Latest papers on Sewage, parasitology >> citations
PLoS One. 2012 ;7 (4):e35350 22558143
The global diversity of parasitic isopods associated with crustacean hosts (Isopoda: Bopyroidea and Cryptoniscoidea).
Department of Biology, Hofstra University, Hempstead, New York, United States of America. firstname.lastname@example.org
Parasitic isopods of Bopyroidea and Cryptoniscoidea (commonly referred to as epicarideans) are unique in using crustaceans as both intermediate and definitive hosts. In total, 795 epicarideans are known, representing ~7.7% of described isopods. The rate of description of parasitic species has not matched that of free-living isopods and this disparity will likely continue due to the more cryptic nature of these parasites. Distribution patterns of epicarideans are influenced by a combination of their definitive (both benthic and pelagic species) and intermediate (pelagic copepod) host distributions, although host specificity is poorly known for most species. Among epicarideans, nearly all species in Bopyroidea are ectoparasitic on decapod hosts. Bopyrids are the most diverse taxon (605 species), with their highest diversity in the North West Pacific (139 species), East Asian Sea (120 species), and Central Indian Ocean (44 species). The diversity patterns of Cryptoniscoidea (99 species, endoparasites of a diverse assemblage of crustacean hosts) are distinct from bopyrids, with the greatest diversity of cryptoniscoids in the North East Atlantic (18 species) followed by the Antarctic, Mediterranean, and Arctic regions (13, 12, and 8 species, respectively). Dajidae (54 species, ectoparasites of shrimp, mysids, and euphausids) exhibits highest diversity in the Antarctic (7 species) with 14 species in the Arctic and North East Atlantic regions combined. Entoniscidae (37 species, endoparasites within anomuran, brachyuran and shrimp hosts) show highest diversity in the North West Pacific (10 species) and North East Atlantic (8 species). Most epicarideans are known from relatively shallow waters, although some bopyrids are known from depths below 4000 m. Lack of parasitic groups in certain geographic areas is likely a sampling artifact and we predict that the Central Indian Ocean and East Asian Sea (in particular, the Indo-Malay-Philippines Archipelago) hold a wealth of undescribed species, reflecting our knowledge of host diversity patterns.
US Geological Survey, 425 Jordan Road, Troy, New York 12180, United States. email@example.com
Data were collected at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Burlington, Vermont, USA,(serving 30,000 people) to assess the relative contribution of CSO (combined sewer overflow) bypass flows and treated wastewater effluent to the load of steroid hormones and other wastewater micropollutants (WMPs) from a WWTP to a lake. Flow-weighted composite samples were collected over a 13 month period at this WWTP from CSO bypass flows or plant influent flows (n = 28) and treated effluent discharges (n = 22). Although CSO discharges represent 10% of the total annual water discharge (CSO plus treated plant effluent discharges) from the WWTP, CSO discharges contribute 40-90% of the annual load for hormones and WMPs with high (>90%) wastewater treatment removal efficiency. By contrast, compounds with low removal efficiencies (<90%) have less than 10% of annual load contributed by CSO discharges. Concentrations of estrogens, androgens, and WMPs generally are 10 times higher in CSO discharges compared to treated wastewater discharges. Compound concentrations in samples of CSO discharges generally decrease with increasing flow because of wastewater dilution by rainfall runoff. By contrast, concentrations of hormones and many WMPs in samples from treated discharges can increase with increasing flow due to decreasing removal efficiency.
PLoS One. 2012 ;7 (3):e32798 22431982
Biodegradation of pig manure by the housefly, Musca domestica: a viable ecological strategy for pig manure management.
Institute of Zoology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia. firstname.lastname@example.org
The technology for biodegradation of pig manure by using houseflies in a pilot plant capable of processing 500-700 kg of pig manure per week is described. A single adult cage loaded with 25,000 pupae produced 177.7±32.0 ml of eggs in a 15-day egg-collection period. With an inoculation ratio of 0.4-1.0 ml eggs/kg of manure, the amount of eggs produced by a single cage can suffice for the biodegradation of 178-444 kg of manure. Larval development varied among four different types of pig manure (centrifuged slurry, fresh manure, manure with sawdust, manure without sawdust). Larval survival ranged from 46.9±2.1%, in manure without sawdust, to 76.8±11.9% in centrifuged slurry. Larval development took 6-11 days, depending on the manure type. Processing of 1 kg of wet manure produced 43.9-74.3 g of housefly pupae and the weight of the residue after biodegradation decreased to 0.18-0.65 kg, with marked differences among manure types. Recommendations for the operation of industrial-scale biodegradation facilities are presented and discussed.
PLoS One. 2012 ;7 (2):e30875 22355331
Characterization of the viral microbiome in patients with severe lower respiratory tract infections, using metagenomic sequencing.
Fredrik Lysholm, Anna Wetterbom, Cecilia Lindau, Hamid Darban, Annelie Bjerkner, Kristina Fahlander, A Michael Lindberg, Bengt Persson, Tobias Allander, Björn Andersson
IFM Bioinformatics and Swedish e-Science Research Centre (SeRC), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
The human respiratory tract is heavily exposed to microorganisms. Viral respiratory tract pathogens, like RSV, influenza and rhinoviruses cause major morbidity and mortality from respiratory tract disease. Furthermore, as viruses have limited means of transmission, viruses that cause pathogenicity in other tissues may be transmitted through the respiratory tract. It is therefore important to chart the human virome in this compartment. We have studied nasopharyngeal aspirate samples submitted to the Karolinska University Laboratory, Stockholm, Sweden from March 2004 to May 2005 for diagnosis of respiratory tract infections. We have used a metagenomic sequencing strategy to characterize viruses, as this provides the most unbiased view of the samples. Virus enrichment followed by 454 sequencing resulted in totally 703,790 reads and 110,931 of these were found to be of viral origin by using an automated classification pipeline. The snapshot of the respiratory tract virome of these 210 patients revealed 39 species and many more strains of viruses. Most of the viral sequences were classified into one of three major families; Paramyxoviridae, Picornaviridae or Orthomyxoviridae. The study also identified one novel type of Rhinovirus C, and identified a number of previously undescribed viral genetic fragments of unknown origin.
Mr Mahmoudi, K Ashrafi, H Abedinzadeh, F Tahvildar-Bideruni, A Haghighi, M Bandehpour, N Taghipour Lailabadi, B Kazemi
Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
BACKGROUND The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia are known to occur widely in both raw and drinking waters. They are two of the causative agents of waterborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. In the present study, a PCR assay and FA were developed for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cyst in environmental samples. METHODS We have detected Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia cysts in seeded and unseeded environmental water samples by PCR method. Water samples were spiked with oocysts (50, 100,300,500) and filtrated with a 1.2-µm pore size cellulose nitrate and follow by DNA extraction and purification by QIAamp DNA mini kit. Nested-PCR assay amplified an 850 bp fragment of 18s rRNA gene specific for Cryptosporidium and 435 bp fragment of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) target gene for Giardia. Also many river water from north of Iran, be checked by these methods. RESULTS Cryptosporidium and Giardia DNAs were detected in seeded water sample and Giardia was detected in all 5 water samples from river in north of Iran by nested- PCR and FA. Also in one river water sample, Cryptosporidium was detected. CONCLUSION This protocol is effective for detection of these waterborne parasites in treated and untreated water samples. This study can also serve as a platform for further investigations and research water source in Iran.
Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
BACKGROUND Free-living amoebae (FLA) are a group of ubiquitous protozoan, which are distributed in the natural and artificial environment sources. The main aim of the current study was to identify the presence of FLA in the recreational hot springs of Sarein in Ardebil Province of Iran. METHODS Seven recreational hot springs were selected in Sarein City and 28 water samples (four from each hot spring) were collected using 500 ml sterile plastic bottles during three month. Filtration of water samples was performed, and culture was done in non-nutrient agar medium enriched with Escherichia coli. Identification of the FLA was based on morphological criteria of cysts and trophozoites. Genotype identification of Acanthamoeba positive samples were also performed using sequencing based method. RESULTS Overall, 12 out of 28 (42.9%) samples were positive for FLA which Acanthamoeba and Vahlkampfiid amoebae were found in one (3.6%) and 11 (39.3%) samples, respectively. Sequence analysis of the single isolate of Acanthamoeba revealed potentially pathogenic T(4) genotype corresponding to A. castellanii. CONCLUSION Contamination of hot springs to FLA, such as Acanthamoeba T(4) genotype (A. castellanii) and Vahlkampfiid amoebae, could present a sanitary risk for high risk people, and health authorities must be aware of FLA presence.
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland.
BACKGROUND In countries of high endemicity of the soil-transmitted helminth parasites Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm, preventive chemotherapy (i.e., repeated administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations) is the main strategy to control morbidity. However, rapid reinfection of humans occurs after successful deworming, and therefore effective preventive measures are required to achieve public health goals with optimal efficiency and sustainability. METHODS AND FINDINGS We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of sanitation (i.e., access and use of facilities for the safe disposal of human urine and feces) on infection with soil-transmitted helminths. PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Science, and the World Health Organization Library Database were searched without language restrictions and year of publication (search performed until December 31, 2010). Bibliographies of identified articles were hand-searched. All types of studies reporting data on sanitation availability (i.e., having access at own household or living in close proximity to sanitation facility), or usage, and soil-transmitted helminth infections at the individual level were considered. Reported odds ratios (ORs) of the protective effect of sanitation on soil-transmitted helminth infections were extracted from the papers or calculated from reported numbers. The quality of published studies was assessed with a panel of criteria developed by the authors. Random effects meta-analyses were used to account for observed heterogeneity. Thirty-six publications, consisting of 39 datasets, met our inclusion criteria. Availability of sanitation facilities was associated with significant protection against infection with soil-transmitted helminths (OR = 0.46 to 0.58). Regarding the use of sanitation, ORs of 0.54 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28-1.02), 0.63 (95% CI 0.37-1.05), and 0.78 (95% CI 0.60-1.00) were determined for T. trichiura, hookworm, and A. lumbricoides, respectively. The overall ORs, combining sanitation availability and use, were 0.51 (95% CI 0.44-0.61) for the three soil-transmitted helminths combined, 0.54 (95% CI 0.43-0.69) for A. lumbricoides, 0.58 (95% CI 0.45-0.75) for T. trichiura, and 0.60 (95% CI 0.48-0.75) for hookworm. CONCLUSIONS Despite a number of limitations (e.g., most studies used a cross-sectional design and were of low quality, with potential biases and considerable heterogeneity), our results reveal that sanitation is associated with a reduced risk of transmission of helminthiases to humans. Access to improved sanitation should be prioritized alongside preventive chemotherapy and health education to achieve a durable reduction of the burden of helminthiases.
PLoS One. 2012 ;7 (1):e28967 22238585
Coralie Damon, Frédéric Lehembre, Christine Oger-Desfeux, Patricia Luis, Jacques Ranger, Laurence Fraissinet-Tachet, Roland Marmeisse
Ecologie Microbienne, UMR CNRS 5557, USC INRA 1193, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France.
Eukaryotic organisms play essential roles in the biology and fertility of soils. For example the micro and mesofauna contribute to the fragmentation and homogenization of plant organic matter, while its hydrolysis is primarily performed by the fungi. To get a global picture of the activities carried out by soil eukaryotes we sequenced 2×10,000 cDNAs synthesized from polyadenylated mRNA directly extracted from soils sampled in beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies) forests. Taxonomic affiliation of both cDNAs and 18S rRNA sequences showed a dominance of sequences from fungi (up to 60%) and metazoans while protists represented less than 12% of the 18S rRNA sequences. Sixty percent of cDNA sequences from beech forest soil and 52% from spruce forest soil had no homologs in the GenBank/EMBL/DDJB protein database. A Gene Ontology term was attributed to 39% and 31.5% of the spruce and beech soil sequences respectively. Altogether 2076 sequences were putative homologs to different enzyme classes participating to 129 KEGG pathways among which several were implicated in the utilisation of soil nutrients such as nitrogen (ammonium, amino acids, oligopeptides), sugars, phosphates and sulfate. Specific annotation of plant cell wall degrading enzymes identified enzymes active on major polymers (cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectin, lignin) and glycoside hydrolases represented 0.5%(beech soil)-0.8%(spruce soil) of the cDNAs. Other sequences coding enzymes active on organic matter (extracellular proteases, lipases, a phytase, P450 monooxygenases) were identified, thus underlining the biotechnological potential of eukaryotic metatranscriptomes. The phylogenetic affiliation of 12 full-length carbohydrate active enzymes showed that most of them were distantly related to sequences from known fungi. For example, a putative GH45 endocellulase was closely associated to molluscan sequences, while a GH7 cellobiohydrolase was closest to crustacean sequences, thus suggesting a potentially significant contribution of non-fungal eukaryotes in the actual hydrolysis of soil organic matter.
High seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in a subset of Mexican patients with work accidents and low socioeconomic status.
Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Alejandro Torres-Castorena, Oliver Liesenfeld, Sergio Estrada-Martínez, Jesús D Urbina-Álvarez
Faculty of Medicine and Nutrition, Juárez University of Durango State, Avenida Universidad s/n, Durango, DGO, Mexico. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Toxoplasma gondii has been associated with reflex impairment and traffic accidents. It is unknown whether Toxoplasma infection might be associated with work accidents. Therefore, using a case-control seroprevalence study design, 133 patients with a recent work accident and 266 control subjects of the general population from the same region were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence and levels of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. Socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics from each worker were obtained. RESULTS Eleven (8.3%) of 133 patients, and 14 (5.3%) of 266 controls had anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies. Anti-T. gondii IgG levels were higher than 150 IU/ml in 8 (6%) patients and 10 (3.8%) controls. Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in one (0.8%) of the workers, and in 6 (2.3%) of the controls. No statistically significant differences in the IgG seroprevalences, frequencies of high IgG levels, and IgM seroprevalences among patients and controls were found. In contrast, a low socio-economic level in patients with work accidents was associated with Toxoplasma seropositivity (P = 0.01). Patients with work accidents and low socioeconomic status showed a significantly (OR = 3.38; 95% CI: 0.84-16.06; P = 0.04) higher seroprevalence of T. gondii infection than controls of the same socioeconomic status (15.1% vs. 5%, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed a positive association of T. gondii infection with boar meat consumption (OR = 3.04; 95% CI: 1.03-8.94; P = 0.04). In contrast, a negative association between T. gondii infection and national trips (OR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.17-0.96; P = 0.04), sausage consumption (OR = 0.20; 95% CI: 0.05-0.68; P = 0.01), and ham consumption (OR = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.05-0.51; P = 0.002) was found. CONCLUSIONS In the study described here seropositivity to T. gondii was associated to work accidents in a subset of patients with low socioeconomic status. This is the first report of an association of T. gondii infection and work accidents. Further studies to confirm our results are needed. Results may help in designing optimal prevention strategies to avoid T. gondii infection.
Toxoplasma gondii infection in workers occupationally exposed to unwashed raw fruits and vegetables: a case control seroprevalence study.
Faculty of Medicine and Nutrition, Juárez University of Durango State, Avenida Universidad S/N, 34000 Durango, Dgo, Mexico. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND Through a case control seroprevalence study, we sought to determine the association of Toxoplasma gondii infection with occupational exposure to unwashed raw fruits and vegetables. METHODS Subjects, numbering 200, who worked growing or selling fruits and vegetables, and 400 control subjects matched by age, gender, and residence were examined by enzyme immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. Socio-demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics from the study subjects were obtained. RESULTS Of the 200 fruit and vegetable workers, 15 (7.5%) of whom, and 31 (7.8%) of the 400 controls were positive for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies (P = 0.96). Anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies were found in 2 (1%) of the fruit workers and in 11 (2.8%) of the control subjects (P = 0.23). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma antibodies increased with age (P = 0.0004). In addition, seropositivity to Toxoplasma was associated with ill status (P = 0.04), chronic tonsillitis (P = 0.03), and reflex impairment (P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis showed that Toxoplasma infection was associated with consumption of raw meat (OR = 5.77; 95% CI: 1.15-28.79; P = 0.03), unwashed raw fruits (OR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.11-5.63; P = 0.02), and living in a house with soil floors (OR = 3.10; 95% CI: 1.22-7.88; P = 0.01), whereas Toxoplasma infection was negatively associated with traveling abroad (OR = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.12-0.67; P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS This is the first report of seroprevalence and contributing factors for Toxoplasma infection in workers occupationally exposed to unwashed raw fruits and vegetables, and the results may help in the design of optimal preventive measures against Toxoplasma infection especially in female workers at reproductive age.
Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba amebic encephalitis with neurotoxoplasmosis coinfection in a patient with advanced HIV infection.
Paula Pietrucha-Dilanchian, Joseph C Chan, Amilcar Castellano-Sanchez, Alicia Hirzel, Panthipa Laowansiri, Claudio Tuda, Govinda S Visvesvara, Yvonne Qvarnstrom, Kenneth R Ratzan
Division of Infectious Diseases, Jackson Memorial Hospital, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA. email@example.com
We describe a patient with advanced HIV infection and Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba amebic encephalitis with Toxoplasma gondii coinfection. A multidisciplinary effort and state-of-the-art diagnostic techniques were required for diagnosis. Our patient is the first reported case of an HIV-infected person with dual Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba amebic encephalitis with neurotoxoplasmosis coinfection.
Aurélien Dumètre, Dominique Aubert, Pierre-Henri Puech, Jeanne Hohweyer, Nadine Azas, Isabelle Villena
Aix-Marseille Université, UMR MD3 Relations Hôte-Parasites, Pharmacologie et Thérapeutique, Faculté de Pharmacie, Marseille, France. firstname.lastname@example.org
The protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Toxoplasma gondii are pathogens that are resistant to a number of environmental factors and pose significant risks to public health worldwide. Their environmental transmission is closely governed by the physicochemical properties of their cysts (Giardia) and oocysts (Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma), allowing their transport, retention, and survival for months in water, soil, vegetables, and mollusks, which are the main reservoirs for human infection. Importantly, the cyst/oocyst wall plays a key role in that regard by exhibiting a complex polymeric coverage that determines the charge and hydrophobic characteristics of parasites' surfaces. Interaction forces between parasites and other environmental particles may be, in a first approximation, evaluated following the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory of colloidal stability. However, due to the molecular topography and nano- to microstructure of the cyst/oocyst surface, non-DVLO hydrophobic forces together with additional steric attractive and/or repulsive forces may play a pivotal role in controlling the parasite behavior when the organism is subjected to various external conditions. Here, we review several parameters that enhance or hinder the adhesion of parasites to other particles and surfaces and address the role of fast-emerging techniques for mapping the cyst/oocyst surface, e.g., by measuring its topology and the generated interaction forces at the nano- to microscale. We discuss why characterizing these interactions could be a crucial step for managing the environmental matrices at risk of microbial pollution.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2011 ;7 :41 22146073
Assessing forest products usage and local residents' perception of environmental changes in peri-urban and rural mangroves of Cameroon, Central Africa.
Adolphe Nfotabong-Atheull, Ndongo Din, Léopold G Essomè Koum, Behara Satyanarayana, Nico Koedam, Farid Dahdouh-Guebas
Laboratory of Systems Ecology and Resource Management, Département de Biologie des Organismes, Faculté des Sciences, Université Libre de Bruxelles-ULB, Avenue Franklin D, Roosevelt 50, CPI 169, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Deforestation is one of the most ubiquitous forms of land degradation worldwide. Although remote sensing and aerial photographs can supply valuable information on land/use cover changes, they may not regularly be available for some tropical coasts (e.g., Cameroon estuary) where cloud cover is frequent. With respect to mangroves, researchers are now employing local knowledge as an alternative means of understanding forest disturbances. This paper was primarily aimed at assessing the mangrove forest products usage, along with the local people's perceptions on environmental changes, between Littoral (Cameroon estuary) and Southern (mouth of the Nyong River and Mpalla village) regions of Cameroon. METHODS The data from both locations were obtained through conducting household interviews and field observations. RESULTS In the Cameroon estuary (Littoral region), 69.23% of respondents (mostly elders) could distinguish two to four mangrove plants, whereas the informants (65.45%) in the mouth of the Nyong River and Mpalla village (mostly young people interviewed from the Southern region) are familiar with only one or two commonly found mangroves. Also, more respondents from the Cameroon estuary are depending on mangroves for fuelwood (Rhizophora spp.) and housing (Rhizophora spp., Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn and Nypa fruticans (Thumb.) Wurmb.) purposes, in contrast to Nyong River mouth and Mpalla village. Although local people perceived wood extraction as a greater disruptive factor, there are several causes for mangrove depletion in the Cameroon estuary. Among others, over-harvesting, clear-felled corridors, sand extraction and housing were found important. Furthermore, a decline in mangrove fauna composition (in terms of fishery products) was recorded in the Littoral as well as Southern regions. However, the causes of such perceived negative changes were not similar in both cases. CONCLUSIONS Findings of this study highlight the need to improve sustainable management of the mangrove ecosystems through afforestation (in large impacted areas), selective removal of senescent tree stems and branches (in little damage stands), regulating sand extraction and housing activities, and creating awareness and law enforcement.
Department of Ophthalmology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
This retrospective study included 10 eyes of 9 patients diagnosed with microsporidial keratitis. All of them were known to contract this disease after taking baths in hot springs. The disease was diagnosed based on detecting microsporidia in corneal scrapings using Gram stain and the modified Kinyoun's acid-fast stain. The specimens from the last six patients were subjected to PCR and then sequencing. All of them revealed that the microorganism identified has a high similarity to Vittaforma corneae. Repeated debridement of the epithelial lesions successfully eradicated the microsporidial infection in all nine patients.
Ronalda S Araújo, Milena Dropa, Licia N Fernandes, Terezinha T Carvalho, Maria Inês Z Sato, Rodrigo M Soares, Glavur R Matté, Maria Helena Matté
Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. firstname.lastname@example.org
The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium has emerged as one of the most important water contaminants, causing waterborne outbreaks of diarrheal diseases worldwide. The small size of oocysts under the microscope and the possibility of changes in characteristics of oocysts, mainly in environmental samples, make the taxonomy of the genus difficult if morphologic characteristics are considered. This limitation encouraged the application of molecular methods to identify this microorganism. The aim of this study was to detect and identify by nested-polymerase chain reaction oocysts of Cryptosporidium present in water samples in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Water samples were concentrated through a membrane filter, DNA was extracted by using a standard technique, and both amplification reactions used forward and reverse oligonucleotides that were complementary to Cryptosporidium 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Thirty water samples from different sites of collection in the state of São Paulo were evaluated. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 30% of the samples. By genoptyping, C. hominis and Cryptosporidium sp. were identified in recreational water and C. meleagridis was identified in surface water samples. This is the first report of C. hominis in environmental samples in Brazil. Although identification of Cryptosporidium is still a difficult task, molecular methods are essential for specific identification and are a helpful tool to aid to understand the epidemiology of this parasite in Brazil.
The neglected tropical diseases of India and South Asia: review of their prevalence, distribution, and control or elimination.
Comparison of assays for sensitive and reproducible detection of cell culture-infectious Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis in drinking water.
Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, Water Quality Laboratory, La Verne, California, USA. email@example.com
This study compared the three most commonly used assays for detecting Cryptosporidium sp. infections in cell culture: immunofluorescent antibody and microscopy assay (IFA), PCR targeting Cryptosporidium sp.-specific DNA, and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) targeting Cryptosporidium sp.-specific mRNA. Monolayers of HCT-8 cells, grown in 8-well chamber slides or 96-well plates, were inoculated with a variety of viable and inactivated oocysts to assess assay performance. All assays detected infection with low doses of flow cytometry-enumerated Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, including infection with one oocyst and three oocysts. All methods also detected infection with Cryptosporidium hominis. The RT-PCR assay, IFA, and PCR assay detected infection in 23%, 25%, and 51% of monolayers inoculated with three C. parvum oocysts and 10%, 9%, and 16% of monolayers inoculated with one oocyst, respectively. The PCR assay was the most sensitive, but it had the highest frequency of false positives with mock-infected cells and inactivated oocysts. IFA was the only infection detection assay that did not produce false positives with mock-infected monolayers. IFA was also the only assay that detected infections in all experiments with spiked oocysts recovered from Envirochek capsules following filtration of 1,000 liters of treated water. Consequently, cell culture with IFA detection is the most appropriate method for routine and sensitive detection of infectious Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis in drinking water.
The University of Georgia, Department of Environmental Health Science, Athens, GA 30602, USA.
Water, sponge and coral samples were collected from stations impacted by a variety of pollution sources and screened for human enteric viruses as conservative markers for human sewage. While human enteroviruses and adenoviruses were not detected, noroviruses (NoV; human genogroups I and II) were detected in 31% of samples (especially in sponge tissue). Stations near inlets were the only ones to show multiple sample types positive for NoV. Fecal indicator bacteria and enteric viruses were further evaluated at multiple inlet stations on an outgoing tide. Greatest indicator concentrations and highest prevalence of viruses were found at the mouth of the inlet and offshore in the inlet plume. Results suggest that inlets moving large volumes of water into the coastal zone with tides may be an important source of fecal contaminants. Efforts to reduce run-off or unintended release of water into the Intracoastal Waterway may lower contaminants entering sensitive coastal areas.
IOW-Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Department of Biological Oceanography, Seestraße 15, 18119 Rostock, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
The oxic-anoxic transition zone of the Black Sea comprises a large suboxic zone as well as anoxic and sulfidic waters. While the prokaryotes and biogeochemical cycles that characterize this zone have been frequently studied, little is known about the diversity or ecology of its microbial eukaryotes. Here, we present the first broad qualitative report of the protist species composition in the Black Sea redoxcline using molecular tools. Fingerprint analysis from the whole redoxcline revealed a complex community structure of metabolically active protists with distinct shifts along the redox gradient. Additionally, 18S rRNA gene clone libraries were used to compare protist species composition of suboxic and sulfidic water layers. Among the ciliates, sequences related to Pleuronema and Strombidium were dominant in both water layers whereas sequences affiliated with anaerobic plagiopylids and Cyclidium were detected only in the sulfidic zone. Among the flagellates, mainly stramenopiles (mostly bicosoecids and chrysophytes) occurred throughout the redoxcline. In the sulfidic zone we found stramenopile sequences but also euglenozoans, jakobids and choanoflagellates that were related to clonal sequences from other anoxic marine habitats, thus indicating the existence of globally distributed groups of anoxic flagellates. Higher species diversity in the sulfidic zone and about twice as many novel sequence types of ciliates and stramenopiles compared with the suboxic layer emphasizes the importance of anoxic, sulfidic waters as habitat for high protist diversity although the function of these organisms is yet unknown.
Parasit Vectors. 2011 ;4 :184 21943071
Eliningaya J Kweka, Eunice A Owino, Beda J Mwang'onde, Aneth M Mahande, Mramba Nyindo, Franklin Mosha
Tropical Pesticides Research Institute, Division of Livestock and Human disease vectors control, Arusha, Tanzania. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Chemical and behavioural ecology of mosquitoes plays an important role in the development of chemical cue based vector control. To date, studies available have focused on evaluating mosquito attractants and repellents of synthetic and human origins. This study, however, was aimed at seasonal evaluation of the efficiency of cow urine in producing oviposition cues to Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Culex quinquefasciatus in both laboratory and field conditions. METHODS Oviposition response evaluation in laboratory conditions was carried out in mosquito rearing cages. The oviposition substrates were located in parallel or in diagonal positions inside the cage. Urine evaluation against gravid females of An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus was carried out at Day 1, Day 3 and Day 7. Five millilitres (mls) of cow urine was added to oviposition substrate while de-chlorinated water was used as a control. In field experiments, 500 mls of cow urine was added in artificial habitats with 2500 mls of de-chlorinated water and 2 kgs of soil. The experiment was monitored for thirty consecutive days, eggs were collected daily from the habitats at 7.00 hrs. Data analysis was performed using parametric and non-parametric tests for treatments and controls while attraction of the oviposition substrate in each species was presented using Oviposition Activity Index (OAI). RESULTS The OAI was positive with ageing of cattle urine in culicine species in both laboratory and field experiments. The OAI for anopheline species was positive with fresh urine. The OAI during the rainy season was positive for all species tested while in the dry season the OAI for culicine spp and Anopheles gambiae s.l., changed with time from positive to negative values.Based on linear model analysis, seasons and treatments had a significant effect on the number of eggs laid in habitats, even though the number of days had no effect. CONCLUSION Oviposition substrates treated with cow urine in both laboratory and field conditions have shown that cow urine left to age from 1-7 days has an influence on oviposition behavioural response in mosquitoes. The analysis of microbial colonies for decaying urine should be investigated along with its associated by-products.