Genetika. 2012 Apr ;48 (4):566-8 22730778
Medical Biology Laboratory of Pomeranian Medical University, 70-111 Szczecin, Poland. firstname.lastname@example.org
Caspase 12(Csp-12) is a cysteine protease that plays a role in regulation of cytokine maturation. It is present either in a functional full-length variant (Csp-12L) that predisposes to a lower immune response or in an inactive, common version (Csp-12S) that contains a stop codon that results in a truncated form. Genomic DNA from unrelated North Africans, residents of 4th Nile Cataract Region in Sudan, was analyzed. One hundred umbilical blood samples of Polish newborns served as a reference group from the Caucasian population. The analysis of stop-codon polymorphism performed on the 212 human samples from Northern Sudan identified 6.6% individuals with heterozygous genotypes while not one homozygous Csp-12L was found. All examined Polish individuals were homozygous Csp-12S.
Most cited papers:
There is increasing evidence that genome-wide association (GWA) studies represent a powerful approach to the identification of genes involved in common human diseases. We describe a joint GWA study (using the Affymetrix GeneChip 500K Mapping Array Set) undertaken in the British population, which has examined approximately 2,000 individuals for each of 7 major diseases and a shared set of approximately 3,000 controls. Case-control comparisons identified 24 independent association signals at P < 5 x 10(-7): 1 in bipolar disorder, 1 in coronary artery disease, 9 in Crohn's disease, 3 in rheumatoid arthritis, 7 in type 1 diabetes and 3 in type 2 diabetes. On the basis of prior findings and replication studies thus-far completed, almost all of these signals reflect genuine susceptibility effects. We observed association at many previously identified loci, and found compelling evidence that some loci confer risk for more than one of the diseases studied. Across all diseases, we identified a large number of further signals (including 58 loci with single-point P values between 10(-5) and 5 x 10(-7)) likely to yield additional susceptibility loci. The importance of appropriately large samples was confirmed by the modest effect sizes observed at most loci identified. This study thus represents a thorough validation of the GWA approach. It has also demonstrated that careful use of a shared control group represents a safe and effective approach to GWA analyses of multiple disease phenotypes; has generated a genome-wide genotype database for future studies of common diseases in the British population; and shown that, provided individuals with non-European ancestry are excluded, the extent of population stratification in the British population is generally modest. Our findings offer new avenues for exploring the pathophysiology of these important disorders. We anticipate that our data, results and software, which will be widely available to other investigators, will provide a powerful resource for human genetics research.
J P Hugot, M Chamaillard, H Zouali, S Lesage, J P Cézard, J Belaiche, S Almer, C Tysk, C A O'Morain, M Gassull, V Binder, Y Finkel, A Cortot, R Modigliani, P Laurent-Puig, C Gower-Rousseau, J Macry, J F Colombel, M Sahbatou, G Thomas
Fondation Jean Dausset CEPH, 27 rue J. Dodu 75010 Paris, France.
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two main types of chronic inflammatory bowel disease, are multifactorial conditions of unknown aetiology. A susceptibility locus for Crohn's disease has been mapped to chromosome 16. Here we have used a positional-cloning strategy, based on linkage analysis followed by linkage disequilibrium mapping, to identify three independent associations for Crohn's disease: a frameshift variant and two missense variants of NOD2, encoding a member of the Apaf-1/Ced-4 superfamily of apoptosis regulators that is expressed in monocytes. These NOD2 variants alter the structure of either the leucine-rich repeat domain of the protein or the adjacent region. NOD2 activates nuclear factor NF-kB; this activating function is regulated by the carboxy-terminal leucine-rich repeat domain, which has an inhibitory role and also acts as an intracellular receptor for components of microbial pathogens. These observations suggest that the NOD2 gene product confers susceptibility to Crohn's disease by altering the recognition of these components and/or by over-activating NF-kB in monocytes, thus documenting a molecular model for the pathogenic mechanism of Crohn's disease that can now be further investigated.
Y Ogura, D K Bonen, N Inohara, D L Nicolae, F F Chen, R Ramos, H Britton, T Moran, R Karaliuskas, R H Duerr, J P Achkar, S R Brant, T M Bayless, B S Kirschner, S B Hanauer, G Nuñez, J H Cho
Department of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.
Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, which is thought to result from the effect of environmental factors in a genetically predisposed host. A gene location in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 16, IBD1, that contributes to susceptibility to Crohn's disease has been established through multiple linkage studies, but the specific gene(s) has not been identified. NOD2, a gene that encodes a protein with homology to plant disease resistance gene products is located in the peak region of linkage on chromosome 16 (ref. 7). Here we show, by using the transmission disequilibium test and case-control analysis, that a frameshift mutation caused by a cytosine insertion, 3020insC, which is expected to encode a truncated NOD2 protein, is associated with Crohn's disease. Wild-type NOD2 activates nuclear factor NF-kappaB, making it responsive to bacterial lipopolysaccharides; however, this induction was deficient in mutant NOD2. These results implicate NOD2 in susceptibility to Crohn's disease, and suggest a link between an innate immune response to bacterial components and development of disease.
Analysis of molecular variance inferred from metric distances among DNA haplotypes: application to human mitochondrial DNA restriction data.
Center for Theoretical and Applied Genetics (CTAG), Cook College, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903-0231.
We present here a framework for the study of molecular variation within a single species. Information on DNA haplotype divergence is incorporated into an analysis of variance format, derived from a matrix of squared-distances among all pairs of haplotypes. This analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) produces estimates of variance components and F-statistic analogs, designated here as phi-statistics, reflecting the correlation of haplotypic diversity at different levels of hierarchical subdivision. The method is flexible enough to accommodate several alternative input matrices, corresponding to different types of molecular data, as well as different types of evolutionary assumptions, without modifying the basic structure of the analysis. The significance of the variance components and phi-statistics is tested using a permutational approach, eliminating the normality assumption that is conventional for analysis of variance but inappropriate for molecular data. Application of AMOVA to human mitochondrial DNA haplotype data shows that population subdivisions are better resolved when some measure of molecular differences among haplotypes is introduced into the analysis. At the intraspecific level, however, the additional information provided by knowing the exact phylogenetic relations among haplotypes or by a nonlinear translation of restriction-site change into nucleotide diversity does not significantly modify the inferred population genetic structure. Monte Carlo studies show that site sampling does not fundamentally affect the significance of the molecular variance components. The AMOVA treatment is easily extended in several different directions and it constitutes a coherent and flexible framework for the statistical analysis of molecular data.
Gene dose of apolipoprotein E type 4 allele and the risk of Alzheimer's disease in late onset families.
E H Corder, A M Saunders, W J Strittmatter, D E Schmechel, P C Gaskell, G W Small, A D Roses, J L Haines, M A Pericak-Vance
The apolipoprotein E type 4 allele (APOE-epsilon 4) is genetically associated with the common late onset familial and sporadic forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Risk for AD increased from 20% to 90% and mean age at onset decreased from 84 to 68 years with increasing number of APOE-epsilon 4 alleles in 42 families with late onset AD. Thus APOE-epsilon 4 gene dose is a major risk factor for late onset AD and, in these families, homozygosity for APOE-epsilon 4 was virtually sufficient to cause AD by age 80.
A common genetic variation in the 3'-untranslated region of the prothrombin gene is associated with elevated plasma prothrombin levels and an increase in venous thrombosis.
Hemostasis and Thrombosis Research Center, Leiden University Hospital, The Netherlands.
We have examined the prothrombin gene as a candidate gene for venous thrombosis in selected patients with a documented familial history of venous thrombophilia. All the exons and the 5'- and 3'-UT region of the prothrombin gene were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing in 28 probands. Except for known polymorphic sites, no deviations were found in the coding regions and the 5'-UT region. Only one nucleotide change (a G to A transition) at position 20210 was identified in the sequence of the 3'-UT region. Eighteen percent of the patients had the 20210 AG genotype, as compared with 1% of a group of healthy controls (100 subjects). In a population-based case-control study, the 20210 A allele was identified as a common allele (allele frequency, 1.2%; 95% confidence interval, 0.5% to 1.8%), which increased the risk of venous thrombosis almost threefold ¿odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 5.6¿. The risk of thrombosis increased for all ages and both sexes. An association was found between the presence of the 20210 A allele and elevated prothrombin levels. Most individuals (87%) with the 20210 A allele are in the highest quartile of plasma prothrombin levels (> 1.15 U/mL). Elevated prothrombin itself also was found to be a risk factor for venous thrombosis.
Resistance to HIV-1 infection in caucasian individuals bearing mutant alleles of the CCR-5 chemokine receptor gene.
M Samson, F Libert, B J Doranz, J Rucker, C Liesnard, C M Farber, S Saragosti, C Lapoumeroulie, J Cognaux, C Forceille, G Muyldermans, C Verhofstede, G Burtonboy, M Georges, T Imai, S Rana, Y Yi, R J Smyth, R G Collman, R W Doms, G Vassart, M Parmentier
HIV-1 and related viruses require co-receptors, in addition to CD4, to infect target cells. The chemokine receptor CCR-5 (ref.1) was recently demonstrated to be a co-receptor for macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) HIV-1 strains, and the orphan receptor LESTR (also called fusin) allows infection by strains adapted for growth in transformed T-cell lines (T-tropic strains). Here we show that a mutant allele of CCR-5 is present at a high frequency in caucasian populations (allele frequency, 0.092), but is absent in black populations from Western and Central Africa and Japanese populations. A 32-base-pair deletion within the coding region results in a frame shift, and generates a non-functional receptor that does not support membrane fusion or infection by macrophage- and dual-tropic HIV-1 strains. In a cohort of HIV-1 infected caucasian subjects, no individual homozygous for the mutation was found, and the frequency of heterozygotes was 35% lower than in the general population. White blood cells from an individual homozygous for the null allele were found to be highly resistant to infection by M-tropic HIV-1 viruses, confirming that CCR-5 is the major co-receptor for primary HIV-1 strains. The lower frequency of heterozygotes in seropositive patients may indicate partial resistance.
Department of Anthropology, University of Geneva, Switzerland.
Molecular techniques allow the survey of a large number of linked polymorphic loci in random samples from diploid populations. However, the gametic phase of haplotypes is usually unknown when diploid individuals are heterozygous at more than one locus. To overcome this difficulty, we implement an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm leading to maximum-likelihood estimates of molecular haplotype frequencies under the assumption of Hardy-Weinberg proportions. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated for simulated data representing both DNA sequences and highly polymorphic loci with different levels of recombination. As expected, the EM algorithm is found to perform best for large samples, regardless of recombination rates among loci. To ensure finding the global maximum likelihood estimate, the EM algorithm should be started from several initial conditions. The present approach appears to be useful for the analysis of nuclear DNA sequences or highly variable loci. Although the algorithm, in principle, can accommodate an arbitrary number of loci, there are practical limitations because the computing time grows exponentially with the number of polymorphic loci. Although the algorithm, in principle, can accommodate an arbitrary number of loci, there are practical limitations because the computing time grows exponentially with the number of polymorphic loci.
Multilocus sequence typing: a portable approach to the identification of clones within populations of pathogenic microorganisms.
M C Maiden, J A Bygraves, E Feil, G Morelli, J E Russell, R Urwin, Q Zhang, J Zhou, K Zurth, D A Caugant, I M Feavers, M Achtman, B G Spratt
Wellcome Trust Centre for the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, United Kingdom.
Traditional and molecular typing schemes for the characterization of pathogenic microorganisms are poorly portable because they index variation that is difficult to compare among laboratories. To overcome these problems, we propose multilocus sequence typing (MLST), which exploits the unambiguous nature and electronic portability of nucleotide sequence data for the characterization of microorganisms. To evaluate MLST, we determined the sequences of approximately 470-bp fragments from 11 housekeeping genes in a reference set of 107 isolates of Neisseria meningitidis from invasive disease and healthy carriers. For each locus, alleles were assigned arbitrary numbers and dendrograms were constructed from the pairwise differences in multilocus allelic profiles by cluster analysis. The strain associations obtained were consistent with clonal groupings previously determined by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. A subset of six gene fragments was chosen that retained the resolution and congruence achieved by using all 11 loci. Most isolates from hyper-virulent lineages of serogroups A, B, and C meningococci were identical for all loci or differed from the majority type at only a single locus. MLST using six loci therefore reliably identified the major meningococcal lineages associated with invasive disease. MLST can be applied to almost all bacterial species and other haploid organisms, including those that are difficult to cultivate. The overwhelming advantage of MLST over other molecular typing methods is that sequence data are truly portable between laboratories, permitting one expanding global database per species to be placed on a World-Wide Web site, thus enabling exchange of molecular typing data for global epidemiology via the Internet.
M Cargill, D Altshuler, J Ireland, P Sklar, K Ardlie, N Patil, N Shaw, C R Lane, E P Lim, N Kalyanaraman, J Nemesh, L Ziaugra, L Friedland, A Rolfe, J Warrington, R Lipshutz, G Q Daley, E S Lander
Whitehead Institute/MIT Center for Genome Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. email@example.com
A major goal in human genetics is to understand the role of common genetic variants in susceptibility to common diseases. This will require characterizing the nature of gene variation in human populations, assembling an extensive catalogue of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes and performing association studies for particular diseases. At present, our knowledge of human gene variation remains rudimentary. Here we describe a systematic survey of SNPs in the coding regions of human genes. We identified SNPs in 106 genes relevant to cardiovascular disease, endocrinology and neuropsychiatry by screening an average of 114 independent alleles using 2 independent screening methods. To ensure high accuracy, all reported SNPs were confirmed by DNA sequencing. We identified 560 SNPs, including 392 coding-region SNPs (cSNPs) divided roughly equally between those causing synonymous and non-synonymous changes. We observed different rates of polymorphism among classes of sites within genes (non-coding, degenerate and non-degenerate) as well as between genes. The cSNPs most likely to influence disease, those that alter the amino acid sequence of the encoded protein, are found at a lower rate and with lower allele frequencies than silent substitutions. This likely reflects selection acting against deleterious alleles during human evolution. The lower allele frequency of missense cSNPs has implications for the compilation of a comprehensive catalogue, as well as for the subsequent application to disease association.