Myocardial Infarction :: etiology
Jingyuan Li, Soban Umar, Andrea Iorga, Ji-Youn Youn, Yibin Wang, Vera Regitz-Zagrosek, Hua Cai, Mansoureh Eghbali
Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Molecular Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-7115, USA.
Although the murine late pregnant (LP) heart is speculated to be a better functioning heart during physiological conditions, the susceptibility of LP hearts to I/R injury is still unknown. The aims of this study were to investigate the cardiac vulnerability of LP rodents to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and to explore its underlying mechanisms. In vivo female rat hearts [non-pregnant (NP) or LP] or ex vivo Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts were subjected to I/R. The infarct size was approximately fourfold larger in LP animals compared with NP both in vivo and ex vivo. The heart functional recovery was extremely poor in LP mice compared with NP (~10% recovery in LP vs. 80% recovery in NP at the end of reperfusion, P < 0.01). Interestingly, the poor functional recovery and the larger infarct size in LP were partially restored one day post-partum and almost fully restored 1 week post-partum to their corresponding NP levels. Mitochondrial respiratory function and the threshold for opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore were significantly lower in LP compared with NP when they both were subjected to myocardial I/R injury [Respiratory control ratio = 1.9 ± 0.1 vs. 4.0 ± 0.5 in NP, P < 0.05; calcium retention capacity (CRC)= 167 ± 10 vs. 233 ± 18 nmol/mg protein in NP, P < 0.01]. Cardiac reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, as well mitochondrial superoxide production, was approximately twofold higher in LP compared with NP following I/R. The phosphorylation levels of Akt, ERK1/2, and STAT3, but not GSK3β, were significantly reduced in the hearts from LP subjected to I/R. In conclusion, increased mitochondrial ROS generation, decreased CRC as well as impaired activation of Akt/ERK/STAT3 at reperfusion are the possible underlying mechanisms for higher vulnerability of LP hearts to I/R.
Most cited papers:
BACKGROUND: Inflammation may be important in the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis. We studied whether inflammation increases the risk of a first thrombotic event and whether treatment with aspirin decreases the risk. METHODS: We measured plasma C-reactive protein, a marker for systemic inflammation, in 543 apparently healthy men participating in the Physicians' Health Study in whom myocardial infarction, stroke, or venous thrombosis subsequently developed, and in 543 study participants who did not report vascular disease during a follow-up period exceeding eight years. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive aspirin or placebo at the beginning of the trial. RESULTS: Base-line plasma C-reactive protein concentrations were higher among men who went on to have myocardial infarction (1.51 vs. 1.13 mg per liter, P<0.001) or ischemic stroke (1.38 vs. 1.13 mg per liter, P=0.02), but not venous thrombosis (1.26 vs. 1.13 mg per liter, P=0.34), than among men without vascular events. The men in the quartile with the highest levels of C-reactive protein values had three times the risk of myocardial infarction (relative risk, 2.9; P<0.001) and two times the risk of ischemic stroke (relative risk, 1.9; P=0.02) of the men in the lowest quartile. Risks were stable over long periods, were not modified by smoking, and were independent of other lipid-related and non-lipid-related risk factors. The use of aspirin was associated with significant reductions in the risk of myocardial infarction (55.7 percent reduction, P=0.02) among men in the highest quartile but with only small, nonsignificant reductions among those in the lowest quartile (13.9 percent, P=0.77). CONCLUSIONS: The base-line plasma concentration of C-reactive protein predicts the risk of future myocardial infarction and stroke. Moreover, the reduction associated with the use of aspirin in the risk of a first myocardial infarction appears to be directly related to the level of C-reactive protein, raising the possibility that antiinflammatory agents may have clinical benefits in preventing cardiovascular disease.
Carotid-artery intima and media thickness as a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in older adults. Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group.
BACKGROUND: The combined thickness of the intima and media of the carotid artery is associated with the prevalence of cardiovascular disease. We studied the associations between the thickness of the carotid-artery intima and media and the incidence of new myocardial infarction or stroke in persons without clinical cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Noninvasive measurements of the intima and media of the common and internal carotid artery were made with high-resolution ultrasonography in 5858 subjects 65 years of age or older. Cardiovascular events (new myocardial infarction or stroke) served as outcome variables in subjects without clinical cardiovascular disease (4476 subjects) over a median follow-up period of 6.2 years. RESULTS: The incidence of cardiovascular events correlated with measurements of carotid-artery intima-media thickness. The relative risk of myocardial infarction or stroke increased with intima-media thickness (P<0.001). The relative risk of myocardial infarction or stroke (adjusted for age and sex) for the quintile with the highest thickness as compared with the lowest quintile was 3.87 (95 percent confidence interval, 2.72 to 5.51). The association between cardiovascular events and intima-media thickness remained significant after adjustment for traditional risk factors, showing increasing risks for each quintile of combined intima-media thickness, from the second quintile (relative risk, 1.54; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.04 to 2.28), to the third (relative risk, 1.84; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.26 to 2.67), fourth (relative risk, 2.01; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.38 to 2.91), and fifth (relative risk, 3.15; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.19 to 4.52). The results of separate analyses of myocardial infarction and stroke paralleled those for the combined end point. CONCLUSIONS: Increases in the thickness of the intima and media of the carotid artery, as measured noninvasively by ultrasonography, are directly associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in older adults without a history of cardiovascular disease.
To define the prevalence of total coronary occlusion in the hours after transmural myocardial infarction, we used coronary arteriography to study the degree of coronary obstruction in 322 patients admitted within 24 hours of infarction. Total coronary occlusion was observed in 110 of 126 patients (87 per cent) who were evaluated within four hours of the onset of symptoms; this proportion decreased significantly, to 37 of 57 (65 per cent), when patients were studied 12 to 24 hours after the onset of symptoms. Among 59 patients with angiographic features of coronary thrombosis, the thrombus was retrieved by Fogarty catheter in 52 (88 per cent) but was absent in seven (12 per cent false positive). Among an additional 20 patients without angiographic features of thrombosis, a thrombus was discovered in five (25 per cent false negative). Thus, total coronary occlusion is frequent during the early hours of transmural infarction and decreases in frequency during the initial 24 hours, suggesting that coronary spasm or thrombus formation with subsequent recanalization or both may be important in the evolution of infarction.
Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study.
Salim Yusuf, Steven Hawken, Stephanie Ounpuu, Tony Dans, Alvaro Avezum, Fernando Lanas, Matthew McQueen, Andrzej Budaj, Prem Pais, John Varigos, Liu Lisheng
Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton General Hospital, 237 Barton Street East, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8L 2X2. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND Although more than 80% of the global burden of cardiovascular disease occurs in low-income and middle-income countries, knowledge of the importance of risk factors is largely derived from developed countries. Therefore, the effect of such factors on risk of coronary heart disease in most regions of the world is unknown. METHODS We established a standardised case-control study of acute myocardial infarction in 52 countries, representing every inhabited continent. 15152 cases and 14820 controls were enrolled. The relation of smoking, history of hypertension or diabetes, waist/hip ratio, dietary patterns, physical activity, consumption of alcohol, blood apolipoproteins (Apo), and psychosocial factors to myocardial infarction are reported here. Odds ratios and their 99% CIs for the association of risk factors to myocardial infarction and their population attributable risks (PAR) were calculated. FINDINGS Smoking (odds ratio 2.87 for current vs never, PAR 35.7% for current and former vs never), raised ApoB/ApoA1 ratio (3.25 for top vs lowest quintile, PAR 49.2% for top four quintiles vs lowest quintile), history of hypertension (1.91, PAR 17.9%), diabetes (2.37, PAR 9.9%), abdominal obesity (1.12 for top vs lowest tertile and 1.62 for middle vs lowest tertile, PAR 20.1% for top two tertiles vs lowest tertile), psychosocial factors (2.67, PAR 32.5%), daily consumption of fruits and vegetables (0.70, PAR 13.7% for lack of daily consumption), regular alcohol consumption (0.91, PAR 6.7%), and regular physical activity (0.86, PAR 12.2%), were all significantly related to acute myocardial infarction (p<0.0001 for all risk factors and p=0.03 for alcohol). These associations were noted in men and women, old and young, and in all regions of the world. Collectively, these nine risk factors accounted for 90% of the PAR in men and 94% in women. INTERPRETATION Abnormal lipids, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, abdominal obesity, psychosocial factors, consumption of fruits, vegetables, and alcohol, and regular physical activity account for most of the risk of myocardial infarction worldwide in both sexes and at all ages in all regions. This finding suggests that approaches to prevention can be based on similar principles worldwide and have the potential to prevent most premature cases of myocardial infarction.
Postmenopausal estrogen therapy and cardiovascular disease. Ten-year follow-up from the nurses' health study.
Channing Laboratory, Boston, MA 02115.
BACKGROUND The effect of postmenopausal estrogen therapy on the risk of cardiovascular disease remains controversial. Our 1985 report in the Journal, based on four years of follow-up, suggested that estrogen therapy reduced the risk of coronary heart disease, but a report published simultaneously from the Framingham Study suggested that the risk was increased. In addition, studies of the effect of estrogens on stroke have yielded conflicting results. METHODS We followed 48,470 postmenopausal women, 30 to 63 years old, who were participants in the Nurses' Health Study, and who did not have a history of cancer or cardiovascular disease at base line. During up to 10 years of follow-up (337,854 person-years), we documented 224 strokes, 405 cases of major coronary disease (nonfatal myocardial infarctions or deaths from coronary causes), and 1263 deaths from all causes. RESULTS After adjustment for age and other risk factors, the overall relative risk of major coronary disease in women currently taking estrogen was 0.56 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.40 to 0.80); the risk was significantly reduced among women with either natural or surgical menopause. We observed no effect of the duration of estrogen use independent of age. The findings were similar in analyses limited to women who had recently visited their physicians (relative risk, 0.45; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.31 to 0.66) and in a low-risk group that excluded women reporting current cigarette smoking, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, or a Quetelet index above the 90th percentile (relative risk, 0.53; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.31 to 0.91). The relative risk for current and former users of estrogen as compared with those who had never used it was 0.89 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.78 to 1.00) for total mortality and 0.72 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.55 to 0.95) for mortality from cardiovascular disease. The relative risk of stroke when current users were compared with those who had never used estrogen was 0.97 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.65 to 1.45), with no marked differences according to type of stroke. CONCLUSIONS Current estrogen use is associated with a reduction in the incidence of coronary heart disease as well as in mortality from cardiovascular disease, but it is not associated with any change in the risk of stroke.
Serological evidence of an association of a novel Chlamydia, TWAR, with chronic coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarction.
Department of Virology, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Paired sera from 40 male patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 30 male patients with chronic coronary heart disease (CCHD), and 41 controls, matched for sex, age, time, and locality were investigated for antibodies to a novel type of Chlamydia sp, TWAR, and to chlamydial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group antigen. 27 patients with AMI (68%), and 15 (50%) patients with CCHD had raised IgG (greater than or equal to 128) and/or IgA (greater than or equal to 32) titres in the microimmunofluorescence test with chlamydia TWAR. Both frequencies were significantly higher than in the controls (7, 17%). 26 (68%) of 38 patients with AMI also showed a significant seroconversion in enzyme immunoassay with LPS antigen; this response was absent in all patients with CCHD and all but 1 of the controls. Chronic chlamydial infection could be a factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases.
M J Stampfer, M R Malinow, W C Willett, L M Newcomer, B Upson, D Ullmann, P V Tishler, C H Hennekens
Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA.
OBJECTIVE To assess prospectively the risk of coronary heart disease associated with elevated plasma levels of homocyst(e)ine. DESIGN Nested case-control study using prospectively collected blood samples. SETTING Participants in the Physicians' Health Study. PARTICIPANTS A total of 14,916 male physicians, aged 40 to 84 years, with no prior myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke provided plasma samples at baseline and were followed up for 5 years. Samples from 271 men who subsequently developed MI were analyzed for homocyst(e)ine levels together with paired controls, matched by age and smoking. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Acute MI or death due to coronary disease. RESULTS Levels of homocyst(e)ine were higher in cases than in controls (11.1 +/- 4.0 [SD] vs 10.5 +/- 2.8 nmol/mL; P =.03). The difference was attributable to an excess of high values among men who later had MIs. The relative risk for the highest 5% vs the bottom 90% of homocyst(e)ine levels was 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 6.9; P =.005). After additional adjustment for diabetes, hypertension, aspirin assignment, Quetelet's Index, and total/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, this relative risk was 3.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 8.8)(P =.01). Thirteen controls and 31 cases (11%) had values above the 95th percentile of the controls. CONCLUSIONS Moderately high levels of plasma homocyst(e)ine are associated with subsequent risk of MI independent of other coronary risk factors. Because high levels can often be easily treated with vitamin supplements, homocyst(e)ine may be an independent, modifiable risk factor.
Hemostatic factors and the risk of myocardial infarction or sudden death in patients with angina pectoris. European Concerted Action on Thrombosis and Disabilities Angina Pectoris Study Group.
BACKGROUND. Increased levels of certain hemostatic factors may play a part in the development of acute coronary syndromes and may be associated with an increased risk of coronary events in patients with angina pectoris. METHODS. We conducted a prospective multicenter study of 3043 patients with angina pectoris who underwent coronary angiography and were followed for two years. Base-line measurements included the concentrations of selected hemostatic factors indicative of a thrombophilic state or endothelial injury. The results were analyzed in relation to the subsequent incidence of myocardial infarction or sudden coronary death. RESULTS. After adjustment for the extent of coronary artery disease and other risk factors, an increased incidence of myocardial infarction or sudden death was associated with higher base-line concentrations of fibrinogen (mean +/- SD, 3.28 +/- 0.74 g per liter in patients who subsequently had coronary events, as compared with 3.00 +/- 0.71 g per liter in those who did not; P = 0.01), von Willebrand factor antigen (138 +/- 49 percent vs. 125 +/- 49 percent, P = 0.05), and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) antigen (11.9 +/- 4.7 ng per milliliter vs. 10.0 +/- 4.2 ng per milliliter, P = 0.02). The concentration of C-reactive protein was also directly correlated with the incidence of coronary events (P = 0.05), except when we adjusted for the fibrinogen concentration. In patients with high serum cholesterol levels, the risk of coronary events rose with increasing levels of fibrinogen and C-reactive protein, but the risk remained low even given high serum cholesterol levels in the presence of low fibrinogen concentrations. CONCLUSIONS. In patients with angina pectoris, the levels of fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor antigen, and t-PA antigen are independent predictors of subsequent acute coronary syndromes. In addition, low fibrinogen concentrations characterize patients at low risk for coronary events despite increased serum cholesterol levels. Our data are consistent with a pathogenetic role of impaired fibrinolysis, endothelial-cell injury, and inflammatory activity in the progression of coronary artery disease.