Most cited papers:
Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices.
Incidence rates for 27 cancers in 23 countries and mortality rates for 14 cancers in 32 countries have been correlated with a wide range of dietary and other variables. Dietary variables were strongly correlated with several types of cancer, particularly meat consumption with cancer of the colon and fat consumption with cancers of the breast and corpus uteri. The data suggest a possible role for dietary factors in modifying the development of cancer at a number of other sites. The usefulness and limitations of the method are discussed.
D E Reich, M Cargill, S Bolk, J Ireland, P C Sabeti, D J Richter, T Lavery, R Kouyoumjian, S F Farhadian, R Ward, E S Lander
Whitehead Institute / MIT Center for Genome Research, Nine Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
With the availability of a dense genome-wide map of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), a central issue in human genetics is whether it is now possible to use linkage disequilibrium (LD) to map genes that cause disease. LD refers to correlations among neighbouring alleles, reflecting 'haplotypes' descended from single, ancestral chromosomes. The size of LD blocks has been the subject of considerable debate. Computer simulations and empirical data have suggested that LD extends only a few kilobases (kb) around common SNPs, whereas other data have suggested that it can extend much further, in some cases greater than 100 kb. It has been difficult to obtain a systematic picture of LD because past studies have been based on only a few (1-3) loci and different populations. Here, we report a large-scale experiment using a uniform protocol to examine 19 randomly selected genomic regions. LD in a United States population of north-European descent typically extends 60 kb from common alleles, implying that LD mapping is likely to be practical in this population. By contrast, LD in a Nigerian population extends markedly less far. The results illuminate human history, suggesting that LD in northern Europeans is shaped by a marked demographic event about 27,000-53,000 years ago.
David R Bentley, Shankar Balasubramanian, Harold P Swerdlow, Geoffrey P Smith, John Milton, Clive G Brown, Kevin P Hall, Dirk J Evers, Colin L Barnes, Helen R Bignell, Jonathan M Boutell, Jason Bryant, Richard J Carter, R Keira Cheetham, Anthony J Cox, Darren J Ellis, Michael R Flatbush, Niall A Gormley, Sean J Humphray, Leslie J Irving, Mirian S Karbelashvili, Scott M Kirk, Heng Li, Xiaohai Liu, Klaus S Maisinger, Lisa J Murray, Bojan Obradovic, Tobias Ost, Michael L Parkinson, Mark R Pratt, Isabelle M J Rasolonjatovo, Mark T Reed, Roberto Rigatti, Chiara Rodighiero, Mark T Ross, Andrea Sabot, Subramanian V Sankar, Aylwyn Scally, Gary P Schroth, Mark E Smith, Vincent P Smith, Anastassia Spiridou, Peta E Torrance, Svilen S Tzonev, Eric H Vermaas, Klaudia Walter, Xiaolin Wu, Lu Zhang, Mohammed D Alam, Carole Anastasi, Ify C Aniebo, David M D Bailey, Iain R Bancarz, Saibal Banerjee, Selena G Barbour, Primo A Baybayan, Vincent A Benoit, Kevin F Benson, Claire Bevis, Phillip J Black, Asha Boodhun, Joe S Brennan, John A Bridgham, Rob C Brown, Andrew A Brown, Dale H Buermann, Abass A Bundu, James C Burrows, Nigel P Carter, Nestor Castillo, Maria Chiara E Catenazzi, Simon Chang, R Neil Cooley, Natasha R Crake, Olubunmi O Dada, Konstantinos D Diakoumakos, Belen Dominguez-Fernandez, David J Earnshaw, Ugonna C Egbujor, David W Elmore, Sergey S Etchin, Mark R Ewan, Milan Fedurco, Louise J Fraser, Karin V Fuentes Fajardo, W Scott Furey, David George, Kimberley J Gietzen, Colin P Goddard, George S Golda, Philip A Granieri, David E Green, David L Gustafson, Nancy F Hansen, Kevin Harnish, Christian D Haudenschild, Narinder I Heyer, Matthew M Hims, Johnny T Ho, Adrian M Horgan, Katya Hoschler, Steve Hurwitz, Denis V Ivanov, Maria Q Johnson, Terena James, T A Huw Jones, Gyoung-Dong Kang, Tzvetana H Kerelska, Alan D Kersey, Irina Khrebtukova, Alex P Kindwall, Zoya Kingsbury, Paula I Kokko-Gonzales, Anil Kumar, Marc A Laurent, Cynthia T Lawley, Sarah E Lee, Xavier Lee, Arnold K Liao, Jennifer A Loch, Mitch Lok, Shujun Luo, Radhika M Mammen, John W Martin, Patrick G McCauley, Paul McNitt, Parul Mehta, Keith W Moon, Joe W Mullens, Taksina Newington, Zemin Ning, Bee Ling Ng, Sonia M Novo, Michael J O'Neill, Mark A Osborne, Andrew Osnowski, Omead Ostadan, Lambros L Paraschos, Lea Pickering, Andrew C Pike, Alger C Pike, D Chris Pinkard, Daniel P Pliskin, Joe Podhasky, Victor J Quijano, Come Raczy, Vicki H Rae, Stephen R Rawlings, Ana Chiva Rodriguez, Phyllida M Roe, John Rogers, Maria C Rogert Bacigalupo, Nikolai Romanov, Anthony Romieu, Rithy K Roth, Natalie J Rourke, Silke T Ruediger, Eli Rusman, Raquel M Sanches-Kuiper, Martin R Schenker, Josefina M Seoane, Richard J Shaw, Mitch K Shiver, Steven W Short, Ning L Sizto, Johannes P Sluis, Melanie A Smith, Jean Ernest Sohna Sohna, Eric J Spence, Kim Stevens, Neil Sutton, Lukasz Szajkowski, Carolyn L Tregidgo, Gerardo Turcatti, Stephanie Vandevondele, Yuli Verhovsky, Selene M Virk, Suzanne Wakelin, Gregory C Walcott, Jingwen Wang, Graham J Worsley, Juying Yan, Ling Yau, Mike Zuerlein, Jane Rogers, James C Mullikin, Matthew E Hurles, Nick J McCooke, John S West, Frank L Oaks, Peter L Lundberg, David Klenerman, Richard Durbin, Anthony J Smith
Illumina Cambridge Ltd.(Formerly Solexa Ltd), Chesterford Research Park, Little Chesterford, Nr Saffron Walden, Essex CB10 1XL, UK. email@example.com
DNA sequence information underpins genetic research, enabling discoveries of important biological or medical benefit. Sequencing projects have traditionally used long (400-800 base pair) reads, but the existence of reference sequences for the human and many other genomes makes it possible to develop new, fast approaches to re-sequencing, whereby shorter reads are compared to a reference to identify intraspecies genetic variation. Here we report an approach that generates several billion bases of accurate nucleotide sequence per experiment at low cost. Single molecules of DNA are attached to a flat surface, amplified in situ and used as templates for synthetic sequencing with fluorescent reversible terminator deoxyribonucleotides. Images of the surface are analysed to generate high-quality sequence. We demonstrate application of this approach to human genome sequencing on flow-sorted X chromosomes and then scale the approach to determine the genome sequence of a male Yoruba from Ibadan, Nigeria. We build an accurate consensus sequence from >30x average depth of paired 35-base reads. We characterize four million single-nucleotide polymorphisms and four hundred thousand structural variants, many of which were previously unknown. Our approach is effective for accurate, rapid and economical whole-genome re-sequencing and many other biomedical applications.
In collaboration with 15 centres in 10 countries of Africa, Asia, and Europe, WHO started a pilot study of a community-based stroke register, with standardized methods. Preliminary data were obtained on 6395 new cases of stroke in defined study communities, from May 1971 to September 1974. Information on incidence rates, clinical profiles, diagnosis, management, and course and prognosis for these patients is given.
A new mathematical model of malaria has been developed for comparing the effects of alternative control measures. It describes both the temporal changes of the P. falciparum infection rate and the immunity level of the population as a function of the dynamics and characteristics of the vector populations, which are summarized in the concept of vectorial capacity. A critical vectorial capacity is specified, below which malaria cannot maintain itself at an endemic level. The model has been tested with epidemiological data collected in a WHO research project in the African Savannah, Kano State, Northern Nigeria, since October 1970. The estimates of the model parameters were obtained by minimizing the chi(2) function that measures the discrepancy between the observed and expected age-specific parasite rates in the two villages with the highest and the lowest vectorial capacity, respectively, at five surveys during one year of baseline data collection and between the observed and expected infant inoculation rates, in the main transmission seasons, in the same two villages. The model describes three aspects of immunity: loss of infectivity, loss of detectability, and increase of recovery rate. It is assumed that loss of infectivity precedes loss of detectability and increase of recovery rate. Superinfections are slowing down the recovery for high inoculation rates but do not reduce them to zero. They do not increase infectivity.
Child-bearing, health and social priorities: a survey of 22 774 consecutive hospital births in Zaria, Northern Nigeria.
Lassa fever, a new virus disease of man from West Africa. I. Clinical description and pathological findings.