Neprilysin :: antagonists & inhibitors
J Med Chem. 2012 Feb 9;55 (3):1181-8 22224710
Structure-activity relationship study of opiorphin, a human dual ectopeptidase inhibitor with antinociceptive properties.
Mònica Rosa, Gemma Arsequell, Catherine Rougeot, Luis P Calle, Filipa Marcelo, Marta Pinto, Nuria B Centeno, Jesús Jiménez-Barbero, Gregorio Valencia
Institute of Advanced Chemistry of Catalonia (IQAC-CSIC), Barcelona, Spain.
Toward developing new potential analgesics, this first structure-activity relationship study of opiorphin (H-Gln-Arg-Phe-Ser-Arg-OH), a human peptide inhibiting enkephalin degradation, was performed. A systematic Ala scanning proved that Phe(3) is a key residue for neprilysin and aminopeptidase N (AP-N) ectoenkephalinase inhibition. A series of Phe(3)-halogenated analogues revealed that halogen bonding based optimization strategies are not applicable to this residue. Additional substituted Phe(3) derivatives showed that replacing l-Phe(3) for d-Phe(3) increased the AP-N inhibition potency by 1 order of magnitude. NMR studies and molecular mechanics calculations indicated that the improved potency may be due to CH-π stacking interactions between the aromatic ring of d-Phe(3) and the Hγ protons of Arg(2). This structural motif is not possible for the native opiorphin and may be useful for the design of further potent and metabolically stable analogues.
Most cited papers:
Pharmacochimie Moléculaire et Structurale (Unité 266 Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Medicale, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Faculté de Pharmacie, Paris, France.
University of Edinburgh, Department of Medicine, Western General Hospital, UK.
Endothelin-1 is an endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor peptide, possibly involved in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. We examined the contribution of endogenously generated endothelin-1 to maintenance of peripheral vascular tone in healthy subjects by local intraarterial administration of an inhibitor of endothelin converting enzyme, phosphoramidon, and of a selective endothelin receptor A antagonist, BQ-123. Brachial artery infusion of local doses of proendothelin-1, the precursor to endothelin-1, caused a slow-onset dose-dependent forearm vasoconstriction which was abolished by co-infusion of phosphoramidon. Phosphoramidon did not affect responses to endothelin-1. Phosphoramidon caused slow-onset vasodilatation when infused alone, with blood flow increasing by 37% at 90 min (p = 0.03). Vasoconstriction to endothelin-1 was abolished by co-infusion of BQ-123 (p = 0.006), with forearm blood flow tending to increase. Infusion of BQ-123 alone caused progressive vasodilatation, with blood flow increasing by 64% after 60 min (p = 0.007). These results show that endogenous production of endothelin-1 contributes to the maintenance of vascular tone. Endothelin converting enzyme inhibitors and receptor antagonists may have therapeutic potential as vasodilators.
Department of Anesthesiology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois, Chicago 60612.
This report summarizes the recent rapid development of research on neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (enkephalinase; NEP) and on two other metalloenzymes, meprin and endopeptidase 24.15. NEP cleaves a variety of active peptides, including enkephalins, at the amino side of hydrophobic amino acids. The cDNA for human, rat, and rabbit NEP has been cloned and the deduced protein sequences revealed a high degree of homology (93-94%). Site-directed mutagenesis proved that an active site glutamic acid is involved in catalysis and two active site histidines are responsible for binding the zinc cofactor. Although NEP was originally discovered in the kidney, it is widely distributed in the body including specific structures in the central nervous system, lung, male genital tract, and intestine and in neutrophils, fibroblasts, and epithelial cells. In tissues and cells NEP is bound to plasma membrane through a hydrophobic membrane-spanning domain near the NH2 terminus, but it is present in soluble form in urine and blood. In addition to enkephalins, NEP cleaves kinins, chemotactic peptide, atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), and substance P in vivo. NEP in the lung is a major inactivator of substance P, which constricts the airway smooth muscles. Because of the possible involvement of NEP in the metabolism of opioid peptides and the cardiac hormone ANF, orally active inhibitors have been synthesized. Compounds that inhibit both aminopeptidase and NEP were reported to prolong the analgesic effects of enkephalins. Other inhibitors given per os prolonged the renal effects of exogenous ANF. A newly synthesized specific inhibitor of NEP was also active in animal experiments as an analgesic. Studies on the structure and function of NEP should lead to further development of therapeutically applicable inhibitors.
Identification of the major Abeta1-42-degrading catabolic pathway in brain parenchyma: suppression leads to biochemical and pathological deposition.
N Iwata, S Tsubuki, Y Takaki, K Watanabe, M Sekiguchi, E Hosoki, M Kawashima-Morishima, H J Lee, E Hama, Y Sekine-Aizawa, T C Saido
Alzheimer amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) is a physiological peptide constantly anabolized and catabolized under normal conditions. We investigated the mechanism of catabolism by tracing multiple-radiolabeled synthetic peptide injected into rat hippocampus. The Abeta1-42 peptide underwent full degradation through limited proteolysis conducted by neutral endopeptidase (NEP) similar or identical to neprilysin as biochemically analyzed. Consistently, NEP inhibitor infusion resulted in both biochemical and pathological deposition of endogenous Abeta42 in brain. This NEP-catalyzed proteolysis therefore limits the rate of Abeta42 catabolism, up-regulation of which could reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease by preventing Abeta accumulation.
Comparison of omapatrilat and enalapril in patients with chronic heart failure: the Omapatrilat Versus Enalapril Randomized Trial of Utility in Reducing Events (OVERTURE).
Milton Packer, Robert M Califf, Marvin A Konstam, Henry Krum, John J McMurray, Jean-Lucien Rouleau, Karl Swedberg
Division of Circulatory Physiology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. mp65@Columbia.edu
BACKGROUND Combined inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and neutral endopeptidase (NEP) may produce greater benefits in heart failure than ACE inhibition alone. METHODS AND RESULTS We randomly assigned 5770 patients with New York Heart Association class II to IV heart failure to double-blind treatment with either the ACE inhibitor enalapril (10 mg BID, n=2884) or to the ACE-NEP inhibitor omapatrilat (40 mg once daily, n=2886) for a mean of 14.5 months. The primary end point-the combined risk of death or hospitalization for heart failure requiring intravenous treatment--was used prospectively to test both a superiority and noninferiority hypothesis (based on the effect of enalapril in the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction [SOLVD] Treatment Trial). A primary end point was achieved in 973 patients in the enalapril group and in 914 patients in the omapatrilat group (hazard ratio 0.94; 95% CI: 0.86 to 1.03, P=0.187)--a result that fulfilled prespecified criteria for noninferiority but not for superiority. The omapatrilat group also had a 9% lower risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalization (P=0.024) and a 6% lower risk of death (P=0.339). Post hoc analysis of the primary end point with the definition used in the SOLVD Treatment Trial (which included all hospitalizations for heart failure) showed an 11% lower risk in patients treated with omapatrilat (nominal P=0.012). CONCLUSION Omapatrilat reduces the risk of death and hospitalization in chronic heart failure but was not more effective than ACE inhibition alone in reducing the risk of a primary clinical event. Between-group differences in favor of omapatrilat observed in secondary and post hoc analyses warrant further study.
Comparison of vasopeptidase inhibitor, omapatrilat, and lisinopril on exercise tolerance and morbidity in patients with heart failure: IMPRESS randomised trial.
J L Rouleau, M A Pfeffer, D J Stewart, D Isaac, F Sestier, E K Kerut, C B Porter, G Proulx, C Qian, A J Block
Division of Cardiology, Toronto General Hospital, University of Toronto, ON, Canada. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND We aimed to assess in patients with congestive heart failure whether dual inhibition of neutral endopeptidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) with the vasopeptidase inhibitor omapatrilat is better than ACE inhibition alone with lisinopril on functional capacity and clinical outcome. METHODS We did a prospective, randomised, double-blind, parallel trial of 573 patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II-IV congestive heart failure, left-ventricular ejection fraction of 40% or less, and receiving an ACE inhibitor. Patients were randomly assigned omapatrilat at a daily target dose of 40 mg (n=289) or lisinopril at a daily target dose of 20 mg (n=284) for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was improvement in maximum exercise treadmill test (ETT) at week 12. Secondary endpoints included death and comorbid events indicative of worsening heart failure. FINDINGS Week 12 ETT increased similarly in the omapatrilat and lisinopril groups (24 vs 31 s, p=0.45). The two drugs were fairly well tolerated, but there were fewer cardiovascular-system serious adverse events in the omapatrilat group than in the lisinopril group (20 [7%] vs 34 [12%], p=0.04). There was a suggestive trend in favour of omapatrilat on the combined endpoint of death or admission for worsening heart failure (p=0.052; hazard ratio 0.53 [95% CI 0.27-1.02]) and a significant benefit of omapatrilat in the composite of death, admission, or discontinuation of study treatment for worsening heart failure (p=0.035; 0.52 [0.28-0.96]). Omapatrilat improved NYHA class more than lisinopril in patients who had NYHA class III and IV (p=0.035), but not if patients with NYHA class II were included. INTERPRETATION Our findings suggest that omapatrilat could have some advantages over lisinopril in the treatment of patients with congestive heart failure. Thus use of vasopeptidase inhibitors could constitute a potentially important treatment for further improving the prognosis and well being of patients with this disorder.
Cardiorenal Research Laboratory, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA. Burnett.email@example.com
Vasopeptidase inhibition is a new concept in cardiovascular therapy. It involves simultaneous inhibition with a single molecule of two key enzymes involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function, neutral endopeptidase (EC 24.11; NEP) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Simultaneous inhibition of NEP and ACE increases natriuretic and vasodilatory peptides (including atrial natriuretic peptide [ANP], brain natriuretic peptide [BNP] of myocardial cell origin, and C-type natriuretic peptide [CNP] of endothelial cell origin) and increases the half-life of other vasodilator peptides including bradykinin and adrenomedullin. By simultaneously inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and potentiating the natriuretic peptide system, vasopeptidase inhibitors (VPIs) reduce vasoconstriction and enhance vasodilation, thereby decreasing vascular tone and lowering blood pressure. Omapatrilat, a heterocyclic dipeptide mimetic, is a novel vasopeptidase inhibitor and a single molecule that simultaneously inhibits NEP and ACE with similar inhibition constants. Unlike ACE inhibitors, omapatrilat demonstrates antihypertensive efficacy in low-, normal-, and high-renin animal models. Unlike NEP inhibitors, omapatrilat provides a potent and sustained antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a model of human essential hypertension. In animal models of heart failure, omapatrilat is more effective than ACE inhibition in improving cardiac performance and ventricular remodeling and prolonging survival. Omapatrilat effectively reduces blood pressure, provides target-organ protection, and reduces morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular events in animal models. Omapatrilat is the first VPI to enter advanced USA clinical trials. Omapatrilat appears to be a safe, well-tolerated and effective antihypertensive in humans. Vasopeptidase inhibition is a novel and efficacious strategy for treating cardiovascular disorders, including hypertension and heart failure, that may offer advantages over currently available therapies.
Common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) is active neutral endopeptidase 24.11 ("enkephalinase"): direct evidence by cDNA transfection analysis.
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine, Boston, MA.
The common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) is a 749-amino acid type II integral membrane protein expressed by most acute lymphoblastic leukemias, certain other lymphoid malignancies with an immature phenotype, and normal lymphoid progenitors. A computer search against the most recent GenBank release (no. 56) indicates that human CALLA cDNA encodes a protein nearly identical to the rat and rabbit neutral endopeptidase 24.11 ("enkephalinase;" EC 126.96.36.199). This zinc metalloendopeptidase, which has been shown to inactivate a variety of peptide hormones including enkephalin, chemotactic peptide, substance P, neurotensin, oxytocin, bradykinin, and angiotensins I and II, had not been identified in lymphoid cells. To determine whether CALLA cDNA derived from human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells (Nalm-6 cell line) encodes functional neutral endopeptidase activity, we generated CALLA+ stable transfectants in the CALLA- murine myeloma cell line J558 and analyzed them for enzymatic activity in a fluorometric assay based upon cleavage of the substrate glutaryl-Ala-Ala-Phe 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamide at the Ala-Phe bond. Total lysates as well as whole-cell suspensions of the Nalm-6 line and of the CALLA+ transfectants, but not of the CALLA- J558 cells, possessed neutral endopeptidase activity. This enzymatic activity was associated with the cellular membrane fraction and was abrogated by the specific neutral endopeptidase inhibitor phosphoramidon. The unequivocal identification of CALLA as a functional neutral endopeptidase provides insight into its potential role in both normal and malignant lymphoid function.
Laboratory of Immunobiology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.
The antigen CD10 (common acute lymphoblastic leukaemia antigen), which is the zinc metalloprotease, neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (also known as NEP or 'enkephalinase'), is expressed by acute lymphoblastic leukaemias, normal lymphoid progenitors, mature polymorphonuclear leukocytes and certain nonhaematopoietic cells. CD10/NEP hydrolyses several naturally occurring peptides, including the endogenous opioid pentapeptides Met- and Leu-enkephalin. In invertebrate organisms such as the mollusc Mytilus edulis, Met-enkephalin triggers inflammatory responses by inducing morphological changes, directed migration and aggregation of haemocytes. We report here that a structure related to CD10/NEP is expressed by M. edulis haemocytes and that abrogation of CD10/NEP enzymatic activity reduces the amount of Met-enkephalin required for haemocyte activation by five orders of magnitude. Similar results are obtained with CD10+ human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, indicating that CD10/NEP related structures regulate enkephalin-mediated inflammatory responses in organisms whose ancestors diverged approximately 500 million years ago.
Vasodilator effects of endothelin-converting enzyme inhibition and endothelin ETA receptor blockade in chronic heart failure patients treated with ACE inhibitors.
Medical Research Council Clinical Research Initiative in Heart Failure, University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: The importance of endothelin-1 in chronic heart failure (CHF) is unclear. We therefore investigated the effects of endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE) inhibition and endothelin ETA receptor blockade in CHF patients treated with ACE inhibitors. We also compared the function of ETA and ETB receptors in healthy subjects and patients with CHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Locally active doses of study drugs were infused into the nondominant brachial artery while forearm blood flow (FBF was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography. In CHF patients (n = 10), phosphoramidon (a combined ECE and neutral endopeptidase inhibitor) and BQ-123 (an ETA receptor antagonist) increased FBF by 52 +/- 10%(P =.0006) and 31 +/- 6%(P =.002), respectively, and thiorphan (a selective neutral endopeptidase inhibitor) reduced FBF by 15 +/- 5%(P =.0007). Forearm vasoconstriction to endothelin-1 (an ETA and ETB receptor agonist) was significantly blunted in CHF patients compared with control subjects (both n = 10; CHF versus control subjects, P <.001), whereas vasoconstriction to sarafotoxin S6c (an ETB receptor agonist) was significantly enhanced in CHF patients compared with control subjects (both n = 10; CHF versus control subjects. P <.05). CONCLUSIONS: ECE inhibitors and ETA receptor antagonists may be useful as vasodilator agents in CHF patients already receiving treatment with an ACE inhibitor. Both ETA and ETB receptors can mediate agonist-induced vasoconstriction in healthy subjects and patients with CHF, but further studies are required to clarify the contribution of each receptor subtype in mediating the effects of endogenous endothelin-1.