Ear :: embryology
Combining Cep290 and Mkks ciliopathy alleles in mice rescues sensory defects and restores ciliogenesis.
Rivka A Rachel, Helen L May-Simera, Shobi Veleri, Norimoto Gotoh, Byung Yoon Choi, Carlos Murga-Zamalloa, Jeremy C McIntyre, Jonah Marek, Irma Lopez, Alice N Hackett, Matthew Brooks, Anneke I den Hollander, Philip L Beales, Tiansen Li, Samuel G Jacobson, Raman Sood, Jeffrey R Martens, Paul Liu, Thomas B Friedman, Hemant Khanna, Robert K Koenekoop, Matthew W Kelley, Anand Swaroop
Neurobiology Neurodegeneration and Repair Laboratory, National Eye Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.
Cilia are highly specialized microtubule-based organelles that have pivotal roles in numerous biological processes, including transducing sensory signals. Defects in cilia biogenesis and transport cause pleiotropic human ciliopathies. Mutations in over 30 different genes can lead to cilia defects, and complex interactions exist among ciliopathy-associated proteins. Mutations of the centrosomal protein 290 kDa (CEP290) lead to distinct clinical manifestations, including Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), a hereditary cause of blindness due to photoreceptor degeneration. Mice homozygous for a mutant Cep290 allele (Cep290rd16 mice) exhibit LCA-like early-onset retinal degeneration that is caused by an in-frame deletion in the CEP290 protein. Here, we show that the domain deleted in the protein encoded by the Cep290rd16 allele directly interacts with another ciliopathy protein, MKKS. MKKS mutations identified in patients with the ciliopathy Bardet-Biedl syndrome disrupted this interaction. In zebrafish embryos, combined subminimal knockdown of mkks and cep290 produced sensory defects in the eye and inner ear. Intriguingly, combinations of Cep290rd16 and Mkksko alleles in mice led to improved ciliogenesis and sensory functions compared with those of either mutant alone. We propose that altered association of CEP290 and MKKS affects the integrity of multiprotein complexes at the cilia transition zone and basal body. Amelioration of the sensory phenotypes caused by specific mutations in one protein by removal of an interacting domain/protein suggests a possible novel approach for treating human ciliopathies.
Most cited papers:
Developmental expression of 2ar (osteopontin) and SPARC (osteonectin) RNA as revealed by in situ hybridization.
Laboratory of Molecular Embryology, National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London, United Kingdom.
2ar has been identified as a gene inducible by tumor promoters and growth factors in a variety of cultured mouse cell lines (Smith, J. H., and D. T. Denhardt. 1987. J. Cell. Biochem. 34:13-22). Sequence analysis shows that it codes for mouse osteopontin, an RGDS-containing, phosphorylated, sialic acid-rich Ca++-binding protein originally isolated from bone (Oldberg, A., A. Franzen, and D. Heinegard. 1986. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 83:8819-8823; Prince, C. W., T. Oosawa, W. T. Butler, M. Tomana, A. S. Brown, and R. E. Schrohenloer. 1987. J. Biol. Chem. 262:2900-3907.). In this paper we use Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization to localize expression of 2ar during mouse embryogenesis. 2ar RNA is first detected in developing limb bones and calvaria at 14.5 d p.c., in a population of cells distinct from those expressing SPARC (osteonectin). High levels of 2ar expression are also seen in the bone marrow-derived granulated metrial gland cells of the deciduum and placenta, and in a number of epithelial tissues, including embryonic and postnatal kidney tubules, uterine epithelium and sensory epithelium of the embryonic ear. The temporal and spatial pattern of 2ar expression seen in vivo suggests that the protein plays a wider role than previously realized, in processes which are not confined to bone development.
Developmental defects of the ear, cranial nerves and hindbrain resulting from targeted disruption of the mouse homeobox gene Hox-1.6.
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Human Genetics, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City 84112.
Gene targeting in mouse embryo-derived stem cells has been used to generate mice with a disruption in the homeobox gene Hox-1.6. Mice heterozygous at the Hox-1.6 locus appear normal, whereas Hox-1.6-/Hox-1.6- mice die at or shortly after birth. These homozygotes exhibit profound defects in the formation of the external, middle and inner ears as well as in specific hindbrain nuclei, and in cranial nerves and ganglia. The affected tissues lie within a narrow region along the anteroposterior axis of the mouse but are of diverse embryonic origin. The set of defects associated with the disruption of Hox-1.6 is distinct from and nonoverlapping with that of the closely linked Hox-1.5 gene. But both mutations cause loss, rather than homeotic transformation, of tissues and structures.
Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire des Eucaryotes du CNRS, Unité 184 de Biologie Moléculaire et de Génie Génétique de l'INSERM, Institut de Chimie Biologique, Faculté de Médecine, Strasbourg, France.
This study provides a detailed description of the anatomical defects in the Hoxa-1-/- mutant mice previously generated in our laboratory (T. Lufkin, A. Dierich, M. LeMeur, M. Mark and P. Chambon, 1991; Cell 66, 1105-1119). Three-dimensional reconstructions of the Hoxa-1-/- rhombencephalon reveals that it bears only five rhombomeric structures (ie. morphological segments) instead of the normal seven. The first three of these rhombomeres appear normal as judged from the distribution pattern of CRABPI transcripts in the neurectoderm and from the histological analysis of the cranial nerve components derived from these structures. In contrast, the neural-crest-cell-free region normally located opposite rhombomere 5 is lacking in Hoxa-1-/- embryos, and motor neurons of the facial and abducens nerves, which normally differentiate within rhombomeres 4, 5 and 6, are missing in Hoxa-1-/- fetuses. These morphological data, combined with the determination of the molecular positional identities of the rhombomeres 4 and 5 (P. Dollé, T. Lufkin, R. Krumlauf, M. Mark, D. Duboule and P. Chambon, 1993; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, in press), suggest that rhombomere 4 is markedly reduced, whereas rhombomere 5 is almost absent. Thus, the remnants of rhombomeres 4 and 5 appear to be fused caudally with rhombomere 6 to form a single fourth rhombomeric structure. Moreover, the migration of neural crest cells contributing to the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves occurs in a more rostral position, resulting in abnormalities of these cranial nerves, which were visualized by whole-mount anti-neurofilament immunostaining. The mutual relationship along the rostrocaudal axis between the otic pit and the neuroepithelial site of int-2 protein secretion (a putative otogenic cue) is not significantly changed in Hoxa-1-/- embryos. However, the abnormal relationship between the rhombencephalon and the epithelial inner ear may account for the aplasia and faulty differentiation of the membranous labyrinth, the disruption of the cartilaginous otic capsule and the disorganisation of some middle ear structures. This phenotype is compared with that of the Hoxa-1-/- mutants generated by O. Chisaka, T. S. Musci and M. R. Capecchi, 1992 (Nature 335, 516-520) and with that of the mice homozygous for the kreisler mutation.
Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, California 94305.
The mouse kreisler (kr) mutation causes segmentation abnormalities in the caudal hindbrain and defective inner ear development. Based on an inversion discovered in the original kr allele, we selected a candidate cDNA highly expressed in the developing caudal hindbrain. This cDNA encodes a basic domain-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor and was confirmed to represent the kr gene by analysis of a second kr allele, generated by chemical mutagenesis, in which a serine is substituted for an asparagine residue conserved in the DNA-binding domain of all known bZIP family members. The identity, expression, and mutant phenotype of kr indicate an early role in axial patterning and provide insights into the molecular and embryologic mechanisms that govern hindbrain and otic development.
Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
Haploinsufficiency for human EYA1, a homologue of the Drosophila melanogaster gene eyes absent (eya), results in the dominantly inherited disorders branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome and branchio-oto (BO) syndrome, which are characterized by craniofacial abnormalities and hearing loss with (BOR) or without (BO) kidney defects. To understand the developmental pathogenesis of organs affected in these syndromes, we inactivated the gene Eya1 in mice. Eya1 heterozygotes show renal abnormalities and a conductive hearing loss similar to BOR syndrome, whereas Eya1 homozygotes lack ears and kidneys due to defective inductive tissue interactions and apoptotic regression of the organ primordia. Inner ear development in Eya1 homozygotes arrests at the otic vesicle stage and all components of the inner ear and specific cranial sensory ganglia fail to form. In the kidney, Eya1 homozygosity results in an absence of ureteric bud outgrowth and a subsequent failure of metanephric induction. Gdnf expression, which is required to direct ureteric bud outgrowth via activation of the c-ret Rtk (refs 5, 6, 7, 8), is not detected in Eya1-/- metanephric mesenchyme. In Eya1-/- ear and kidney development, Six but not Pax expression is Eya1 dependent, similar to a genetic pathway elucidated in the Drosophila eye imaginal disc. Our results indicate that Eya1 controls critical early inductive signalling events involved in ear and kidney formation and integrate Eya1 into the genetic regulatory cascade controlling kidney formation upstream of Gdnf. In addition, our results suggest that an evolutionarily conserved Pax-Eya-Six regulatory hierarchy is used in mammalian ear and kidney development.
Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biophysical Chemistry, Göttingen, FRG.
The expression of the murine paired-box-containing gene, Pax2, is examined in the developing central nervous system by in situ hybridization. Pax2 expression is detected along the boundaries of primary divisions of the neural tube. Initially, Pax2 is expressed in the ventricular zone in two compartments of cells on either side of the sulcus limitans and along the entire rhombencephalon and spinal cord. At later times, Pax2 is restricted to progeny cells that have migrated to specific regions of the intermediate zone. In the eye, Pax2 expression is restricted to the ventral half of the optic cup and stalk and later to the optic disc and nerve. In the ear, expression is restricted to regions of the otic vesicle that form neuronal components. The transient and restricted nature of Pax2 expression suggests that this murine segmentation gene homologue may also establish compartmental boundaries and contribute to the specification of neuronal identity, as do certain Drosophila segmentation genes.
Department of Biology, Aichi University of Education, 16 Terayamashita, Igaya-cho, Kariya City, Aichi 448-0001, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
Unfertilized eggs of Oryzias latipes were artificially inseminated and incubated at 26+/-1 degrees C. Careful observation of the process of embryonic development by light microscopy allowed division of the process into 39 stages based on diagnostic features of the developing embryos. The principal diagnostic features are the number and size of blastomeres, form of the blastoderm, extent of epiboly, development of the central nervous system, number and form of somites, optic and otic development, development of the notochord, heart development, blood circulation, the size and movement of the body, development of the tail, membranous fin (fin fold) development, and development of such viscera as the liver, gallbladder, gut tube, spleen and swim (air) bladder. After hatching, development of the larvae (fry) and young can be divided into six stages based on such diagnostic features as the fins, scales and secondary sexual characteristics.
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Institute of Chemistry and Cell Biology, Departments of Chemistry and Chemical Biology and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
Much has been learned about vertebrate development by random mutagenesis followed by phenotypic screening and by targeted gene disruption followed by phenotypic analysis in model organisms. Because the timing of many developmental events is critical, it would be useful to have temporal control over modulation of gene function, a luxury frequently not possible with genetic mutants. Here, we demonstrate that small molecules capable of conditional gene product modulation can be identified through developmental screens in zebrafish. We have identified several small molecules that specifically modulate various aspects of vertebrate ontogeny, including development of the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system, the neural crest, and the ear. Several of the small molecules identified allowed us to dissect the logic of melanocyte and otolith development and to identify critical periods for these events. Small molecules identified in this way offer potential to dissect further these and other developmental processes and to identify novel genes involved in vertebrate development.
J Malicki, A F Schier, L Solnica-Krezel, D L Stemple, S C Neuhauss, D Y Stainier, S Abdelilah, Z Rangini, F Zwartkruis, W Driever
Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown 02129, USA.
In a large scale screen for genetic defects in zebrafish embryogenesis we identified mutations affecting several aspects of ear development, including: specification of the otic placode, growth of the otic vesicle (otocyst), otolith formation, morphogenesis of the semicircular canals and differentiation of the otic capsule. Here we report initial phenotypic and genetic characterization of 20 of these mutations defining 13 independent loci. Embryos mutant at the quadro locus display abnormal specification of the otic placode. As revealed by dlx-3 expression, the otic field in the mutant embryos is smaller or split into two fields. At later stages of development the ear of quadro mutants is frequently divided into two smaller, incomplete units. Four loci affect ear shape shortly after formation of the otic vesicle. All of them also display abnormal brain morphology. Mutations in five loci result in the absence of otolith formation; two of these also produce changes of ear morphology. Two loci, little richard and golas, affect morphology of the otic vesicle shortly before formation of the semicircular canals. In both cases the morphogenesis of the semicircular canals is disrupted. Finally, the antytalent locus is involved in late expansion of the ear structure. Analysis of mutations presented here will strengthen our understanding of vertebrate ear morphogenesis and provide novel entry points to its genetic analysis.
Eya protein phosphatase activity regulates Six1-Dach-Eya transcriptional effects in mammalian organogenesis.
Xue Li, Kenneth A Oghi, Jie Zhang, Anna Krones, Kevin T Bush, Christopher K Glass, Sanjay K Nigam, Aneel K Aggarwal, Richard Maas, David W Rose, Michael G Rosenfeld
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, School and Department of Medicine, UCSD, 9500 Gilman Drive, Room 345, La Jolla, California 92093-0648, USA. email@example.com
The precise mechanistic relationship between gene activation and repression events is a central question in mammalian organogenesis, as exemplified by the evolutionarily conserved sine oculis (Six), eyes absent (Eya) and dachshund (Dach) network of genetically interacting proteins. Here, we report that Six1 is required for the development of murine kidney, muscle and inner ear, and that it exhibits synergistic genetic interactions with Eya factors. We demonstrate that the Eya family has a protein phosphatase function, and that its enzymatic activity is required for regulating genes encoding growth control and signalling molecules, modulating precursor cell proliferation. The phosphatase function of Eya switches the function of Six1-Dach from repression to activation, causing transcriptional activation through recruitment of co-activators. The gene-specific recruitment of a co-activator with intrinsic phosphatase activity provides a molecular mechanism for activation of specific gene targets, including those regulating precursor cell proliferation and survival in mammalian organogenesis.