Glutathione Disulfide :: blood
Role of oxidative stress in cardiovascular effects of anemia treatment with erythropoietin in predialysis patients with chronic kidney disease.
Alberto Martinez-Vea, Luis Marcas, Alfredo Bardají, Marta Romeu, Cristina Gutierrez, Carmen García, Teresa Compte, Rosa Nogues, Carmen Peralta, Montserrat Giralt
Nephrology Service, Hospital Universitari de Tarragona Joan XXIII, IISPV, Tortosa, Spain. email@example.com
BACKGROUND/AIM Oxidative stress (OS) is involved in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Short-term treatment with erythropoietin (EPO) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) complicated by anemia and LVH is associated with a reduction in left ventricular mass (LVM). We proposed to assess whether the pro-oxidant status of CKD influences these outcomes. METHODS Predialysis patients (n = 76) with CKD and hemoglobin (Hb) levels < 11 g/dl received EPO for 6 months. The effects of this anemia correction on LVH regression were evaluated using echocardiography. Patients with LVM decrease > 10% were considered "responders"(n = 25) to treatment and those with LVM change < 10% were considered "non-responders"(n = 24). Measurement of OS included plasma and erythrocyte oxidized (GSSG) and reduced (GSH) glutathione, GSH redox ratio (GSSG/GSH), erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and oxidized LDL (Ox- LDL). RESULTS 49 patients completed the study. With EPO therapy, mean Hb levels increased from 9.9 ± 0.6 to 12.8 ± 1.5 g/ dl (p < 0.0001) and LVM index decreased from 69.2 ± 17.7 to 64.1 ± 19.6 g/m2.7 (p = 0.01). At 6 months,"non-responders" had higher systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, GSSG and GSH redox ratio and lower GSH than "responders". In multivariate analysis, and following adjustment for confounding variables, systolic blood pressure and GSH redox ratio independently predicted LVH regression. CONCLUSION Blood pressure and plasma GSH redox ratio (a marker of OS) are important predictors of LVH regression in anemic predialysis patients treated with EPO.
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Department of Biochemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA.
Department of Biochemistry, Atlanta, GA, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Thiol and disulfide forms of glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) were measured in plasma from 24 healthy individuals aged 25-35 and redox potential values (E(h)) for thiol/disulfide couples were calculated using the Nernst equation. Although the concentration of GSH (2.8 +/- 0.9 microM) was much greater than that of GSSG (0.14 +/- 0.04 microM), the redox potential of the GSSG/2GSH pool (-137 +/- 9 mV) was considerably more oxidized than values for tissues and cultured cells (-185 to -258 mV). This indicates that a rapid oxidation of GSH occurs upon release into plasma. The difference in values between individuals was remarkably small, suggesting that the rates of reduction and oxidation in the plasma are closely balanced to maintain this redox potential. The redox potential for the Cys and cystine (CySS) pool (-80 +/- 9 mV) was 57 mV more oxidized, showing that the GSSG/2GSH and the CySS/2Cys pools are not in redox equilibrium in the plasma. Potentials for thiol/disulfide couples involving CysGly were intermediate between the values for these couples. Regression analyses showed that the redox potentials for the different thiol/disulfide couples within individuals were correlated, with the E(h) for CySS-mono-Gly/(Cys. CysGly) providing the best correlation with other low molecular weight pools as well as protein disulfides of GSH, CysGly and Cys. These results suggest that E(h) values for GSSG/2GSH and CySS-mono-Gly/(Cys. CysGly) may provide useful means to quantitatively express the oxidant/antioxidant balance in clinical and epidemiologic studies.
Josep Redón, Maria R Oliva, Carmen Tormos, Vicente Giner, Javier Chaves, Antonio Iradi, Guillermo T Sáez
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical School, University of Valencia, Avda Blasco Ibañez 17, 46010 Valencia, Spain.
The objective was to study oxidative status, antioxidant activities, and reactive oxygen species byproducts in whole blood and mononuclear peripherals cells and their relationship with blood pressure. Sixty-six hypertensive patients and 16 normotensive volunteers as a control group were studied. In both, whole blood and peripheral mononuclear cells oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio and malondialdehyde was significantly higher, and the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase was significantly lower in hypertensive patients when compared with normal subjects. The content of damaged base 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine in nuclear and mitochondrial deoxyribonucleoproteins of hypertensive subjects was also significantly higher than that of the normotensive control subjects. No differences in these measurements were found among hypertensive subjects grouped in tertiles of 24-hour average mean blood pressure or between "white-coat" and established hypertensive subjects. Furthermore, no relationship was observed between the average of 24-hour mean blood pressure and oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, reactive oxygen species byproducts, malondialdehide, or genomic 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine. In whole blood and in mononuclear cells from hypertensive subjects, there was an increase in oxidative stress and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant mechanisms that appeared to be independent of the blood pressure values.
Glutathione measurement in human plasma. Evaluation of sample collection, storage and derivatization conditions for analysis of dansyl derivatives by HPLC.
Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. email@example.com
Literature values for human plasma GSH vary over 10-fold despite the use of apparently valid analytical procedures for GSH measurement. The purpose of this study was to develop a procedure to minimize error in sample collection, processing and storage that could contribute to such differences. HPLC with fluorescence detection of dansyl derivatives was used for quantification. The results show that collection of blood with a butterfly needle and syringe reduces overestimation due to limited hemolysis and that use of a preservation solution designed to inhibit autooxidation and enzymatic degradation allows quantitative recovery of both GSH and GSSG. Stability tests showed that non-derivatized samples were stable for at least 2 months at - 80 degrees while dansyl derivatives were stable in the dark at 0-4 degrees for 12 months. Results from 59 healthy individuals (20-43 years) provided a mean (+/-1 SD) GSH value of 2.09+/-1.14 micromolar.
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that resuscitation of asphyxiated infants with pure oxygen causes hyperoxemia and oxidative stress.Study design Asphyxiated term newborn infants (n = 106) were randomly resuscitated with room air (RAR = 51) or 100% oxygen (OxR = 55). The Apgar score, time of the first cry, and establishment of a sustained pattern of respiration were recorded. Assays performed included: blood gases; reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in whole blood; glutathione-related enzyme activities; and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in erythrocytes. RESULTS: The RAR group needed less time of ventilation for resuscitation (5.3 +/- 1.5 vs 6.8 +/- 1.2 min; P <.05). Pure oxygen caused hyperoxemia (PO(2), 126.3 +/- 21.8 mm Hg) that did not occur with the use of room air (PO(2), 72.2 +/- 6.8 mm Hg). GSH was decreased and GSSG, the glutathione cycle enzymes, and SOD activities were increased in both asphyxiated groups. However, the 100% oxygen-resuscitated group showed significantly greater alterations that correlated positively with hyperoxemia. CONCLUSIONS: Asphyxia causes oxidative stress in the perinatal period, and resuscitation with 100% oxygen causes hyperoxemia and increased oxidative stress. Because there are no advantages to resuscitation with 100% oxygen, room air may be preferred under certain circumstances for the resuscitation of asphyxiated neonates.
Redox analysis of human plasma allows separation of pro-oxidant events of aging from decline in antioxidant defenses.
Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Oxidative stress is a component of diseases and degenerative processes associated with aging. However, no means are available to assess causative oxidative events separately from decline in function of protective antioxidant systems. Previous studies show that ongoing oxidative processes maintain plasma cysteine/cystine redox at a value that is more oxidized than the antioxidant glutathione/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) system, suggesting that redox analysis of these plasma thiols could allow separate evaluation of an increase in oxidative events from a decline in antioxidant function. The present study uses measurement of cysteine/cystine and GSH/GSSG redox in plasma of 122 healthy individuals aged 19-85 years to determine whether thiol-disulfide redox changes occur with age. The results show a linear oxidation of cysteine/cystine redox state with age at a rate of 0.16 mV/year over the entire age span. In contrast, GSH/GSSG redox was not oxidized prior to 45 years and subsequently was oxidized at a nearly linear rate of 0.7 mV/year. These data suggest that there is a continuous, linear increase in oxidative events throughout adult life but that the capacity of the GSH antioxidant system is maintained until 45 years and then declines rapidly. The data further suggest that redox states of cysteine/cystine and GSH/GSSG provide an approach to clinically distinguish between increased causative oxidative events and decreased GSH antioxidant function. In principle, such analyses can be used to assess efficacy of intervention strategies against oxidative stress prior to or early after onset of clinical symptoms in aging and age-related disease.
Microtubule dynamics and glutathione metabolism in phagocytizing human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Department of Physiology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington 06032, USA.
Glutathione oxidants such as tertiary butyl hydroperoxide were shown previously to prevent microtubule assembly and cause breakdown of preassembled cytoplasmic microtubules in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The objectives of the present study were to determine the temporal relationship between the attachment and ingestion of phagocytic particles and the assembly of microtubules, and simultaneously to quantify the levels of reduced glutathione and products of its oxidation as potential physiological regulators of assembly. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes from human peripheral blood were induced to phagocytize opsonized zymosan at 30 degrees C. Microtubule assembly was assessed in the electron microscope by direct counts of microtubules in thin sections through centrioles. Acid extracts were assayed for reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), by the sensitive enzymatic procedure of Tietze. Washed protein pellets were assayed for free sulfhydryl groups and for mixed protein disulfides with glutathione (protein-SSG) after borohydride splitting of the disulfide bond. Resting cells have few assembled microtubules. Phagocytosis induces a cycle of rapid assembly followed by disassembly. Assembly is initiated by particle contact and is maximal by 3 min of phagocytosis. Disassembly after 5-9 min of phagocytosis is preceded by a slow rise in GSSG and coincides with a rapid rise in protein-SSG. Protein-SSG also increases under conditions in which butyl hydroperoxide inhibits the assembly of microtubules that normally follows binding of concanavalin A to leukocyte cell surface receptors. No evidence for direct involvement of GSH in the induction of assembly was obtained. The formation of protein-SSG, however, emerges as a possible regulatory mechanism for the inhibition of microtubule assembly and induction of their disassembly.
Xanthine oxidase is involved in exercise-induced oxidative stress in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Department of Pulmonary Diseases, University Hospital Nijmegen, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
In the present study, we hypothesized that exhaustive exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) results in glutathione oxidation and lipid peroxidation and that xanthine oxidase (XO) contributes to free radical generation during exercise. COPD patients performed incremental cycle ergometry until exhaustion with (n = 8) or without (n = 8) prior treatment with allopurinol, an XO inhibitor. Reduced (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and lipid peroxides [malondialdehyde (MDA)] were measured in arterial blood. In nontreated COPD patients, maximal exercise (approximately 75 W) resulted in a significant increase in the GSSG-to-GSH ratio (4. 6 +/- 0.9% at rest vs. 9.3 +/- 1.7% after exercise). In nontreated patients, MDA increased from 0.68 +/- 0.08 nmol/ml at rest up to 1. 32 +/- 0.13 nmol/ml 60 min after cessation of exercise. In contrast, in patients treated with allopurinol, GSSG-to-GSH ratio did not increase in response to exercise (5.0 +/- 1.2% preexercise vs. 4.6 +/- 1.1% after exercise). Plasma lipid peroxide formation was also inhibited by allopurinol pretreatment (0.72 +/- 0.15 nmol/ml preexercise vs. 0.64 +/- 0.09 nmol/ml 60 min after exercise). We conclude that strenuous exercise in COPD patients results in blood glutathione oxidation and lipid peroxidation. This can be inhibited by treatment with allopurinol, indicating that XO is an important source for free radical generation during exercise in COPD.
Ranieri Rossi, Aldo Milzani, Isabella Dalle-Donne, Daniela Giustarini, Lorenzo Lusini, Roberto Colombo, Paolo Di Simplicio
Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology Unit, Via A. Moro 4, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy.
BACKGROUND The reported mean concentration of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) in human blood/erythrocytes varies widely (1 to >500 micromol/L), as does that of reduced glutathione (GSH) to a lesser extent. We have identified and investigated possible pitfalls in measurement of both GSH and GSSG. METHODS We measured GSH and GSSG using a spectrophotometer with a modification of the GSH recycling method; the same samples were also measured by reversed-phase HPLC after derivatization of thiols (dithiothreitol was used to reduce disulfides) with monobromobimane. The thiol-bimane adduct was measured by a fluorescence detector. RESULTS Measured GSH/GSSG concentrations were affected by the following:(a) oxidation of thiols in acidified samples;(b) oxidation after restoring neutral-alkaline pH;(c) oxidation during acid deproteinization;(d) shift in the GSH/GSSG equilibrium because of irreversible blocking of free thiols; and (e) reaction of electrophiles with amino groups. In particular, oxidation during sample deproteinization with acid influenced and produced artifacts (30-150 micromol/L GSSG was produced by this procedure); this phenomenon was directly correlated with the presence of oxygenated hemoglobin, being minimized by both oxygen deprivation and incubation in an atmosphere of 5% carbon monoxide. CONCLUSIONS GSSG is present in healthy human blood at low concentrations (2-6 micromol/L), and most published data on GSSG may be affected by artifacts.
Plasma F2 isoprostanes: direct evidence of increased free radical damage during acute hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes.
Bertram Diabetes Research Unit, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital National Health Service Trust, Norwich, UK. email@example.com
OBJECTIVES Acute hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes increases the generation of plasma 8-epi-prostaglandin F2 (8-epi-PGF2alpha) isoprostane, a sensitive direct marker of in vivo free radical oxidative damage to membrane phospholipids. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 21 patients with type 2 diabetes underwent an oral 75-g glucose tolerance test. Plasma 8-epi-PGF2alpha isoprostane concentrations (by gas chromatography [GC]/mass spectrometry [MS]), intralymphocyte reduced-to-oxidized glutathione ratios, and plasma total antioxidant capacity were measured at baseline and 90 min after glucose loading. RESULTS Plasma 8-epi-PGF2alpha isoprostane concentrations rose significantly (P=0. 010) from 0.241 +/- 0.1 to 0.326 +/- 0.17 ng/l after 90 min. Intracellular oxidative balance and plasma antioxidant capacity did not change in either group. CONCLUSIONS Plasma concentrations of 8-epi-PGF2alpha isoprostane increase during acute hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, providing direct evidence of free radical-mediated oxidative damage and demonstrating a pathway for an association between acute rather than fasting hyperglycemia and macrovascular risk in type 2 diabetes.