Tilapia :: classification
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo 12613, Egypt.
The parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is one of the most important protozoan pathogens of freshwater fish worldwide. Examination of 4 species of Tilapia from the River Nile recorded highest rate infection in Oreochromis niloticus, followed by Oreochromis aureus, Sarotherodon galilaeus and Tilapia zilli. By electron microscopy, apoptotic cells collected from Tilapia species infected with "Ich" showed an aggregation on the apical and basal parts of the ciliated and non-ciliated endothelial lining the gill epithelium. Ultrastructural analysis showed that the chromatin in the liver of Ich-infected O. niloticus was highly condensed and massed at the center of the nucleus. UItrastructural analysis of "Ich" infected O. aureus showed that the nuclear membrane of hepatocytes was also shrunken. In S. galilaeus, chromatin was highly condensed, fragmented and massed at the nuclear center, occasionally forming crescent-shaped masses. Ultrastructural of O. niloticus spleen showed that the macrophage number was comparatively high as compared to control. In O. aureus, damaged splenic cell number did not change, and phagocytic capacity of macrophages was not very high. In Ich-infected S. galilaeus, a marked decrease in splenic cells number was seen. Analysis of DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis on gill, liver and spleen cells showed a ladder of DNA fragments in multiple of 180bp in length, pointing to an internucleosomal DNA cleavage.
Most cited papers:
Molecular Biology Research Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Wales, Swansea, U.K.
Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was applied to three species of the tilapia genus Oreochromis and four subspecies of O. niloticus. Thirteen random 10-mer primers were used to assay polymorphisms within and between populations. Different RAPD fragment patterns were observed for different species, although not always for different subspecies. Evidence is presented that RAPD markers might be useful for systemic investigation at the level of species and subspecies.
Genetic and ecological divergence of a monophyletic cichlid species pair under fully sympatric conditions in Lake Ejagham, Cameroon.
Max-Planck Institut für Verhaltensphysiologie, Abteilung Wickler, 82319 Seewiesen, Germany.
Although there is mounting evidence that speciation can occur under sympatric conditions, unambiguous examples from nature are rare and it is almost always possible to propose alternative allopatric or parapatric scenarios. To identify an unequivocal case of sympatric speciation it is, therefore, necessary to analyse natural settings where recent monophyletic species flocks have evolved within a small and confined spatial range. We have studied such a case with a cichlid species flock that comprises five Tilapia forms endemic to a tiny lake (Lake Ejagham with a surface area of approximately 0.49 km2) in Western Cameroon. Analysis of mitochondrial D-Loop sequences shows that the flock is very young (approximately 10(4) years) and has originated from an adjacent riverine founder population. We have focused our study on a particular pair of forms within the lake that currently appears to be in the process of speciation. This pair is characterized by an unique breeding colouration and specific morphological aspects, which can serve as synapomorphic characters to prove monophyly. It has differentiated into a large inshore and a small pelagic form, apparently as a response to differential utilization of food resources. Still, breeding and brood care occurs in overlapping areas, both in time and space. Analysis of nuclear gene flow on the basis of microsatellite polymorphisms shows a highly restricted gene flow between the forms, suggesting reproductive isolation between them. This reproductive isolation is apparently achieved by size assortative mating, although occasional mixed pairs can be observed. Our findings are congruent with recent theoretical models for sympatric speciation, which show that differential ecological adaptations in combination with assortative mating could easily lead to speciation in sympatry.
Classification and phylogenetic relationships of African tilapiine fishes inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.
Abteilung Immungenetik, Max-Planck-Institut für Biologie, Corrensstrasse 42, Tübingen, D-72076, Germany.
African cichlid fishes are composed of two major lineages, the haplochromines and the tilapiines. Whereas the phylogenetic relationships of the haplochromines have been studied extensively, primarily because of their spectacular adaptive radiations in the Great Lakes of East Africa, little is known about the relationships among the tilapiine species, despite the fact that they have become an important component of African, indeed world, aquaculture. To remedy this situation, molecular phylogenetic analysis of tilapiine fishes was undertaken. A segment of mitochondrial DNA encompassing the terminal part of the tRNA(Pro) gene and the most variable part of the control region was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction with DNA samples isolated from 42 tilapiine species, and the amplification products were subjected to heteroduplex analysis and sequencing. Phylogenetic trees based on 68 sequences revealed the existence of 11 sequence groups and 11 single-sequence branches. The groups, designated Ti1 through Ti11, were distinguished by specific combinations of diagnostic substitutions, formation of monophyletic clusters, and separation by genetic distances in excess of 0.04. Although the relationships among the groups could not be resolved, the sequences separated Oreochromis and Sarotherodon from Tilapia, as defined by Trewavas. The Oreochromis sequences clustered with the Sarotherodon sequences and thus supported the hypothesis that the mouthbrooding behavior of the tilapiine fishes evolved only once from the substrate-spawning behavior. Since on phylogenetic trees the O. alcalicus (sub)species were always separated from O. amphimelas by other Oreochromis species, it was concluded that the adaptation to life in water with a high salt concentration and high pH values evolved independently at least twice in the tilapiine fishes. The tilapiines diverged from the haplochromines more than 8 million years ago; most of the intragroup divergences among the tilapiines took place an estimated 1.1 to 6 million years ago.
The utility of SATA satellite DNA sequences for inferring phylogenetic relationships among the three major genera of tilapiine cichlid fishes.
Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
The SATA satellite DNA family of sequences, composed of three size variants of approximately 237, 230, and 209 bp, is conserved in the genomes of tilapiine and haplochromine cichlid fishes. In the present study we examined the utility of the SATA sequences for inferring phylogenetic relationships among the three major genera of tilapiine fishes, Oreochromis, Sarotherodon, and Tilapia. Hybridization of the monomer SATA repeat to genomic DNA of representative cichlid species established conservation of the sequence in the African tilapine and haplochromine lineages and its absence from other cichlid lineages. Bootstrapped DNA parsimony and neighbor-joining analyses of derived consensus sequences revealed two distinct clades, one containing the mouthbrooding genera Oreochromis and Sarotherodon, and the other containing the substrate spawning genus Tilapia. These results are consistent with recent independent studies using mitochondrial DNA and establish the utility of the SATA satellite DNA family for phylogenetic reconstruction. Concerted evolution of the SATA sequences was also demonstrated within the tilapiine tribe.
Dietary vitamin E supplementation affects tissue lipid peroxidation of hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. aureus.
Department of Aquatic Biosciences, National Chiayi University, 300 University Road, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC. firstname.lastname@example.org
A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E contents on the growth, ascorbate induced iron-catalyzed lipid peroxidation in post-mortem muscle and liver tissue, and Raman spectral changes in lens of juvenile hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. aureus). Experimental fish were fed practical diets supplemented with 0, 50, 100, 200, 450 and 700 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg diet for 14 weeks. There was no significant difference in weight gain, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio among fish fed test diets (P>0.05). Protein content of fish fed diet containing the lowest vitamin E level was the lowest (P<0.05) among all groups. No difference was found in other body constituents among test fish (P>0.05). The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances produced by iron-catalyzed lipid peroxidation in muscle and liver tissue of fish fed the diet without alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation were significantly (P<0.05) greater than those from fish fed diets containing higher levels of alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Dietary vitamin E supplementation increased the antioxidant capability of tilapia tissues against lipid peroxidation. Further, dietary vitamin E supplementation also influenced the lens cortical membrane structure of tilapia.
ROn-1 SINEs: a tRNA-derived, short interspersed repetitive DNA element from Oreochromis niloticus and its species-specific distribution in Old World cichlid fishes.
Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
A SINE-like repetitive element (ROn-1) has been cloned from the tilapiine cichlid fish Oreochromis niloticus. The element is 345 base pairs (bp) in length and consists of a transfer-RNA-like domain with putative RNA polymerase III recognition sequences, a tRNA-unrelated region, and a poly(A) tail. Approximately 6000 copies of ROn-1 occur in the haploid genome of O. niloticus. Southern blot analysis revealed that ROn-1 is an abundant element in the genomes of many African cichlid fishes, but absent from the genome of the Indian cichlid Etroplus.
Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Scotland.
This is not actually a swimming chicken, but rather a fish that fulfils a similar role for subsistence farmers and can also be farmed on a commercial scale. Like the chicken, the tilapiines are meeting protein needs in an affordable way world-wide. However, present farming strategies are struggling to meet ever-rising consumer demand.