Latest papers on Plant Extracts,
Louis-Michel Wong Kee Song, Subhas Banerjee, Bradley A Barth, Yasser Bhat, David Desilets, Klaus T Gottlieb, John T Maple, Patrick R Pfau, Douglas K Pleskow, Uzma D Siddiqui, Jeffrey L Tokar, Amy Wang, Sarah A Rodriguez
Allocation of 14C assimilated in late spring to tissue and biochemical stem components of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) over the seasons.
Department of Plant Production: Botany and Plant Protection, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. Agrónomos, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain. email@example.com
Carbon distribution in the stem of 2-year-old cork oak plants was studied by (14)CO(2) pulse labeling in late spring in order to trace the allocation of photoassimilates to tissue and biochemical stem components of cork oak. The fate of (14)C photoassimilated carbon was followed during two periods: the first 72 h (short-term study) and the first 52 weeks (long-term study) after the (14)CO(2) photosynthetic assimilation. The results showed that (14)C allocation to stem tissues was dependent on the time passed since photoassimilation and on the season of the year. In the first 3 h all (14)C was found in the polar extractives. After 3 h, it started to be allocated to other stem fractions. In 1 day,(14)C was allocated mostly to vascular cambium and, to a lesser extent, to primary phloem; no presence of (14)C was recorded for the periderm. However, translocation of (14)C to phellem was observed from 1 week after (14)CO(2) pulse labeling. The phellogen was not completely active in its entire circumference at labeling, unlike the vascular cambium; this was the tissue that accumulated most photoassimilated (14)C at the earliest sampling. The fraction of leaf-assimilated (14)C that was used by the stem peaked at 57% 1 week after (14)CO(2) plant exposure. The time lag between C photoassimilation and suberin accumulation was ∼8 h, but the most active period for suberin accumulation was between 3 and 7 days. Suberin, which represented only 1.77% of the stem weight, acted as a highly effective sink for the carbon photoassimilated in late spring since suberin specific radioactivity was much higher than for any other stem component as early as only 1 week after (14)C plant labeling. This trend was maintained throughout the whole experiment. The examination of microautoradiographs taken over 1 year provided a new method for quantifying xylem growth. Using this approach it was found that there was more secondary xylem growth in late spring than in other times of the year, because the calculated average cell division time was much shorter.
Diabetes. 2012 May ;61 (5):1062-71 22415873
Liver X receptor α is involved in the transcriptional regulation of the 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase gene.
Li-Feng Zhao, Yasumasa Iwasaki, Mitsuru Nishiyama, Takafumi Taguchi, Makoto Tsugita, Mizuho Okazaki, Shuichi Nakayama, Machiko Kambayashi, Shimpei Fujimoto, Koshi Hashimoto, Koji Murao, Yoshio Terada
Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Nephrology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan.
The activity of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase is strictly controlled by fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, the level of which is regulated by another enzyme, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFK2/FBP2). PFK2/FBP2 is a bifunctional enzyme, having kinase and phosphatase activities, and regulates both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Here, we examined the hormonal regulation of the PFK2/FBP2 gene in vitro using the reporter assay, the electromobility shift assay (EMSA), and the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay in HuH7 cells and also using the mouse liver in vivo. We found that the transcriptional activity of the PFK2/FBP2 gene was stimulated by insulin and inhibited by cAMP and glucocorticoid. Liver X receptor (LXR) α showed a potent and specific stimulatory effect on PFK2/FBP2 gene transcription. Deletion and mutagenesis analyses identified the LXR response element (LXRE) in the 5'-promoter region of the PFK2/FBP2 gene. Binding of LXRα was confirmed by the EMSA and ChIP assay. Endogenous PFK2/FBP2 mRNA in the mouse liver was increased in the fasting/refeeding state compared with the fasting state. Altogether, PFK2/FBP2 gene transcription is found to be regulated in a way that is more similar to other glycolytic enzyme genes than to gluconeogenic genes. Furthermore, our data strongly suggest that LXRα is one of the key regulators of PFK2/FBP2 gene transcription.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2012 ;35 (3):329-34 22382318
Laboratory of Pharmacotherapy, Department of Clinical Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai University, Saitama, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
This study investigates whether tomato juice can inhibit cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4-mediated drug metabolism. Three commercially available, additive-free tomato juices, along with homogenized fresh tomato, were analyzed for their ability to inhibit testosterone 6β-hydroxylation activity using human recombinant CYP3A4. Results were compared to that of grapefruit juice. Ethyl acetate extracts of the tomato juices moderately reduced residual activity of CYP3A4 testosterone 6β-hydroxylation activity by 19.3-26.2% with 0-min preincubation. Residual activity was strongly reduced by 69.9-83.5% at 20-min preincubation, a reduction similar to that of grapefruit juice extract, known to contain constituents of mechanism-based inhibitors. One juice extract (tomato juice C) showed irreversible dose- and preincubation time-dependent and partial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4 activity. Furthermore, we examined whether the CYP3A4 inhibitory effect of tomato juice was substrate dependent by examining midazolam 1'-hydroxylation activity and nifedipine oxidation activity, in addition to testosterone 6β-hydroxylation activity. Tomato juice showed a potent inhibitory effect on nifedipine oxidation activity, which was comparable to that on testosterone 6β-hydroxylation activity; however, it showed a weak inhibitory effect on midazolam 1'-hydroxylation activity. We conclude that tomato juice contains one or more mechanism-based and competitive inhibitor(s) of CYP3A4. Additionally, significant CYP3A4 inhibitory activity did not result from lycopene, a major compound in tomato. Although the active compound was uncertain, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitory activity was observed in other solanaceous plants, i.e., potato, eggplant, sweet pepper, and capsicum. Therefore, responsible compounds in tomato are likely commonly shared among solanaceous vegetables.
Cereal bran fractionation: processing techniques for the recovery of functional components and their applications to the food industry.
IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, Food Quality and Nutrition Area, Via E. Mach 1, 38010 S. Michele all'Adige, Italy.
Bran is the outer part of cereal grains that is separated during the cereals de-hulling and milling processes. It was considered in the past a by-product of cereal industry employed mainly as animal feed. Cereal bran, being particularly rich in different functional biopolymers, bio-active compounds and essential fatty acids, attracted the interest of pharmaceutical and food industry. Furthermore, the peculiar techno-functional properties of brans together with their particular physiological and nutritional aspects have led to a great interest in their incorporation as main or secondary components in different groups of food products including bakery and confectionery products, breakfast cereals and extruded foodstuffs, emulsions and functional dairy products and pasta products. In the first part of the present work the main fractionation processes, bran fractions properties and their physicochemical and technological properties are briefly reviewed. In the second part, relevant applications, with emphasis on patents, in food industry are reviewed as well.
Effect of chloride ions on anthrasesamone C production in a Sesamum indicum hairy root culture and identification of the precursor for its abiotic formation.
Department of Applied Biological Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Kagawa, Japan. email@example.com
The content of anthrasesamone C (5), a rare chlorine-containing anthraquinone, in a hairy root culture of Sesamum indicum increased with increasing chloride ion concentration in the culture medium and reached a maximum at 100 mM. However, the amount of anthrasesamone C (5) in the extract obtained from the hairy roots was increased by incubating the extract. This result suggests that anthrasesamone C (5) was produced from an unidentified metabolite by an abiotic process. 2,3-Epoxyanthrasesamone B (1), a precursor for the non-enzymatic formation of anthrasesamone C (5), was isolated from S. indicum hairy roots cultured in a chloride-deficient medium. Its structure was elucidated to be 2,3-epoxy-9,10-dihydroxy-2-(4-methylpent-3-en-1-yl)-2,3-dihydroanthracene-1,4-dione by spectroscopic methods.
Phytochemistry. 2012 Apr ;76 :178-83 22273040
Laboratory of Organic Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, Turku, Finland. firstname.lastname@example.org
A procyanidin dimer xyloside, catechin-(4α→8)-7-O-β-xylopyranosyl-catechin, was isolated from the inner bark of Betula pendula and its structure was determined using 1D and 2D NMR, CD and high-resolution ESIMS. Interestingly, the 7-O-β-xylopyranose unit was found to be present in the lower terminal unit of the dimer. In addition to this procyanidin dimer xyloside, an entire series of oligomeric and polymeric procyanidin xylosides was detected. Their structures were investigated by hydrophilic interaction HPLC-HRESIMS. Procyanidin glycosides are still rarely found in nature.
Field evaluation of commercial repellents against the floodwater mosquito Psorophora columbiae (Diptera: Culicidae) in St. Johns County, Florida.
Anastasia Mosquito Control District, 500 Old Beach Road, St. Augustine, Florida 32080, USA. email@example.com
Three plant-based repellents-REPEL LEMON Eucalyptus Insect Repellent Lotion (active ingredient [AI] 30% oil of eucalyptus), Bite Blocker Xtreme Sportsman Organic Insect Repellent ([AI] 3% soybean oil, 6% geranium oil, and 8% castor oil), and Bite Blocker BioUD Insect Repellent ([AI] 7.75% 2-undecanone)--were evaluated against OFF!([AI] 15% N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide or N,N-diethyl-3-methyl-benzamide, also called DEET) at a field site in Elkton, FL, to determine the mean protection time provided against Psorophora columbiae (Dyar & Knab). These products provided different protection times against biting Ps. columbiae. REPEL provided the longest protection time (330 min) followed by Bite Blocker Xtreme Sportsman (163 min), Bite Blocker BioUD (140 min), and OFF!(130 min). This study provides the first information about plant-based insect repellent protection times against Ps. columbiae.
Long-term effect of phytoestrogens from Curcuma comosa Roxb. on vascular relaxation in ovariectomized rats.
Suttira Intapad, Vitoon Saengsirisuwan, Mujalin Prasannarong, Aporn Chuncharunee, Wisuda Suvitayawat, Ratchanaporn Chokchaisiri, Apichart Suksamrarn, Pawinee Piyachaturawat
Department of Physiology, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand 10400.
Phytoestrogens have been implicated as promising therapeutic agents to treat the vascular impairment seen in menopausal women. The present study investigated the long-term effects of phytoestrogens from Curcuma comosa Roxb. on vascular relaxation of isolated thoracic aorta from ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Treatment of OVX rats for 12 weeks with C. comosa powder, hexane extract, and a novel phytoestrogen, diarylheptanoid-D3,[(3R)-1,7-diphenyl-(4E,6E)-4,6-heptadien-3-ol] prevented impairment of the endothelium-dependent relaxation response to acetylcholine in OVX, but not the endothelium-denude aortic ring relaxation in response to sodium nitroprusside. These data suggest that the vascular relaxation effect of C. comosa is mediated via endothelial cells. Treatment with D3 also increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and estrogen receptor-α (ERα) protein expression in the aorta of OVX rats and suppressed elevated tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression in OVX aortic rings. These results indicate that C. comosa treatment prevents impairment of vascular relaxation in estrogen-deficient animals via the ER-eNOS pathway as well as through its ability to promote an anti-inflammatory response.
Curr Med Chem. 2012 ;19 (5):757-62 22204346
Clinical Sciences Lund, Department of Surgery, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
Polysaccharide-K (PSK, Krestin) is one of the most commonly used medicinal mushroom extracts with a long history as an additive in cancer therapy in Asia, especially in Japan. PSK has a documented anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vitro, in various types of cancers, including colorectal, gastric, breast, liver, pancreatic, and lung cancer. Despite PSK having been studied for about 40 years as an immune modulator and biological response modifier, the mechanisms of action by PSK have not yet been clearly and completely elucidated. This review aims to provide an up-to-date account for the effects of PSK in cancer with the hope of thereby providing an increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms of PSK and also its potential as an additive in modern cancer therapy.
J Oleo Sci. 2012 ;61 (1):11-6 22188801
Stabilization of emulsion and butter like products containing essential fatty acids using kalonji seeds extract and curcuminoids.
Department of Oils, Oleochemicals and Surfactants Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Nathalal Parekh Marg, India.
Owing to the tendency of essential fatty acids (EFAs) to undergo autoxidation, their storage becomes a key problem. Generally, they are stabilized by synthetic antioxidants like TBHQ that are toxic in nature. Recently many studies were reported where these EFAs are stabilized by natural antioxidants. In the present study, curcuminoids and kalonji seeds ethanol extract (KEE) were used to stabilize these EFAs in refined sunflower oil (RSFO), water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion and butter like products (BLPs). In RSFO, though curcuminoids alone exerted pro-oxidant effect, KEE and curcuminoids showed synergistic antioxidant activity that was comparable to TBHQ. KEE exhibited good antioxidant activity in emulsions and BLPs, providing fine physical properties like slipping point, dropping point and spreadability. EFAs increased the nutritional value of BLPs and antioxidants added for their stabilization provided their medicinal benefits.
Different mechanics of snap-trapping in the two closely related carnivorous plants Dionaea muscipula and Aldrovanda vesiculosa.
Plant Biomechanics Group Freiburg, Botanic Garden, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Schänzlestrasse 1, DE-79104 Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.
The carnivorous aquatic waterwheel plant (Aldrovanda vesiculosa L.) and the closely related terrestrial venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula Sol. ex J. Ellis) both feature elaborate snap-traps, which shut after reception of an external mechanical stimulus by prey animals. Traditionally, Aldrovanda is considered as a miniature, aquatic Dionaea, an assumption which was already established by Charles Darwin. However, videos of snapping traps from both species suggest completely different closure mechanisms. Indeed, the well-described snapping mechanism in Dionaea comprises abrupt curvature inversion of the two trap lobes, while the closing movement in Aldrovanda involves deformation of the trap midrib but not of the lobes, which do not change curvature. In this paper, we present detailed mechanical models for these plants, which are based on the theory of thin solid membranes and explain this difference by showing that the fast snapping of Aldrovanda is due to kinematic amplification of the bending deformation of the midrib, while that of Dionaea unambiguously relies on the buckling instability that affects the two lobes.
J Food Sci. 2012 Jan ;77 (1):H23-30 22132933
Heat and pH stability of alkali-extractable corn arabinoxylan and its xylanase-hydrolyzate and their viscosity behavior.
Whistler Center for Carbohydrate Research and Department of Food Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.
In in vitro batch fermentations, both alkali-extractable corn arabinoxylan (CAX) and its xylanase-hydrolyzate (CH) were utilized by human fecal microbiota and produced similar short chain fatty acid (SCFA) contents and desirable long fermentation profiles with low initial gas production. Fortification of these arabinoxylans into processed foods would contribute desirable dietary fiber benefits to humans. Heat and pH stability, as well as viscosity behavior of CAX and CH were investigated. Size exclusion chromatography was used to analyze the molecular size distribution after treatment at different pH's and heating temperatures for different time periods. Treated under boiling and pressure cooking conditions at pH 3, CAX was degraded to a smaller molecular size, whereas the molecular size of the CH showed only a minor decrease. CAX and CH were mostly stable at neutral pH, except when CAX was treated under pressure for 60 min that slightly lowered molecular size. At 37 °C, neither CAX nor CH was adversely affected by treatment at low or neutral pH. The viscosities of solutions containing 5% and 10% of CAX were 48.7 and 637.0 mPa.s, respectively that were higher than those of solutions containing 5% and 10% of its hydrolyzate at shear rate 1 s⁻¹. The CAX solutions showed Newtonian flow behavior, whereas shear-thinning behavior was observed in CH solutions. In conclusion, the hydrolyzate of CAX has potential to be used in high fiber drinks due to its favorable fermentation properties, higher pH and heat stability, lower and shear-thinning viscosity, and lighter color than the native CAX. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Arabinoxylan extracted by an alkali from corn bran is a soluble fiber with a desirable low initial and extended fermentation property. Corn arabinoxylan hydrolyzate using an endoxylanase was much more stable at different levels of acidity and heat than the native arabinoxylan, and showed lower solution viscosity and shear-thinning property that indicates its potential as an alternative functional dietary fiber for the beverage industry.
School of Studies in Biotechnology, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, Chhattisgarh 492010, India.
Herbal medicine has been used in medical practice for thousands of years and recognized especially as a valuable and readily available resource for healthcare in Asian nations. India is a vast repository of medicinal plants that can be developed as a safe and economical system of medicine for the treatment of various ailments. Unfortunately, most of the traditionally used medicinal plants are yet unexplored or have not been fully examined by modern medical science. Therefore, exploring traditionally reported medicinal plants to leverage their potential for the betterment of human health is of great importance. The present review examines a promising medicinal plant genus Spilanthes. In recent years, many new compounds and activities of this plant genus have been established. The present review therefore, aims to compile up-to-date and comprehensive information of genus Spilanthes with special emphasis on phytochemical and ethnomedical uses, scientifically documented pharmacological activities and tissue culture methods for conservation.
Surg Today. 2012 Jan ;42 (1):60-7 22068671
Motoya Chikakiyo, Mitsuo Shimada, Toshihiro Nakao, Jun Higashijima, Kozo Yoshikawa, Masanori Nishioka, Takashi Iwata, Nobuhiro Kurita
Department of Surgery, The University of Tokushima, 3-18-15 Kuramoto-cho, Tokushima 770-8503, Japan.
PURPOSE The key anticancer agent, CPT-11 (irinotecan hydrochloride), induces severe diarrhea clinically. We investigated the effect of a Kampo medicine, Dai-kenchu-to (DKT), on CPT-11-induced intestinal injuries in rats. METHODS Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: a control group; a CPT-11 group, given CPT-11 150 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 2 days; and a DKT group, given DKT 300 mg/kg orally for 5 days with CPT-11 150 mg/kg intraperitoneally on days 4 and 5. The rats were killed on day 6. RESULTS Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-12, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α expression in the small intestine of the CPT-11 group was significantly higher than that of the control group. Interleukin-1β and IFN-γ expression was improved significantly by DKT (P < 0.05). The number and height of jejuna villi, injury score, and apoptosis index in the CPT-11 group were improved significantly by DKT (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS DKT suppressed CPT-11 induced inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis in the intestinal mucosa and maintained the mucosal integrity.
Respir Res. 2011 ;12 :145 22054012
Aldose reductase deficiency in mice protects from ragweed pollen extract (RWE)-induced allergic asthma.
Department of Biochemistry, 301 University Blvd., The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA.
BACKGROUND Childhood hospitalization related to asthma remains at historically high levels, and its incidence is on the rise world-wide. Previously, we have demonstrated that aldose reductase (AR), a regulatory enzyme of polyol pathway, is a major mediator of allergen-induced asthma pathogenesis in mouse models. Here, using AR null (AR-/-) mice we have investigated the effect of AR deficiency on the pathogenesis of ragweed pollen extract (RWE)-induced allergic asthma in mice and also examined the efficacy of enteral administration of highly specific AR inhibitor, fidarestat. METHODS The wild type (WT) and AR-/- mice were sensitized and challenged with RWE to induce allergic asthma. AR inhibitor, fidarestat was administered orally. Airway hyper-responsiveness was measured in unrestrained animals using whole body plethysmography. Mucin levels and Th2 cytokine in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) were determined using mouse anti-Muc5A/C ELISA kit and multiplex cytokine array, respectively. Eosinophils infiltration and goblet cells were assessed by H&E and periodic acid Schiff (PAS)-staining of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung sections. T regulatory cells were assessed in spleen derived CD4+CD25+ T cells population. RESULTS Deficiency of AR in mice led to significantly decreased PENH, a marker of airway hyper-responsiveness, metaplasia of airway epithelial cells and mucus hyper-secretion following RWE-challenge. This was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in infiltration of eosinophils into sub-epithelium of lung as well as in BAL and release of Th2 cytokines in response to RWE-challenge of AR-/- mice. Further, enteral administration of fidarestat significantly prevented eosinophils infiltration, airway hyper-responsiveness and also markedly increased population of T regulatory (CD4+CD25+FoxP3+) cells as compared to RWE-sensitized and challenged mice not treated with fidarestat. CONCLUSION Our results using AR-/- mice strongly suggest the role of AR in allergic asthma pathogenesis and effectiveness of oral administration of AR inhibitor in RWE-induced asthma in mice supports the use of AR inhibitors in the treatment of allergic asthma.
Impact of Taraxerol in combination with extract of Euphorbia tirucalli plant on biological parameters of Lymnaea acuminata.
Department of Zoology, Natural Product Laboratory, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, UP, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
The present work was carried out to evaluate the molluscicidal activity of active ingredient Taraxerol with the acetone extract of Euphorbia tirucalli against Lymnaea acuminata snail. The (fecundity, hatchability and survivability) of snail L. acuminata exposed to this extract was studied. The effects of the tested extracts on life-history traits of harmful snail L. acuminata have also been evaluated, and this study also expounds the inhibitory effects of these extracts singly as well as in binary combination (1:1 ratio). It concluded that these herbal products act as a potential source of molluscicides, and that they would also have the advantage of easy availability, low cost, biodegradability and greater acceptance amongst users than synthetic pesticide.
Maturitas. 2011 Dec ;70 (4):333-8 21958941
Section of Biostatistical Research, Center for International Collaboration and Partnership, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan. email@example.com
Effects of soy isoflavones on osteoporosis remain unclear. This review aimed to clarify the effect of soy isoflavones on bone mineral density (BMD) and turnover markers in menopausal women. PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched in July 2011 for relevant meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials evaluating effects of soy isoflavones on BMD and bone turnover markers. Three meta-analyses evaluated the effects of soy isoflavones on lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, and trochanter BMD. Soy isoflavones significantly improved lumbar spine BMD in a moderate manner, but did not affect total hip, femoral neck, and trochanter BMD in menopausal women. Ingestion of soy isoflavones for six months appeared to be enough to exert a beneficial effect on lumbar spine BMD. Two meta-analyses evaluated the effects of soy isoflavones on a bone resorption marker (urine deoxypyridinoline) and two formation markers (serum alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin). Soy isoflavones significantly decreased urine deoxypyridinoline in a moderate manner, but did not affect serum alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin in menopausal women. Soy isoflavones may prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis and improve bone strength thus decreasing risk of fracture in menopausal women by increasing lumbar spine BMD and decreasing bone resorption marker urine deoxypyridinoline. Further studies are needed to address factors affecting the magnitude of the beneficial effects of soy isoflavones and to assess the possible interactions between soy isoflavones and anti-osteoporosis drugs, and to verify effects on BMD of other skeletal sites and other bone turnover markers.
J Akkerdaas, E I Finkina, S V Balandin, S Santos Magadán, A Knulst, M Fernandez-Rivas, R Asero, R van Ree, T V Ovchinnikova
Clinica San Carlo, Paderno Dugnano, Italy.
BACKGROUND Lentils are increasingly consumed in many parts of the world.Two allergens, Len c 1 and 2, have been reported previously. Recently, peanut and green bean lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) have been identified as the first two members of an important group of allergens that might be associated with severe food allergies. OBJECTIVE To investigate lentil LTP as a potential new allergen. METHODS Efficacy of LTP extraction was monitored at different acidic pH values, using immunoblotting with cross-reactive anti-peach LTP antiserum. Natural LTP was purified from lentil extract and expressed as recombinant allergen in Escherichia coli. Sera from 10 lentil-allergic and/or -sensitized patients (Spain: 6, Italy: 1 and the Netherlands: 3) were used to further characterize lentil LTP. RESULTS Natural lentil LTP, purified from the homogenized germinated seeds and optimally extracted at pH 3, was identified and designated as allergen Len c 3. By CAP, 9/10 sera showed specific IgE to Len c 3. Recombinant (r) Len c 3 was successfully purified. The natural (n) Len c 3 CAP was completely inhibited by rLen c 3/rPru p 3. IgE binding to lentil pH 3 extract blot was completely inhibited by rLen c 3. CONCLUSION The availability of immunochemically active nLen/rLen c 3 as a novel legume allergen facilitates further development and implementation of a third (next to peanut and green bean) legume LTP in component-resolved diagnosis strategies and contributes to evaluate the clinical importance of legume LTPs. Preferential extraction of Len c 3 (pH 3) will affect the production of sensitive extract-based diagnostic tests.