit is already in clinical use for diabetic patients it may be evaluated for preventive therapy in diabetic patients at risk of developing neuropathy.
Department of Pharmacy, School of Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Banani, Dhaka-1213, Bangladesh.
Alkaloids are important sources of drug that's why we have conducted our research to find out the biological activity of the alkaloids of a plant that is the Amlaki. Alkaloids were extracted from the methanolic extract of the fresh ripe fruits of Amlaki (Emblica officinalis) through solvent-solvent partitioning method with n-hexane and chloroform. The chloroform soluble fraction of the crude methanolic extract of the ripe fruits of Amlaki containing alkaloids was subjected to antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp lethality bioassay for observing cytotoxic activity. The chloroform soluble fraction of the methanolic extract exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against some Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria and strong cytotoxicity having a LC50 of 10.257 +/- 0.770 microg mL(-1). It is concluded that the chloroform soluble fraction of the ripe fruits of Amlaki containing alkaloids are biologically active.
[The effect of gallic acid extracted from leaves of Phyllanthus emblica on apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7404 cells].
Zhen-Guo Zhong, Jin-Lan Huang, Hong Liang, Yi-Ning Zhong, Wen-Yan Zhang, Deng-Pan Wu, Chun-Lan Zeng, Jin-Sheng Wang, Yong-Han Wei
Guangxi Traditional Chinese Medical University, Nanning 530001, China. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE To explore the effect of gallic acid extracted from Leaves of Phyllanthus emblica on the apoptosis of BEL-7404 cells. METHODS MTT assay was applied to detect the influence on prolifetation in vitro. Inverted microscope was utilized to observe the morphological changes after BEL-7404 cells were treated with gallic acid. Annexin V/PI double label method was used to detect earlier period apoptosis cells and Tunel was applied to calculate the apoptosis rates. RESULTS Gallic acid could restrain the BEL-7404 cells proliferation at diffierent levels in a time and concentration dependent manner. The typical morphological changes of apoptosis were observed after BEL-7404 cells were treated with gallic acid. Annexin V/PI double label method and Tunel method showed that the viable apoptotic cell and apoptosis rates added as action time prolonged. CONCLUSION Gallic acid can restrain the BEL-7404 cells proliferation and induce apoptosis, and its effect on apoptosis is time dependent.
Roberta Piva, Letizia Penolazzi, Monica Borgatti, Ilaria Lampronti, Elisabetta Lambertini, Elena Torreggiani, Roberto Gambari
BioPharmaNet, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ferrara University, Ferrara, Italy.
Osteoclasts (OCs) are involved in several pathologies associated with bone loss, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, bone metastasis of myeloma, osteosarcoma, and breast cancer. In this review we determined the effects of natural compounds, including extracts from medicinal plants, on differentiation and survival of human primary OCs obtained from peripheral blood. We found that OCs from umbilical cord blood and peripheral blood behave differently in response to molecules inducing apoptosis in this experimental system. Apoptosis induced by decoy oligonucleotides was reproducibly obtained in OCs from peripheral blood but not in OCs derived from cord blood. With respect to effects of medicinal plants, we found that crude extracts of Emblica officinalis are able to induce specifically programmed cell death of mature OCs without altering the process of osteoclastogenesis. E. officinalis specifically increased the expression levels of Fas, a critical member of the apoptotic pathway. Gel shift experiments BioPharmaNet demonstrate that E. officinalis extracts specifically compete with the binding of a transcription factor involved in osteoclastogenesis NF-kappaB to its specific target DNA sequences. This might explain the observed effects of E. officinalis on the expression levels of IL-6, an NF-kappaB-specific target gene. We suggest the application of natural products as an alternative tool for therapy applied to bone diseases.
J Cosmet Sci. ;60 (4):395-403 19691935
Type I pro-collagen promoting and anti-collagenase activities of Phyllanthus emblica extract in mouse fibroblasts.
Pithi Chanvorachote, Varisa Pongrakhananon, Sudjit Luanpitpong, Boontarika Chanvorachote, Sumalee Wannachaiyasit, Ubonthip Nimmannit
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
As part of an ongoing search for the novel pharmacological activities of Phyllanthus emblica, the present study has shown its type I collagen promoting and anti-collagenase effects on primary mouse fibroblast cells. At a concentration of 0.1 mg/ml, emblica extract significantly increased the type I pro-collagen level up to 1.65-fold, and 6.78-fold greater than that of an untreated control, determined by immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis, respectively. Emblica extract caused an approximately 7.75-fold greater type I pro-collagen induction compared to the known herbal collagen enhancer asiaticoside at the same treatment concentration (0.1 mg/ml). Moreover, emblica extract inhibited collagenase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Maximal inhibition was observed (78.67 +/- 3.51%) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. In summary, emblica extract has a promising pharmacological effect that benefits collagen synthesis and protects against its degradation and could be used as a natural anti-aging ingredient.
J Med Food. 2009 Apr ;12 (2):423-8 19459747
College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, The People's Republic of China.
The volatile components and in vitro antimicrobial activities of Emblica (Phyllanthus emblica L.) essential oils (EOs) obtained by hydrodistillation (HD-EO) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE-EO) were investigated. The compositions of volatile compounds in these oils were tentatively determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial activites of these two extracts were investigated with microbiological tests against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and three pathogenic fungi. The main components of both oils were beta-caryophyllene, beta-bourbonene, 1-octen-3-ol, thymol, and methyleugenol. Both essential oils showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against all the tested microorganisms. Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the investigated oils than Gram-negative bacteria. SFE-EO exhibited a higher antifungal activity compared to HD-EO.
Modulatory role of Emblica officinalis fruit extract against arsenic induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.
Department of Zoology, Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India.
Arsenic, an important human toxin, is naturally occurring in groundwater and its accumulation in plants and animals have assumed a menacing proportion in a large part of the world, particularly Asia. Epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between chronic arsenic exposure and various adverse health effects, including cardiovascular diseases, neurological defects and cancer of lung, skin, bladder, liver and kidney. The protective role of the fruits of Emblica officinalis (500 mg/kg b.wt.) was studied in adult Swiss albino mice against arsenic induced hepatopathy. Arsenic treated group (NaAsO(2), 4 mg/kg b.wt.) had a significant increase in serum transaminases and lipid peroxidation (LPO) content in liver, whereas significant decrease was recorded in hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. Combined treatment of Emblica and arsenic (pre and post) declined the serum transaminases and LPO content in liver whereas significant increase was noticed in SOD, CAT, GST and serum alkaline phosphatase activities. Liver histopathology showed that Emblica fruit extract had reduced karyolysis, karyorrhexis, necrosis and cytoplasmic vacuolization induced by NaAsO(2) intoxication. Thus it can be concluded that pre- and post-supplementation of E. officinalis fruit extract significantly reduced arsenic induced oxidative stress in liver.
Effect of Emblica officinalis (Gaertn) on lens regeneration in the frog, Rana cyanophlyctis (Schneider).
Developmental Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Dungar College, Bikaner 334 001, India.
Emblica officinalis (Amla) accelerated cell proliferation and dedifferentiation of pigmented epithelial cells of dorsal iris and consequently induced lens regeneration in R. cyanophlyctis. Further it enhanced the percentage of lens regeneration not only in young tadpoles but also is adult frogs. Lens regeneration ability declined with the age of animals in both control as well as treated groups.
State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650204, People's Republic of China.
Three new norsesquiterpenoid glycosides, 4'-hydroxyphyllaemblicin B (1) and phyllaemblicins E (2) and F (3), were isolated from the roots of Phyllanthus emblica, together with three known compounds, phyllaemblic acid (4), phyllaemblicin B (5), and phyllaemblicin C (6). Of these, 3 is a new norsesquiterpenoid dimer. The structures of 1-3 were established by spectroscopic data information and by acidic hydrolysis. The isolated compounds, together with two other known analogues, phyllaemblic acid methyl ester (7) and phyllaemblicin A (8), were evaluated for their antiviral activity toward coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3) by an in vitro cytopathic effect inhibitory assay. Compounds 5-7 exhibited strong anti-CVB3 activity.
Optimum extraction process of polyphenols from the bark of Phyllanthus emblica L. based on the response surface methodology.
College of Food and Bioengineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China.
Phyllanthus emblica L. is an economic plant used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of various diseases. The bark of P. emblica is rich in polyphenols and its extractions have shown strong antioxidative and radical scavenging activity. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to assess the optimal extraction of polyphenols from P. emblica bark. Various extraction parameters including ethanol concentration, extraction time, temperature, solid-liquid ratio, and extraction times were chosen to identify their effects on polyphenols extraction. Among these parameters, extraction times and solvent concentration were found to have significant effect on polyphenols extraction. RSM was applied to obtain the optimal combination of solvent concentration, extraction time, temperature, and extraction time for maximum rate of extraction. The most suitable condition for the extraction of polyphenols was at ethanol concentration 75%, extraction time 25 min, extraction temperature 45 degrees C, and extraction times 3. At these optimal extraction parameters, the maximum extraction of polyphenols obtained experimentally was found to be very close to its predicted value. The extraction rate of polyphenols was 19.78% at the optimum conditions. The mathematical model developed was found to fit with the experimental data of polyphenols extraction.