Most cited papers on Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma, diagnosis >> citations
Hyperglycemic emergencies in Indian patients with diabetes mellitus on pilgrimage to Amarnathji yatra.
Department of Endocrinology, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
BACKGROUND Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) represent two distinct metabolic derangements manifested by insulin deficiency and severe hyperglycemia, with estimated mortality rates of 2.5-9%. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) controlled by diet or oral agents, DKA does not occur unless there is significant severe stress such as severe sepsis, major surgery, trauma, etc. We observed many such emergencies occurring in pilgrims. OBJECTIVE We analyzed the data of 13 patients with DM admitted in our endocrine department with hyperglycemic emergencies during 2 years of the annual pilgrimage (yatra) to Amarnathji. MATERIALS AND METHODS We reviewed and analyzed the case records of 13 yatris with DM who were referred and admitted in our hospital with hyperglycemic emergencies during the yatra season (July-August) of 2006 and 2007. RESULTS Eleven of 13 had DKA and 1 each had HHS and hypoglycemia. After initial clinical assessment and blood sampling for blood counts, electrolytes, blood gases, urinalysis, chest radiography, and electrocardiography, these cases were managed with standard protocol published by American Diabetes Association (ADA) for the management of DKA and HHS. Average blood glucose was 466 mg/dl and nine subjects had moderate to severe ketonuria. All the cases, except one, were in stable condition at the time of discharge. CONCLUSION High altitude, strenuous exertion of going uphill, withdrawal of insulin or oral hypoglycemic drugs, starvation, sepsis, and alcohol intake were recorded as predisposing factors. Therefore, there is an immense need for institution of a special health education program to all the yatris before taking the endeavor.
Department of General Medicine, Government Stanley Hospital, Chennai, India.
, Department of Endocrinology, St. Stephen's Hospital, Tees Hazari, New Delhi, India.
Chorea, hemichorea-hemiballismus and severe partial seizures may be the presenting features of nonketotic hyperglycemia in older adults with type 2 diabetes, but cases in young adults with type 1 diabetes are rare. We hereby report a very rare case of diabetic ketosis with movement disorder in a young patient.
Department of Emergency Medicine, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ont., Canada.
A healthy 19-year-old man presents to your emergency department complaining of weakness and lethargy for the past 2 weeks. He sleeps 10 hours a day, yet remains tired. His appetite has been poor and he constantly feels thirsty. He voids frequently with no dysuria or hematuria. For the past 24 hours, he has been experiencing moderately severe and diffuse abdominal pain; he vomited 4 times in the past 2 hours. He has lost 10 kg over the past 2 weeks. He denies other symptoms or using drugs or medications, and he drinks alcohol only socially. His personal and family medical histories are not relevant. An examination reveals blood pressure of 115/60 mm Hg, heart rate of 135 beats per minute, temperature of 36.9°C, respiration rate of 24 breaths per minute, and oxygen saturation of 100% on room air. The patient is alert and appears uncomfortable, retching repeatedly. The mucosae are dry and the abdomen soft but diffusely tender, with normal bowel sounds and no peritoneal signs. There is no costovertebral angle tenderness. Findings from the remainder of the examination are noncontributory. A bedside glucometer displays “High-High-High.” Laboratory investigations reveal a white blood cell count of 14.2 × 109/L, a hemoglobin level of 143 g/L, a platelet count of 365 × 109/L, a sodium level of 133 mmol/L, a potassium level of 2.9 mmol/L, a chloride level of 103 mmol/L, a blood urea nitrogen level of 17 mmol/L, a creatinine level of 144 μmol/L, a glucose level of 29.7 mmol/L, an arterial pH of 7.10, a Pco(2) of 23 mm Hg, a Po(2) of 95 mm Hg, a bicarbonate level of 11 mmol/L, and an oxygen saturation of 95%. Urinalysis results are positive for high levels of ketones and glucose. How would you approach this patient?
Department of Psychiatry, Lady Harding Medical College and Associated Hospitals, New Delhi, India.
Interface of diabetes and psychiatry has fascinated both endocrinologists and mental health professionals for years. Diabetes and psychiatric disorders share a bidirectional association -- both influencing each other in multiple ways. The current article addresses different aspects of this interface. The interaction of diabetes and psychiatric disorders has been discussed with regard to aetio-pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management. In spite of a multifaceted interaction between the two the issue remains largely unstudied in India.
Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5338, USA.
Radiographic findings of hyperglycemic non-ketotic chorea-hemiballismus and basal ganglia hemorrhage can be highly similar. A 58-year-old female presented with a 1-week history of choreiform and ballistic movements of the left arm. Based on CT imaging, the patient was diagnosed with a basal ganglia hemorrhage. After transfer to our institution, further imaging and work-up led to a diagnosis of non-ketotic hyperglycemic chorea-hemiballismus. Aggressive glycemic control was started and the patient's symptoms resolved. Despite its rarity, non-ketotic hyperglycemic chorea-hemiballismus should be included in the differential diagnosis of basal ganglia hyperdensity on CT scan, as it can mimic basal ganglia hemorrhage. Resolution of this clinical entity and implementation of aggressive glycemic control can lead to complete resolution of symptoms. It is important for neurosurgeons to be aware of this clinical entity as prompt treatment often yields good outcomes.
Department of Medicine, Era's Lucknow Medical College, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
AIM To compare the efficacy and safety of rapid acting insulin analog lispro given subcutaneously with that of standard low-dose intravenous regular insulin infusion protocolin patients with mild to moderate diabetic ketoacidosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this prospective, randomized and open trial, 50 consecutive patients of mild to moderate diabetic ketoacidosis were randomly assigned to two groups. The patients in group 1 were treated with intravenous regular insulin infusion and admitted in intensive care unit. The patients in group 2 were treated with subcutaneous insulin lispro 2 hourly and managed in the emergency medical ward. Response to therapy was assessed by duration of treatment and amount of insulin administered until resolution of hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis, total length of hospital stay, and number of hypoglycemic events in the two study groups. RESULTS The baseline clinical and biochemical parameters were similar between the two groups. There were no differences in the mean duration of treatment and amount of insulin required for correction of hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis. There was no mortality and no difference in the length of hospital stay between the two groups. The length of stay and amount of insulin required for correction of hyperglycemia was greater in patients who had infection as the precipitating cause than those with poor compliance. The hypoglycemic events were higher in the regular insulin group (2 vs1) than in the lispro group. CONCLUSION Patients with uncomplicated diabetic ketoacidosis can be managed in the medical wards with appropriate supervision and careful monitoring. Rapid acting insulin analog lispro is a safe and effective alternative to intravenous regular insulin for this subset of patients.
Investigation of markers to indicate and distinguish death due to alcoholic ketoacidosis, diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state using post-mortem samples.
Toxicology Unit, Imperial College London, Charing Cross Hospital, London, United Kingdom. firstname.lastname@example.org
Data from 191 post-mortem cases where post-mortem blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) and acetone concentrations and vitreous humor glucose concentrations (where available) had been measured were retrospectively investigated to determine the markers required to identify and distinguish between Alcoholic Ketoacidosis (AKA), Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State (HHS). Blood βHB concentrations above 250 μg/mL were considered significant and it was shown to be the preferred marker of ketoacidosis. All cases with significant βHB detected also had acetone present (greater than 2mg/dL) demonstrating that acetone can be used as a marker to identify ketoacidosis and can be used to indicate when βHB measurement is necessary. Vitreous humor glucose concentrations above 6.9 mmol/L were considered high and indicative of hyperglycemia prior to death. Vitreous humor glucose concentrations can be used to distinguish between DKA and ketoacidosis from other causes and to identify deaths due to HHS. The data showed that ketoacidosis can occur without a history of alcoholism or diabetes. Many diabetics are undiagnosed for many years. Therefore, DKA or HHS should be considered in sudden or unexplained deaths and glucose should be routinely measured especially in cases with risk factors for diabetes including obesity, old age, a history of mental health problems or treatment with atypical antipsychotic drugs including clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone.
Characteristics and outcomes of the hyperglycemic hyperosmolar non-ketotic syndrome in a cohort of 51 consecutive cases at a single center.
Gian Paolo Fadini, Saula Vigili de Kreutzenberg, Mauro Rigato, Stefano Brocco, Maria Marchesan, Antonio Tiengo, Angelo Avogaro
Division of Metabolic Diseases, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Padova, Padova, Italy. email@example.com
AIMS The hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS) is a life-threatening diabetic complication. We aimed to portrait the short and long term outcome after a HHS episode and to describe features associated with increased early mortality. METHODS We collected data from consecutive HHS cases, defined based on rigorous glucose and osmolality criteria. We retrieved anthropometric measures, history of diabetes, other cardiovascular risk factors and chronic co-morbidity. Clinical and biochemical parameters were recorded at admission, after 24h and at discharge. We assessed incidence of complications, as well as short (≤ 30 days) and long term mortality. RESULTS Patients were about 80-year old. Fifty-one cases were included, characterized by severe hyperglycemia (55.5 mosm/L) and hyperosmolality (385 mosm/L). Thirty-three percent developed at least one complication. Short term mortality was 16%; lower Glasgow Coma Scale, higher plasma glucose and mild acidosis were predictive of short term mortality. The long term mortality (median follow-up 1.27 years) was not significantly different from historical mortality data after hypoglycemic coma. CONCLUSION In this study, early mortality of HHS was 16% and some clinical features at presentation were predictive of an adverse short term outcome. Long term survival after a HHS episode did not appear to be severely impaired.
Neurosurg Focus. 2011 Jul ;31 (1):E2 21721867
Department of Neurosurgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.
OBJECT Rathke cleft cysts (RCCs) are benign masses arising from the embryological Rathke pouch, and are commonly treated by transsphenoidal surgery. The authors retrospectively compared RCC extent of resection-either gross-total resection (GTR) or decompression-to the primary outcome measure, which was recurrences resulting in repeat surgery, and the secondary outcome measure, which was complications. METHODS Seventy-four patients presenting to the neurosurgical department with RCC were analyzed retrospectively. Sixty-eight patients had a total of 78 surgical procedures, with the diagnosis of RCC confirmed by histological investigation; of these, 61 patients had adequate operative notes for the authors to evaluate extent of resection. Groups were separated into GTR (32 patients) or decompression (subtotal resection or fenestration into the sphenoid sinus; 29 patients) based on operative notes and postoperative imaging. The mean follow-up duration was 60.5 ± 72.1 months (the mean is expressed ± SD throughout). RESULTS The average age at the time of the initial surgery was 42.8 ± 17.4 years, and 70% of patients were female. The mean cyst diameter preoperatively was 16.9 ± 17.8 mm. Eight patients had repeat surgery, our primary outcome measure; 3 repeat operations occurred in the GTR group, and 5 in the decompression group. There was no significant difference in recurrence when comparing groups (GTR 9%, decompression 17%; p = 0.36). There were no major complications; however, analysis of postoperative minor complications revealed that 11 (34%) GTRs resulted in surgical complications, whereas the decompression cohort accounted for only 3 complications (10%)(p = 0.03), with diabetes insipidus (6) and CSF leaks (5) being the most common. Gross-total resection also resulted in an increase in postoperative hyperprolactinemia compared with decompression (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS It appears that RCCs require repeat surgery in 13% of cases, and attempted GTR does not appear to reduce the overall rate of recurrence. However, more aggressive resections are associated with more complications in this series.
Department of Nutrition, Metabolic diseases and Endocrinology, La Timone University Hospital, University of Méditerranée, 13005 Marseille, France.
The present clinical report describes the case of a spontaneously resolving rhabdomyolysis episode in a type 1 diabetic patient, who presented with multiple risk factors of this muscle complication, including uncontrolled brittle diabetes with sequences of hyper- and hypoglycaemic episodes in the same day, caloric restriction and intensive exercise. It should be borne in mind that rhabdomyolysis is not particularly rare in diabetes and can be severe. To raise clinicians' awareness of a possible rhabdomyolysis diagnosis, the various clinical conditions that are likely to lead to this complication in diabetic patients are also reviewed here.
Neuroradiology Division, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Health System, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
BMC Endocr Disord. 2011 ;11 :8 21501465
Advanced age, altered level of consciousness and a new diagnosis of diabetes are independently associated with hypernatreamia in hyperglycaemic crisis.
Chukwuma O Ekpebegh, Benjamin Longo-Mbenza, Augustin Nge-Okwe, Anthonia O Ogbera, Nomawethu T Tonjeni
Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University/Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital, Mthatha, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. email@example.com.
ABSTRACT: There is limited literature on hypernatreamia in the setting of hyperglycaemic crisis. This is despite the fact that the presence of hypernatreamia may impact on the classification of hyperglycaemic crisis and its management particularly with regards to the nature of fluid therapy. We determined the prevalence of hypernatreamia and its associated factors at presentation for hyperglycaemic crisis. This was a retrospective review of data for hyperglycaemic crisis admissions in Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital, Mthatha, South Africa. The prevalence of hypernatreamia (uncorrected Serum Sodium at presentation >145 mmol/L) was determined. Hyperosmolality was defined by calculated effective osmolality >320 mosmols/Kg. Multivariate logistic regression was undertaken using variables that were statistically significant in univariate analysis to ascertain those that were independently associated (Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI)) with hypernatreamia. The prevalence of hypernatreamia in our admissions for hyperglycaemic crisis was 11.7%(n = 32/273 including 171 females and 102 males). All admissions with hypernatreamia met the criteria for hyperosmolality. Age ≥ 60 years (OR = 3.9 95% CI 1.3-12.3; P = 0.018), Altered level of consciousness (OR = 8.8 95% CI 2.3-32.8; P < 0.001) and a new diagnosis of diabetes (OR = 3.7 95%CI 1.2-11.5; P = 0.025) were independently associated with hypernatreamia. The prevalence rate of hypernatreamia in hyperglycaemic admissions was high with all hypernatreamic admissions meeting the criteria for hyperosmolality. Advanced age, altered conscious level and a new diagnosis of diabetes were independently associated with hypernatreamia.
Self Nonself. 2010 7 ;1 (3):165-175 21487475
Department of Rheumatology; University of Sydney; Sydney, NSW Australia.
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease, whereby auto-reactive cytotoxic T cells target and destroy insulin-secreting β-cells in pancreatic islets leading to insulin deficiency and subsequent hyperglycemia. These individuals require multiple daily insulin injections every day of their life without which they will develop life-threatening diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and die. Gene therapy by viral vector and non-viral transduction may be useful techniques to treat T1D as it can be applied from many different angles; such as the suppression of autoreactive T cells to prevent islet destruction (prophylactic) or the replacement of the insulin gene (post-disease). The need for a better method for providing euglycemia arose from insufficient numbers of cadaver islets for transplantation and the immunosuppression required post-transplant. Ectopic expression of insulin or islet modification have been examined, but not perfected. This review examines the various gene transfer methods, gene therapy techniques used to date and promising novel techniques for the maintenance of euglycemia in the treatment of T1D.
Hyperglycaemic crisis in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa: high mortality and association of hyperosmolar ketoacidosis with a new diagnosis of diabetes.
Department of Internal Medicine Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, E Cape.
To describe the frequencies, presenting characteristics (demographic, clinical and biochemical) and outcomes (duration of admission and mortality rates) for various types of hyperglycaemic crisis. Retrospective review of medical records of patients with hyperglycaemic crisis admitted to Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital, Mthatha, E Cape, from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2009. Outcome measures were duration of admission and mortality. Data were available for 269 admissions (response rate 81.0%), 169 females and 100 males. Admissions for hyperglycaemia (HG, N=119), and non-hyperosmolar diabetic ketoacidosis (NHDKA, N=97) were more frequent than those for hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS, N=29) and hyperosmolar diabetic ketoacidosis (HDKA, N=24). Duration of admission was similar in all groups. Mortality was high in all groups, but was higher in patients with HDKA (37.5%, risk ratio (RR) 3.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41 - 10.67, p=0.009), HHS (31.0%, RR 2.91, 95% CI 1.09 - 7.75, p=0.033) and HG (19.5%, RR 1.56, 95% CI 0.75 - 3.21, p=0.236) than in those with NHDKA (13.4%). HDKA (62.5%) was associated with new-onset diabetes more often than NHDKA (27.8%), HHS (44.8%) or HG (17.6%)(p<0.0001). An altered level of consciousness was more frequent in HDKA than NHDKA admissions (RR 5.71, 95% CI 1.90 - 17.17, p=0.002). Duration of hospital stay was similar across groups. Mortality rates were high in all groups. New-onset diabetes, altered level of consciousness and mortality were more characteristically associated with HDKA than any of the other types of hyperglycaemic crisis. Optimal glycaemic control in known diabetic patients will reduce rates of hyperglycaemic crisis admissions.
Karsten Suhre, Christa Meisinger, Angela Döring, Elisabeth Altmaier, Petra Belcredi, Christian Gieger, David Chang, Michael V Milburn, Walter E Gall, Klaus M Weinberger, Hans-Werner Mewes, Martin Hrabé de Angelis, H-Erich Wichmann, Florian Kronenberg, Jerzy Adamski, Thomas Illig
Institute of Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
Trends in hospitalization for diabetic ketoacidosis in diabetic patients in Taiwan: analysis of national claims data, 1997-2005.
Department of Nursing, Zhong-Xing Branch of Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
Metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, hypertension and type 2 diabetes in youth: from diagnosis to treatment.
Alfredo Halpern, Marcio C Mancini, Maria Eliane C Magalhães, Mauro Fisberg, Rosana Radominski, Marcelo C Bertolami, Adriana Bertolami, Maria Edna de Melo, Maria Teresa Zanella, Marcia S Queiroz, Marcia Nery
Group of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome, Endocrinology and Metabolism Service, Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina, São Paulo University (HC-FMUSP), Av, Dr, Enéas de Carvalho Aguiar, 155 - 8º andar - bloco 3, São Paulo, Brazil. email@example.com.
ABSTRACT: Overweight and obesity in youth is a worldwide public health problem. Overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescents have a substantial effect upon many systems, resulting in clinical conditions such as metabolic syndrome, early atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, hypertension and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Obesity and the type of body fat distribution are still the core aspects of insulin resistance and seem to be the physiopathologic links common to metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and T2D. The earlier the appearance of the clustering of risk factors and the higher the time of exposure, the greater will be the chance of developing coronary disease with a more severe endpoint. The age when the event may occur seems to be related to the presence and aggregation of risk factors throughout life.The treatment in this age-group is non pharmacological and aims at promoting changes in lifestyle. However, pharmacological treatments are indicated in special situations.The major goals in dietary treatments are not only limited to weight loss, but also to an improvement in the quality of life. Modification of risk factors associated to comorbidities, personal satisfaction of the child or adolescent and trying to establish healthy life habits from an early age are also important. There is a continuous debate on the best possible exercise to do, for children or adolescents, in order to lose weight. The prescription of physical activity to children and adolescents requires extensive integrated work among multidisciplinary teams, patients and their families, in order to reach therapeutic success.The most important conclusion drawn from this symposium was that if the growing prevalence of overweight and obesity continues at this pace, the result will be a population of children and adolescents with metabolic syndrome. This would lead to high mortality rates in young adults, changing the current increasing trend of worldwide longevity. Government actions and a better understanding of the causes of this problem must be implemented worldwide, by aiming at the prevention of obesity in children and adolescents.
Is salt, vitamin, or endocrinopathy causing this encephalopathy? A review of endocrine and metabolic causes of altered level of consciousness.
Department of Emergency Medicine, Virginia Tech-Carilion School of Medicine, CRMH-Admin 1S, 1906 Belleview Avenue, Roanoke, VA 24014, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Altered level of consciousness describes the reason for 3% of critical emergency department (ED) visits. Approximately 85% will be found to have a metabolic or systemic cause. Early laboratory studies such as a bedside glucose test, serum electrolytes, or a urine dipstick test often direct the ED provider toward endocrine or metabolic causes. This article examines common endocrine and metabolic causes of altered mentation in the ED via sections dedicated to endocrine-, electrolyte-, metabolic acidosis-, and metabolism-related causes.
Department of Molecular Biosciences, Bioengineering University of Hawaii, Honolulu, USA.
While communicable diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome, malaria, and tuberculosis have continued to pose greater threats to the public health system in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), it is now apparent that non-communicable diseases such as diabetes mellitus are undoubtedly adding to the multiple burdens the peoples in this region suffer. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common form of diabetes (90-95%), exhibiting an alarming prevalence among peoples of this region. Its main risk factors include obesity, rapid urbanization, physical inactivity, ageing, nutrition transitions, and socioeconomic changes. Patients in sub-Saharan Africa also show manifestations of beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. However, because of strained economic resources and a poor health care system, most of the patients are diagnosed only after they have overt symptoms and complications. Microvascular complications are the most prevalent, but metabolic disorders and acute infections cause significant mortality. The high cost of treatment of T2DM and its comorbidities, the increasing prevalence of its risk factors, and the gaps in health care system necessitate that solutions be planned and implemented urgently. Aggressive actions and positive responses from well-informed governments appear to be needed for the conducive interplay of all forces required to curb the threat of T2DM in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the varied ethnic and transitional factors and the limited population data on T2DM in sub-Saharan Africa, this review provides an extensive discussion of the literature on the epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, complications, treatment, and care challenges of T2DM in this region.