Integrin alphaVbeta3 :: physiology
Circ Res. 2012 Mar 2;110 (5):716-26 22282193
Mitsuo Kinugasa, Hisayuki Amano, Seimi Satomi-Kobayashi, Kazuhiko Nakayama, Muneaki Miyata, Yoshiki Kubo, Yuichi Nagamatsu, Yusuke Kurogane, Fumie Kureha, Shota Yamana, Ken-ichi Hirata, Jun Miyoshi, Yoshimi Takai, Yoshiyuki Rikitake
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan.
RATIONALE Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a major proangiogenic agent, exerts its proangiogenic action by binding to VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), the activity of which is regulated by direct interactions with other cell surface proteins, including integrin α(V)β(3). However, how the interaction between VEGFR2 and integrin α(V)β(3) is regulated is not clear. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether Necl-5/poliovirus receptor, an immunoglobulin-like molecule that is known to bind integrin α(V)β(3), regulates the interaction between VEGFR2 and integrin α(V)β(3), and to clarify the role of Necl-5 in the VEGF-induced angiogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS Necl-5-knockout mice displayed no obvious defect in vascular development; however, recovery of blood flow after hindlimb ischemia and the VEGF-induced neovascularization in implanted Matrigel plugs were impaired in Necl-5-knockout mice. To clarify the mechanism of the regulation of angiogenesis by Necl-5, we investigated the roles of Necl-5 in the VEGF-induced angiogenic responses in vitro. Knockdown of Necl-5 by siRNAs in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) inhibited the VEGF-induced capillary-like network formation on Matrigel, migration, and proliferation, and conversely, enhanced apoptosis. Coimmunoprecipitation assays showed the interaction of Necl-5 with VEGFR2, and knockdown of Necl-5 prevented the VEGF-induced interaction of integrin α(V)β(3) with VEGFR2. Knockdown of Necl-5 suppressed the VEGFR2-mediated activation of downstream proangiogenic and survival signals, including Rap1, Akt, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. CONCLUSIONS These results demonstrate the critical role of Necl-5 in angiogenesis and suggest that Necl-5 may regulate the VEGF-induced angiogenesis by controlling the interaction of VEGFR2 with integrin α(v)β(3), and the VEGFR2-mediated Rap1-Akt signaling pathway.
Most cited papers:
Human tumstatin and human endostatin exhibit distinct antiangiogenic activities mediated by alpha v beta 3 and alpha 5 beta 1 integrins.
Program in Matrix Biology, Department of Medicine and Cancer Center, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
Tumstatin and endostatin are two inhibitors of angiogenesis derived from precursor human collagen molecules known as alpha 3 chain of type IV collagen and alpha1 chain of type XVIII collagen, respectively. Although both these inhibitors are noncollagenous (NC1) domain fragments of collagens, they only share a 14% amino acid homology. In the present study we evaluated the functional receptors, mechanism of action, and intracellular signaling induced by these two collagen-derived inhibitors. Human tumstatin prevents angiogenesis via inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation and promotion of apoptosis with no effect on migration, whereas human endostatin prevents endothelial cell migration with no effect on proliferation. We demonstrate that human tumstatin binds to alpha v beta 3 integrin in a vitronectin/fibronectin/RGD cyclic peptide independent manner, whereas human endostatin competes with fibronectin/RGD cyclic peptide to bind alpha 5 beta 1 integrin. The activity of human tumstatin is mediated by alpha v beta 3 integrin, whereas the activity of human endostatin is mediated by alpha 5 beta 1 integrin. Additionally, although human tumstatin binding to alpha v beta 3 integrin leads to the inhibition of Cap-dependent translation (protein synthesis) mediated by focal adhesion kinase/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mTOR/4E-BP1 pathway, human endostatin binding to alpha 5 beta 1 integrin leads to the inhibition of focal adhesion kinase/c-Raf/MEK1/2/p38/ERK1 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, with no effect on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mTOR/4E-BP1 and Cap-dependent translation. Collectively, such distinct properties of human tumstatin and human endostatin provide the first insight into their diverse antiangiogenic actions and argue for combining them for targeting tumor angiogenesis.
Proinflammatory activities of S100: proteins S100A8, S100A9, and S100A8/A9 induce neutrophil chemotaxis and adhesion.
Infectious Diseases Research Center, Laval University Hospital Center, Sainte-Foy, Quebec, Canada.
S100A8 and S100A9 are small calcium-binding proteins that are highly expressed in neutrophil and monocyte cytosol and are found at high levels in the extracellular milieu during inflammatory conditions. Although reports have proposed a proinflammatory role for these proteins, their extracellular activity remains controversial. In this study, we report that S100A8, S100A9, and S100A8/A9 caused neutrophil chemotaxis at concentrations of 10(-12)-10(-9) M. S100A8, S100A9, and S100A8/A9 stimulated shedding of L-selectin, up-regulated and activated Mac-1, and induced neutrophil adhesion to fibrinogen in vitro. Neutralization with Ab showed that this adhesion was mediated by Mac-1. Neutrophil adhesion was also associated with an increase in intracellular calcium levels. However, neutrophil activation by S100A8, S100A9, and S100A8/A9 did not induce actin polymerization. Finally, injection of S100A8, S100A9, or S100A8/A9 into a murine air pouch model led to rapid, transient accumulation of neutrophils confirming their activities in vivo. These studies 1) show that S100A8, S100A9, and S100A8/A9 are potent stimulators of neutrophils and 2) strongly suggest that these proteins are involved in neutrophil migration to inflammatory sites.
Roberta Faccio, Steven L Teitelbaum, Keiko Fujikawa, Jean Chappel, Alberta Zallone, Victor L Tybulewicz, F Patrick Ross, Wojciech Swat
Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S. Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.
Osteoporosis, a leading cause of morbidity in the elderly, is characterized by progressive loss of bone mass resulting from excess osteoclastic bone resorption relative to osteoblastic bone formation. Here we identify Vav3, a Rho family guanine nucleotide exchange factor, as essential for stimulated osteoclast activation and bone density in vivo. Vav3-deficient osteoclasts show defective actin cytoskeleton organization, polarization, spreading and resorptive activity resulting from impaired signaling downstream of the M-CSF receptor and alpha(v)beta3 integrin. Vav3-deficient mice have increased bone mass and are protected from bone loss induced by systemic bone resorption stimuli such as parathyroid hormone or RANKL. Moreover, we provide genetic and biochemical evidence for the role of Syk tyrosine kinase as a crucial upstream regulator of Vav3 in osteoclasts. Thus, Vav3 is a potential new target for antiosteoporosis therapy.
Department of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.
beta(3) integrin-null osteoclasts are dysfunctional, but their numbers are increased in vivo. In vitro, however, the number of beta(3)(-/-) osteoclasts is reduced because of arrested differentiation. This paradox suggests cytokine regulation of beta(3)(-/-) osteoclastogenesis differs in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, additional MCSF, but not receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL), completely rescues beta(3)(-/-) osteoclastogenesis. Similarly, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and expression of c-Fos, both essential for osteoclastogenesis, are attenuated in beta(3)(-/-) preosteoclasts, but completely restored by additional MCSF. In fact, circulating and bone marrow cell membrane-bound MCSFs are enhanced in beta(3)(-/-) mice, correlating with the increase in the osteoclast number. To identify components of the MCSF receptor that is critical for osteoclastogenesis in beta(3)(-/-) cells, we retrovirally transduced authentic osteoclast precursors with chimeric c-Fms constructs containing various cytoplasmic domain mutations. Normalization of osteoclastogenesis and ERK activation, in beta(3)(-/-) cells, uniquely requires c-Fms tyrosine 697. Finally, like high-dose MCSF, overexpression of c-Fos normalizes the number of beta(3)(-/-) osteoclasts in vitro, but not their ability to resorb dentin. Thus, while c-Fms and alpha(v)beta(3) collaborate in the osteoclastogenic process via shared activation of the ERK/c-Fos signaling pathway, the integrin is essential for matrix degradation.
Pro-angiogenic activities of CYR61 (CCN1) mediated through integrins alphavbeta3 and alpha6beta1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60607-7170, USA.
CYR61 (CCN1) is an extracellular matrix-associated protein of the CCN family, which also includes CTGF (CCN2), NOV (CCN3), WISP-1 (CCN4), WISP-2 (CCN5), and WISP-3 (CCN6). Purified CYR61 induces neovascularization in corneal implants, and Cyr61-null mice suffer embryonic death due to vascular defects, thus establishing that CYR61 is an important regulator of angiogenesis. Aberrant expression of Cyr61 is associated with breast cancer, wound healing, and vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. In culture, CYR61 functions through integrin-mediated pathways to promote cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Here we show that CYR61 can also promote cell survival and tubule formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, we have dissected the integrin receptor requirements of CYR61 with respect to its pro-angiogenic activities. Thus, CYR61-induced cell adhesion and tubule formation occur through interaction with integrin alpha(6)beta(1) in early passage endothelial cells in which integrins have not been activated. By contrast, in endothelial cells in which integrins are activated by phorbol ester or vascular endothelial growth factor, CYR61-promoted cell adhesion, migration, survival, growth factor-induced mitogenesis, and endothelial tubule formation are all mediated through integrin alpha(v)beta(3). These findings indicate that CYR61 is an activation-dependent ligand of integrin alpha(v)beta(3) and an activation-independent ligand of integrin alpha(6)beta(1) and that these integrins differentially mediate the pro-angiogenic activities of CYR61. These findings help to define the mechanisms by which CYR61 acts as an angiogenic regulator, provide a molecular interpretation for the loss of vascular integrity and increased apoptosis of vascular cells in Cyr61-null mice, and underscore the importance of CYR61 in the development and homeostasis of the vascular system.
Prostaglandin E2 promotes integrin alpha Vbeta 3-dependent endothelial cell adhesion, rac-activation, and spreading through cAMP/PKA-dependent signaling.
Centre Pluridisciplinaire d'Oncologie (CePO), University of Lausanne Medical School, CH-1011 Lausanne, Switzerland.
We have recently reported that the inhibition of endothelial cell COX-2 by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs suppresses alpha(V)beta(3)-(but not alpha(5)beta(1)-) dependent Rac activation, endothelial cell spreading, migration, and angiogenesis (Dormond, O., Foletti, A., Paroz, C., and Ruegg, C.(2001) Nat. Med. 7, 1041-1047). Here we investigated the role of the COX-2 metabolites PGE(2) and TXA2 in regulating human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) adhesion and spreading. We report that PGE(2) accelerated alpha(V)beta(3)-mediated HUVEC adhesion and promoted Rac activation and cell spreading, whereas the TXA2 agonist retarded adhesion and inhibited spreading. We show that the cAMP level and the cAMP-regulated protein kinase A (PKA) activity are critical mediators of these PGE(2) effects. alpha(V)beta(3)-mediated adhesion induced a transient COX-2-dependent rise in cAMP levels, whereas the cell-permeable cAMP analogue 8-brcAMP accelerated adhesion, promoted Rac activation, and cell spreading in the presence of the COX-2 inhibitor NS-398. Pharmacological inhibition of PKA completely blocked alpha(V)beta(3)-mediated adhesion. A constitutively active Rac mutant (L61Rac) rescued alpha(V)beta(3)-dependent spreading in the presence of NS398 or, but did not accelerate adhesion, whereas a dominant negative Rac mutant (N17Rac) suppressed spreading without affecting adhesion. alpha(5)beta(1)-mediated HUVEC adhesion, Rac activation, and spreading were not affected by PGE(2), 8-brcAMP, or the inhibition of PKA. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that PGE(2) accelerates alpha(V)beta(3)-mediated endothelial cell adhesion through cAMP-dependent PKA activation and induces alpha(V)beta(3)-dependent spreading via cAMP- and PKA-dependent Rac activation and may contribute to the further understanding of the regulation of vascular integrins alpha(V)beta(3) by COX-2/PGE(2) during tumor angiogenesis and inflammation.
Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Osteoclasts, the sole bone-resorbing cells, arise by fusion and differentiation of monocyte/macrophage precursors. Matrix degradation requires adhesion of the osteoclast to bone, an integrin alphavbeta3-mediated event that also stimulates signals which polarize the cell and secrete resorptive molecules such as hydrochloric acid and acidic proteases. Two cytokines are necessary and sufficient for osteoclastogenesis, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), both produced by mesenchymal cells in the bone marrow environment. M-CSF promotes survival and proliferation of osteoclast precursors. It also contributes to their differentiation and regulates the cytoskeletal changes that accompany bone resorption. Binding of M-CSF to c-Fms, its receptor, recruits adapter proteins and cytosolic kinases, thereby activating a variety of intracellular signals. We herein review how alphavbeta3 and M-CSF, alone and in concert, impact production, survival, and function of the osteoclast, thereby controlling skeletal mass. Signals from alphavbeta3 and/or c-Fms activate Syk and Vav3, originally defined by their function in lymphoid cells. Genetic depletion of either protein generates a strong bone phenotype, underscoring the promise of osteoimmunobiology.
Ordway Research Institute, Inc., 150 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208, USA. email@example.com
The nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone require a plasma membrane receptor or nuclear receptors located in cytoplasm. The plasma membrane receptor is located on integrin alphaVbeta3 at the Arg-Gly-Asp recognition site important to the binding by the integrin of extracellular matrix proteins. l-Thyroxine (T(4)) is bound with greater affinity at this site than 3,5,3'-triiodo-l-thyronine (T(3)). Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK; ERK1/2) transduces the hormone signal into complex cellular/nuclear events including angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. Acting at the integrin receptor and without cell entry, thyroid hormone can foster ERK1/2-dependent serine phosphorylation of nuclear thyroid hormone receptor-beta1 (TRbeta1) and de-repress the latter. The integrin receptor also mediates actions of the hormone on intracellular protein trafficking and on plasma membrane ion pumps, including the sodium/protein antiporter. Tetraiodothyroacetic (tetrac) is a T(4) analog that inhibits binding of iodothyronines to the integrin receptor and is a probe for the participation of this receptor in cellular actions of the hormone. Tetrac blocks thyroid hormone effects on angiogenesis and cancer cell proliferation. Acting on a truncated form of nuclear TRalpha1 (TRDeltaalpha1) located in cytoplasm, T(4) and 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (reverse T(3)), but not T(3), cause conversion of soluble actin to fibrous (F) actin that is important to cell motility, e.g., in cells such as glia and neurons. Normal development of the central nervous system requires such motility. TRbeta1 in cytoplasm mediates action of T(3) on expression of certain genes via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K) and the protein kinase B/Akt pathway. PI 3-K and, possibly, cytoplasmic TRbeta1 are involved in stimulation by T(3) of insertion of Na,K-ATPase in the plasma membrane and of increase in activity of this pump. Because ambient thyroid hormone levels are constant in the euthyroid intact organism, these nongenomic hormone actions are likely to be contributors to basal rate-setting of transcription of certain genes and of complex cellular events such as angiogenesis and cancer cell proliferation.
Department of Tumor Biology, Schering-Plough Research Institute, 2015 Galloping Hill Road, Kenilworth, NJ 07033, USA. Chandra.firstname.lastname@example.org
The integrin receptor alphavbeta3 has been shown to play a critical role in several distinct processes, such as angiogenesis, osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and tumor metastasis. Its expression is upregulated in newly synthesized blood vessels produced in response to a variety of tumors and purified angiogenic factors. Studies show that alphavbeta3 is a critical target downstream from perhaps all angiogcnic factors. Proof-of-principle that alphavbeta3 antagonists such as monoclonal antibodies and small molecules block angiogenesis and tumor growth has been obtained in several animal models. Many endogenous inhibitors of angiogenesis such as angiostatin, endostatin and tumstatin seem to work through the alphavbeta3 receptor further emphasizing the critical role of this receptor in angiogenesis. In addition, the alphavbeta3 receptor has been clearly implicated in several pathological processes such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, and metastasis of prostate cancer to bone. Thus alphavbeta3 may prove to be an important target for pharmacological intervention in more than one clinical setting.
Syk, c-Src, the alphavbeta3 integrin, and ITAM immunoreceptors, in concert, regulate osteoclastic bone resorption.
Wei Zou, Hideki Kitaura, Jennifer Reeve, Fanxin Long, Victor L J Tybulewicz, Sanford J Shattil, Mark H Ginsberg, F Patrick Ross, Steven L Teitelbaum
Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.
In this study, we establish that the tyrosine kinase Syk is essential for osteoclast function in vitro and in vivo. Syk(-/-) osteoclasts fail to organize their cytoskeleton, and, as such, their bone-resorptive capacity is arrested. This defect results in increased skeletal mass in Syk(-/-) embryos and dampened basal and stimulated bone resorption in chimeric mice whose osteoclasts lack the kinase. The skeletal impact of Syk deficiency reflects diminished activity of the mature osteoclast and not impaired differentiation. Syk regulates bone resorption by its inclusion with the alpha v beta3 integrin and c-Src in a signaling complex, which is generated only when alpha v beta3 is activated. Upon integrin occupancy, c-Src phosphorylates Syk. Alpha v beta3-induced phosphorylation of Syk and the latter's capacity to associate with c-Src is mediated by the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) proteins Dap12 and FcRgamma. Thus, in conjunction with ITAM-bearing proteins, Syk, c-Src, and alpha v beta3 represent an essential signaling complex in the bone-resorbing osteoclast, and, therefore, each is a candidate therapeutic target.