Vaccines, Attenuated :: contraindications
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved revised prescribing information and patient labeling from GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals for the monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1, marketed as Rotarix) and revised prescribing information and patient labeling from Merck & Co. for the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5, marketed as RotaTeq) to include history of intussusception as a contraindication. FDA approved the revisions for RV1 in February 2011 and for RV5 in July 2011. In its rotavirus vaccination recommendations, CDC is updating the contraindications for rotavirus vaccine (RV1 and RV5) to include history of intussusception. Previously, CDC had considered history of intussusception a precaution but not a contraindication.
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Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, California 94305-5119, USA. MN.AMA@FORSYTHE.STANFORD.EDU
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous human alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella (chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Varicella is a common childhood illness, characterized by fever, viremia, and scattered vesicular lesions of the skin. As is characteristic of the alphaherpesviruses, VZV establishes latency in cells of the dorsal root ganglia. Herpes zoster, caused by VZV reactivation, is a localized, painful, vesicular rash involving one or adjacent dermatomes. The incidence of herpes zoster increases with age or immunosuppression. The VZV virion consists of a nucleocapsid surrounding a core that contains the linear, double-stranded DNA genome; a protein tegument separates the capsid from the lipid envelope, which incorporates the major viral glycoproteins. VZV is found in a worldwide geographic distribution but is more prevalent in temperate climates. Primary VZV infection elicits immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies, which bind to many classes of viral proteins. Virus-specific cellular immunity is critical for controlling viral replication in healthy and immunocompromised patients with primary or recurrent VZV infections. Rapid laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis of varicella or herpes zoster, which can be accomplished by detecting viral proteins or DNA, is important to determine the need for antiviral therapy. Acyclovir is licensed for treatment of varicella and herpes zoster, and acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir are approved for herpes zoster. Passive antibody prophylaxis with varicella-zoster immune globulin is indicated for susceptible high-risk patients exposed to varicella. A live attenuated varicella vaccine (Oka/Merck strain) is now recommended for routine childhood immunization.
Prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis among infants and children: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).
Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Atlanta GA 30333, USA. email@example.com
Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. Before initiation of the rotavirus vaccination program in the United States in 2006, approximately 80% of U.S. children had rotavirus gastroenteritis by age 5 years. Each year during the 1990s and early 2000s, rotavirus resulted in approximately 410,000 physician visits, 205,000272,000 emergency department visits, and 55,00070,000 hospitalizations among U.S. infants and children, with total annual direct and indirect costs of approximately $1 billion. In February 2006, a live, oral, human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq(R)[RV5]) was licensed as a 3-dose series for use among U.S. infants for the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis, and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended routine use of RV5 among U.S. infants (CDC. Prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis among infants and children: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. MMWR 2006;55[No. RR-12]). In April 2008, a live, oral, human attenuated rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix(R)[RV1]) was licensed as a 2-dose series for use among U.S. infants, and in June 2008, ACIP updated its rotavirus vaccine recommendations to include use of RV1. This report updates and replaces the 2006 ACIP statement for prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis. ACIP recommends routine vaccination of U.S. infants with rotavirus vaccine. RV5 and RV1 differ in composition and schedule of administration. RV5 is to be administered orally in a 3-dose series, with doses administered at ages 2, 4, and 6 months. RV1 is to be administered orally in a 2-dose series, with doses administered at ages 2 and 4 months. ACIP does not express a preference for either RV5 or RV1. The recommendations in this report also address the maximum ages for doses, contraindications, precautions, and special situations for the administration of rotavirus vaccine.
Prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis among infants and children. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).
Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC, 1600 Clifton Rd., NE. MS A-34, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
In February 2006, a live, oral, human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq) was licensed for use among U.S. infants. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends routine vaccination of U.S. infants with 3 doses of this rotavirus vaccine administered orally at ages 2, 4, and 6 months. The first dose should be administered between ages 6-12 weeks. Subsequent doses should be administered at 4-10 week intervals, and all 3 doses should be administered by age 32 weeks. Rotavirus vaccine can be co-administered with other childhood vaccines. Rotavirus vaccine is contraindicated for infants with a serious allergic reaction to any vaccine component or to a previous dose of vaccine.
Influenza vaccination as secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease: a science advisory from the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology.
Matthew M Davis, Kathryn Taubert, Andrea L Benin, David W Brown, George A Mensah, Larry M Baddour, Sandra Dunbar, Harlan M Krumholz
Evidence from cohort studies and a randomized clinical trial indicates that annual vaccination against seasonal influenza prevents cardiovascular morbidity and all-cause mortality in patients with cardiovascular conditions. The American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology recommend influenza immunization with inactivated vaccine (administered intramuscularly) as part of comprehensive secondary prevention in persons with coronary and other atherosclerotic vascular disease (Class I, Level B). Immunization with live, attenuated vaccine (administered intranasally) is not currently recommended [corrected] for persons with cardiovascular conditions. It is important to note that influenza vaccination coverage levels overall and in this population remain well below national goals and are marked by disparities across different age and ethnic groups. One of the barriers to vaccination for patients with cardiovascular disease is that cardiology practices frequently do not stock and administer influenza vaccine. Healthcare providers who treat individuals with cardiovascular disease can help improve influenza vaccination coverage rates by providing and strongly recommending vaccination to their patients before and throughout the influenza season.
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98104.
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major cause of late morbidity and mortality following allogeneic marrow transplantation. The pathogenesis and clinical features of chronic GVHD resemble those of several autoimmune diseases including progressive systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematous, lichen planus, Sjögren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, and primary biliary cirrhosis. Chronic GVHD retards the tempo of immune reconstitution following allogeneic transplantation and is a major risk factor for late infections. Although in vivo immunosuppression and in vitro depletion of T-cells can reduce the incidence of acute GVHD, improved long-term survival free of chronic GVHD has not been observed. Early treatment of multiorgan extensive chronic GVHD with an alternating-day regimen of cyclosporine and prednisone has led to improved disability-free survival. Functional performance of the long-term survivors receiving combination immunosuppressive therapy remained near normal and the incidence of disabling scleroderma has decreased from over 50% to 6%. However, infections remain a frequent cause of morbidity especially in high-risk patients with advanced age, HLA-nonidentical marrow grafts, progressive onset of chronic GVHD and continued thrombocytopenia.
D Kumar, M I Morris, C N Kotton, S A Fischer, M G Michaels, U Allen, E A Blumberg, M Green, A Humar, M G Ison
Transplant Infectious Diseases, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. email@example.com
Novel influenza A/H1N1 virus has caused significant illness worldwide. In response to this global crisis, the American Society of Transplantation (AST) Infectious Diseases Community of Practice and the Transplant Infectious Diseases section of The Transplantation Society (TTS) developed a guidance document for novel H1N1. In this paper, we discuss current guidance for H1N1 as it relates to solid organ transplantation. We include discussion around clinical presentation, diagnosis, therapy and prevention specifically addressing areas such as chemoprophylaxis, immunization and donor-derived infection. Although this document addresses conditions specific to novel H1N1, many principles could be applied to future pandemics. As new information emerges about novel H1N1, updates will be made to the electronic version of the document posted on the websites of the AST and TTS.
A rotavirus vaccine for prevention of severe diarrhoea of infants and young children: development, utilization and withdrawal.
Epidemiology Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20852, USA.
The importance of rotaviruses (RVs) as the single most important cause of severe diarrhoea of infants and young children is well recognized. At NIH, we developed a quadrivalent (tetravalent [TV]) vaccine to protect against the four epidemiologically important RV serotypes. It is comprised of live attenuated rhesus RV (RRV), a VP7 serotype G3 strain (the 'Jennerian' approach), and three reassortant RVs, each containing 10 RRV genes and one human RV gene that codes for the major outer protein, VP7, that determines serotype G1, G2 or G4 specificity (the 'modified Jennerian' approach). The vaccine was safe and effective against severe diarrhoea in a major prelicensure collaborative effort of phase III trials. In February 1998 and again in June 1998, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended routine immunization with three oral doses at 2, 4 and 6 months of age. The tetravalent vaccine (RotaShield) was licensed in the USA by the FDA in August 1998. In July 1999, after about 1.5 million doses had been given, the CDC recommended suspending administration of the vaccine because post-licensure surveillance of adverse events had suggested an association with intussusception. After further investigation by CDC, in October 1999, the ACIP withdrew its recommendation concluding that '...intussusception occurs with significantly increased frequency in the first 1-2 weeks after vaccination with RRV-TV, particularly following the first dose'. The implications of these developments from a practical, epidemiological, analytical and ethical perspective are discussed.
US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Ga 30333.
Most cases of typhoid fever in the United States occur in international travelers, with the greatest risk associated with travel to Peru, India, Pakistan, and Chile. Laboratory workers and household contacts of long-term carriers are also at greater risk than the general population. Decisions to the use typhoid vaccine involve weighing the risk of illness against the risk of vaccine reactions. Until recently, the only typhoid vaccine commercially available to US civilians was a heat-phenol-inactivated parenteral product that is 51% to 77% effective in preventing typhoid fever but frequently produces local pain and swelling, fever, headache, and malaise. A new orally administered, live-attenuated vaccine, made from the Ty21a strain of Salmonella typhi, has been recently licensed in the United States. This vaccine provides equivalent protection with a much lower incidence of adverse reactions. It is administered in a four-dose series given over 7 days. Since neither vaccine offers total protection, the most important elements in prevention of typhoid fever remain sound biosafety precautions in laboratory workers and care in selecting food and beverages by those traveling to areas where typhoid fever is endemic.
Safety of live viral vaccines in patients with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge syndrome/velocardiofacial syndrome).
Division of Allergy and Immunology at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.
The package inserts of live viral vaccines include immunodeficiency as a contraindication. Nevertheless, patients with mild forms of immunodeficiency may benefit from vaccination. No published guidelines exist for the administration of these vaccines specifically to patients with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. This syndrome is also sometimes called DiGeorge syndrome and is associated with thymic hypoplasia and diminished T-cell numbers and has a wide spectrum of phenotypic features that include cardiac anomalies, dysmorphic facial features, and hypocalcemia. Patients generally exhibit a mild to moderate decrement in T-cell numbers with preservation of T-cell function. The aims of this study were to investigate the incidence of side effects after live viral vaccine administration in a population with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. The high frequency of this syndrome in the population (1:3000 children) mandates a greater understanding of the risks and benefits related to live viral vaccine administration. A retrospective analysis of vaccine adverse events was performed. The data acquisition form evaluated the frequency of live vaccine administration and the consequences of both vaccination and withholding the vaccine. Flow cytometric enumeration of T cells was performed as part of an immunologic evaluation. Thirty-two of 59 responders were vaccinated with the varicella vaccine. Only 9% of patients reported adverse events. However, 63% of unvaccinated children developed chickenpox. Comparison of patients who tolerated the vaccine with those who reported adverse events showed no statistically significant differences in current age (7 vs 5.7 years), age at vaccination (3 vs 2.5 years), or T-cell subset counts: CD3 (1951 vs 2083 cells/ microL), CD4 (1283 vs 1463 cells/ microL), and CD8 (530 vs 502 cells/ microL). Fifty-two of 59 responders were vaccinated with measles-mumps-rubella (MMR). Twelve (23%) of 52 reported mild side effects, including fever, rash, and constitutional symptoms. No severe adverse reactions were reported. No patient reported natural disease with measles, mumps, or rubella. There were no statistically significant differences between the T-cell counts in the vaccinated group reporting side effects versus the vaccinated group without side effects (mean CD3 counts: 1928 vs 1736 cells/ microL; CD4 counts: 1250 vs 1127 cells/ microL; and CD8 counts: 528 vs 483 cells/ microL). In our study, patients with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome had a similar incidence of adverse effects with varicella and MMR vaccines compared with that reported in the general population. All side effects were mild. However, in patients who did not receive the varicella vaccine, an overwhelming 63% contracted the disease. Patients who were not vaccinated against MMR did not develop natural disease. The data suggest that this is a cohort of patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome who have tolerated live viral vaccinations without evidence of significant side effects. A prospective study could address whether there are T-cell thresholds below which vaccination is unsafe; however, the information that we present suggests that vaccinating children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion with live viral vaccines does not carry a significantly higher risk of adverse reactions compared with the general population, provided that they have no evidence of severe immunocompromise.