Tuna :: anatomy & histology
Oxygen utilization and the branchial pressure gradient during ram ventilation of the shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus: is lamnid shark-tuna convergence constrained by elasmobranch gill morphology?
Center for Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Marine Biology Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Ram ventilation and gill function in a lamnid shark, the shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus, were studied to assess how gill structure may affect the lamnid-tuna convergence for high-performance swimming. Despite differences in mako and tuna gill morphology, mouth gape and basal swimming speeds, measurements of mako O(2) utilization at the gills (53.4±4.2%) and the pressure gradient driving branchial flow (96.8±26.1 Pa at a mean swimming speed of 38.8±5.8 cm s(-1)) are similar to values reported for tunas. Also comparable to tunas are estimates of the velocity (0.22±0.03 cm s(-1)) and residence time (0.79±0.14 s) of water though the interlamellar channels of the mako gill. However, mako and tuna gills differ in the sites of primary branchial resistance. In the mako, approximately 80% of the total branchial resistance resides in the septal channels, structures inherent to the elasmobranch gill that are not present in tunas. The added resistance at this location is compensated by a correspondingly lower resistance at the gill lamellae accomplished through wider interlamellar channels. Although greater interlamellar spacing minimizes branchial resistance, it also limits lamellar number and results in a lower total gill surface area for the mako relative to tunas. The morphology of the elasmobranch gill thus appears to constrain gill area and, consequently, limit mako aerobic performance to less than that of tunas.
Most cited papers:
Marine Biology Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0202, USA. email@example.com
The evolution of 'thunniform' body shapes in several different groups of vertebrates, including whales, ichthyosaurs and several species of large pelagic fishes supports the view that physical and hydromechanical demands provided important selection pressures to optimize body design for locomotion during vertebrate evolution. Recognition of morphological similarities between lamnid sharks (the most well known being the great white and the mako) and tunas has led to a general expectation that they also have converged in their functional design; however, no quantitative data exist on the mechanical performance of the locomotor system in lamnid sharks. Here we examine the swimming kinematics, in vivo muscle dynamics and functional morphology of the force-transmission system in a lamnid shark, and show that the evolutionary convergence in body shape and mechanical design between the distantly related lamnids and tunas is much more than skin deep; it extends to the depths of the myotendinous architecture and the mechanical basis for propulsive movements. We demonstrate that not only have lamnids and tunas converged to a much greater extent than previously known, but they have also developed morphological and functional adaptations in their locomotor systems that are unlike virtually all other fishes.
Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Fisheries have removed at least 50 million tons of tuna and other top-level predators from the Pacific Ocean pelagic ecosystem since 1950, leading to concerns about a catastrophic reduction in population biomass and the collapse of oceanic food chains. We analyzed all available data from Pacific tuna fisheries for 1950-2004 to provide comprehensive estimates of fishery impacts on population biomass and size structure. Current biomass ranges among species from 36 to 91% of the biomass predicted in the absence of fishing, a level consistent with or higher than standard fisheries management targets. Fish larger than 175 centimeters fork length have decreased from 5% to approximately 1% of the total population. The trophic level of the catch has decreased slightly, but there is no detectable decrease in the trophic level of the population. These results indicate substantial, though not catastrophic, impacts of fisheries on these top-level predators and minor impacts on the ecosystem in the Pacific Ocean.
Oceanic Fisheries Programme, Secretariat of the Pacific Community, BP D5, 98848 Noumea, New Caledonia. email@example.com
Biological Laboratory for Open Water Mechanical Engineering, 3241 Ocean Drive, Oxnard, California 93035, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093-0623, USA.
We summarize our morphometric data on fiber vascularization and aerobic capacity in red muscle of tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis), compared to intensely aerobic flight muscles of hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus, BW 3-4 g) and bat (Eptesius fuscus, BW 15-16 g, Pipistrellus hesperus, BW 3-5 g). Three characteristic features of high flux paths for oxygen:(a) small fiber size,(b) dense capillary network and (c) high mitochondrial volume density were found in tuna, but they were not as pronounced as in hummingbird and bat flight muscles. A particular arrangement of capillary manifolds, also seen in flight muscle of birds but not in bats, was found in tuna, forming dense envelopes of capillary branches around portions of muscle fibers. However, all indexes of fiber capillarization were relatively low in tuna red muscle for its mitochondrial volume, compared with other intensely aerobic muscles. Capillary length per unit volume of mitochondria, and capillary surface per mitochondrial inner (and outer) membrane surface area, were about one half of those in hummingbird or bat flight muscles. Consistent differences exist in the size of the capillary network for the size of the mitochondrial compartment in highly aerobic red muscle of tuna compared with bird and mammal.
The common ventricle in the heart of the Thunnus alalunga was studied. The ventricular myocardium consists of an outer compact layer and a thick inner spongy layer. The compact layer has slightly larger cells (4-6 microns diameter) than the spongy layer (2.5-5 microns diameter). Ultrastructurally the myocardium displays normal arrangements of myofibrils and mitochondria. The sarcoplasmic reticulum is poorly developed. The intercalated discs are simple with the fascia adherens being the most frequent junctional type observed; occasionally a desmosome was seen. Nexus type junctions are present but are unassociated with the intercalated discs. There are no t-tubules evident but the plasmalemma exhibits numerous caveolae which rarely form couplings with the sarcoplasmic reticulum. A morphometric analysis of the volume percent of mitochondria and myofibrils showed that the myocardial cells in the spongy layer of the heart have a significantly greater volume percentage of mitochondria than the compact layer. No significant differences were found between myocardial regions when the volume percentages of myofibrils were compared. The physiological studies revealed that the albacore tuna has heart rates (120 bpm) and ventricular blood pressures (100 mmHg) that are among the highest reported for fish.
Form and function of the bulbus arteriosus in yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares): dynamic properties.
Department of Zoology, Cambridge University, Downing Street, Cambridge, UK, CB2 3EJ. email@example.com
The bulbus arteriosus of the teleost heart possesses a static inflation curve that is r-shaped over the in vivo pressure range. To examine the possible significance of this in living animals, we recorded arterial blood pressure from anaesthetized yellowfin tuna and utilized a video dimensional analyser to simultaneously record changes in bulbar diameter. By plotting the changes in pressure against the changes in diameter, it was possible to create dynamic pressure-diameter (P-D) loops as well as calculate the instantaneous volume changes within the bulbus. The dynamic P-D loops showed the same features exhibited by static inflation. When nearly empty, a small stroke volume caused a large increase in blood pressure, while around systolic pressure large changes in volume resulted in small changes in pressure. We conclude that these features allow the bulbus to maintain ventral aortic flows and pressures over a large range of volumes.
Royal Ontario Museum, Department of Paleobiology, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. firstname.lastname@example.org
Four unrelated groups of large cruising vertebrates (tunas, whales, lamnid sharks and parvipelvian ichthyosaurs) evolved tuna-shaped (thunniform) body plans. Stringent physical constraints, imposed by the surrounding fluids, are probably responsible for this example of evolutionary convergence. Here I present a mathematical model of swimming kinematics and fluid mechanics that specifies and quantifies such constraints, and test the model with empirical data. The test shows quantitatively that morphology, kinematics, and physiology indeed covary tightly in large cruisers. The model enables calculations of optimal cruising speed from external measurements, and also predicts that wide caudal fin spans, typical of thunniform swimmers, are necessary for large cruisers. This finding is contrary to a popular yet rather teleological view that thunniform tails were selected for their high aspect ratios that increased propulsive efficiency. I also show by calculation that Stenopterygius, a Jurassic ichthyosaur, probably had optimal cruising speeds and basal metabolic rates similar to living tunas.
Form and function of the bulbus arteriosus in yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans): static properties.
Department of Zoology, Cambridge University, Downing Street, Cambridge, UK, CB2 3EJ. email@example.com
The juxtaposition of heart and gills in teleost fish means that the Windkessel function characteristic of the whole mammalian arterial tree has to be subserved by the extremely short ventral aorta and bulbus arteriosus. Over the functional pressure range, arteries from blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) have J-shaped pressure-volume (P-V) loops, while bulbi from the same species have r-shaped P-V loops, with a steep initial rise followed by a compliant plateau phase. The steep initial rise in pressure is due to the geometry of the lumen. The interactions between radius, pressure and tension require a large initial pressure to open the bulbar lumen for flow. The plateau is due to the unique organization of the bulbar wall. The large elastin:collagen ratio, limited amount of collagen arranged circumferentially, lack of elastin lamellae and low hydrophobicity of the elastin itself all combine to lower stiffness, increase extensibility and allow efficient recoil. Even though the modulus of bulbus material is much lower than that of an artery, at large volumes the overall stiffness of the bulbus increases rapidly. The morphological features that give rise to the special inflation characteristics of the bulbus help to extend flow and maintain pressure during diastole.
Vascular anatomy of the gills in a high energy demand teleost, the skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis).
Indiana University School of Medicine, South Bend Center for Medical Education, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Tunas (family: Scombridae, Tribe: Thunnini) exhibit anatomical, physiological, and biochemical adaptations that dramatically increase the ability of their cardiorespiratory systems to transfer oxygen from the water to the tissues. In the present study the vascular anatomy of the skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, gill was examined by light and scanning electron microscopic analysis of methyl methacrylate vascular corrosion replicas prepared under physiological pressure. The gill filament contains three distinct blood pathways, respiratory, interlamellar, and nutrient. The respiratory, or arterio-arterial (AA) pathway, is the site of gas exchange and consists of the afferent and efferent filamental arteries (AFA and EFA) and arterioles (ALA and ELA) and the lamellae. Each ALA in the basal filament supplies ten or more lamellae and they anastomose with their neighbor to form a continuous vascular arcade. Four modifications in the lamellar circulation appear to enhance gas exchange efficiency. 1) The ALA deliver blood directly to the outer margin of the lamellae where unstirred boundary layer effects are predicted to be minimal and water PO2 highest. 2) Pillar cells are closely aligned along the outer boundary of the inlet side and the inner boundary of the outlet side of the lamellae to form multiple distributing and receiving blood channels. 3) Elsewhere in the lamella, pillar cells are aligned to form diagonal channels that direct blood from the outer to the inner lamellar margins, thereby reducing vascular resistance. 4) The lamellar sinusoid is especially widened near the efferent end to augment oxygen saturation of blood flowing through the inner margin. These adaptations, plus the presence of a bow-shaped interlamellar septum, and a thinned filament core appear to decrease gill vascular resistance and maximize gas-exchange efficiency. The interlamellar (IL) and nutrient systems originate from post-lamellar vessels and are arterio-venous (AV) pathways. IL vessels form an extensive ladder-like lattice on both sides of the filamental cartilage and are supplied in part by narrow-bore vessels from the medial wall of the EFA. Their function is unknown. Nutrient vessels are formed from the confluence of a myriad of tortuous, narrow-bore vessels arising from the basal region of the EFA and from efferent branchial arteries. They re-enter the filament and eventually drain into the IL system or filamental veins. As these AV pathways are retained despite considerable reduction in filamental tissue, it is evident that they are integral components of other non-respiratory homeostatic activities of the gill.