Creatinine :: urine
Vet Rec. 2012 Jul 14;171 (2):46 22735988
Dietary and animal-related factors associated with the rate of urinary oxalate and calcium excretion in dogs and cats.
Division of Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 7, 3584 CL Utrecht, The Netherlands.
This paper reports the results of a cohort study and randomised clinical trial (RCT) in cross-over design. In the cohort study, the range of urinary oxalate (Uox) and calcium (Uca) excretion was determined within a sample of the Dutch population of dogs and cats, and dietary and animal-related factors associated with these urine parameters were identified. Spot urine samples were collected from privately owned dogs (n=141) and cats (n=50). The RCT determined the effect of a commercial raw meat diet versus a dry diet on Uox and Uca excretion rate in 23 dogs. In the cohort study, Uox excretion ranged from 21.1 to 170.6 mmol oxalate/mol creatinine in dogs and 27.5 to 161.6 in cats. Urinary calcium excretion ranged from 3.4 to 462.8 mmol calcium/mol creatinine in dogs and 10.1 to 128.0 in cats. In dogs, increased Uox and Uca excretion was associated with (1) the intake of a dry diet as the primary source of energy,(2) receiving no snacks and (3) breed. Increased Uox excretion was associated with males as well. In cats, urine collection in anaesthetised subjects was identified as a confounder. In the RCT, feeding the dry diet resulted in higher Uox (P<0.001) and Uca (P=0.021) excretion rates in dogs.
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A formula has been developed to predict creatinine clearance (Ccr) from serum creatinine (Scr) in adult males:(see article)(15% less in females). Derivation included the relationship found between age and 24-hour creatinine excretion/kg in 249 patients aged 18-92. Values for Ccr were predicted by this formula and four other methods and the results compared with the means of two 24-hour Ccr's measured in 236 patients. The above formula gave a correlation coefficient between predicted and mean measured Ccr's of 0.83; on average, the difference predicted and mean measured values was no greater than that between paired clearances. Factors for age and body weight must be included for reasonable prediction.
Albuminuria and risk of cardiovascular events, death, and heart failure in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals.
H C Gerstein, J F Mann, Q Yi, B Zinman, S F Dinneen, B Hoogwerf, J P Hallé, J Young, A Rashkow, C Joyce, S Nawaz, S Yusuf
Department of Medicine, Room 3V38, 1200 Main St W, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5. firstname.lastname@example.org
CONTEXT Microalbuminuria is a risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) events. The relationship between the degree of albuminuria and CV risk is unclear. OBJECTIVES To estimate the risk of CV events in high-risk individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) and without DM who have microalbuminuria and to determine whether levels of albuminuria below the microalbuminuria threshold increase CV risk. DESIGN The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation study, a cohort study conducted between 1994 and 1999 with a median 4.5 years of follow-up. SETTING Community and academic practices in North and South America and Europe. PARTICIPANTS Individuals aged 55 years or more with a history of CV disease (n = 5545) or DM and at least 1 CV risk factor (n = 3498) and a baseline urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) measurement. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or CV death); all-cause death; and hospitalization for congestive heart failure. RESULTS Microalbuminuria was detected in 1140 (32.6%) of those with DM and 823 (14.8%) of those without DM at baseline. Microalbuminuria increased the adjusted relative risk (RR) of major CV events (RR, 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64-2.05), all-cause death (RR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.84-2.38), and hospitalization for congestive heart failure (RR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.54-4.10). Similar RRs were seen for participants with or without DM, even after adjusting for other CV risk factors (eg, the adjusted RR of the primary aggregate end point was 1.97 [95% CI, 1.68-2.31] in those with DM and 1.61 [95% CI, 1.36-1.90] in those without DM). Compared with the lowest quartile of ACR (<0.22 mg/mmol), the RRs of the primary aggregate end point in the second quartile (ie, ACR range, 0.22-0.57 mg/mmol) was 1.11 (95% CI, 0.95-1.30); third quartile, 1.38 (95% CI, 1.19-1.60; ACR range, 0.58-1.62 mg/mmol); and fourth quartile, 1.97 (95% CI, 1.73-2.25; ACR range,>1.62 mg/mmol)(P for trend <.001, even after excluding those with microalbuminuria). For every 0.4-mg/mmol increase in ACR level, the adjusted hazard of major CV events increased by 5.9%(95% CI, 4.9%-7.0%). CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate that any degree of albuminuria is a risk factor for CV events in individuals with or without DM; the risk increases with the ACR, starting well below the microalbuminuria cutoff. Screening for albuminuria identifies people at high risk for CV events.
The use of plasma creatinine concentration for estimating glomerular filtration rate in infants, children, and adolescents.
The formula GFR = kL/Pcr can be used to estimate GFR in infants, children, and adolescents who have grossly normal body habitus and are in steady-state condition. GFR is expressed in ml/min per 1.73 m2 BSA, L represents body length in cm, Pcr represents plasma creatinine concentration in mg per dl and k is a constant of proportionality that reflects the relationship between urinary creatinine excretion and units of body size. The value of k varies as a function of age and sex being 0.33 in preterm infants, 0.45 in full-term infants, 0.55 in children and adolescent girls, and 0.70 in adolescent boys. The advantages of rapid determination, reasonable accuracy, and the avoidance of urine collection justify the use of this formula in pediatric patients.
Division of Nephrology, Tufts-New England Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111, USA. email@example.com
United States Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts 02111.
The effects of strength conditioning on skeletal muscle function and mass were determined in older men. Twelve healthy untrained volunteers (age range 60-72 yr) participated in a 12-wk strength training program (8 repetitions/set; 3 sets/day; 3 days/wk) at 80% of the one repetition maximum (1 RM) for extensors and flexors of both knee joints. They were evaluated before the program and after 6 and 12 wk of training. Weekly measurements of 1 RM showed a progressive increase in strength in extensors and flexors. By 12 wk extensor and flexor strength had increased 107.4 (P less than 0.0001) and 226.7%(P less than 0.0001), respectively. Isokinetic peak torque of extensors and flexors measured on a Cybex II dynamometer increased 10.0 and 18.5%(P less than 0.05) at 60 degrees/s and 16.7 and 14.7%(P less than 0.05) at 240 degrees/s. The torque-velocity relationship showed an upward displacement of the curve at the end of training, mainly in the slow-velocity high-torque region. Midthigh composition from computerized tomographic scans showed an increase (P less than 0.01) in total thigh area (4.8%), total muscle area (11.4%), and quadriceps area (9.3%). Biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle revealed similar increases (P less than 0.001) in type I fiber area (33.5%) and type II fiber area (27.6%). Daily excretion of urinary 3-methyl-L-histidine increased with training (P less than 0.05) by an average 40.8%. Strength gains in older men were associated with significant muscle hypertrophy and an increase in myofibrillar protein turnover.
To determine the reliability of creatinine as a measure of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), we compared the simultaneous clearance of creatinine to that of three true filtration markers of graded size in 171 patients with various glomerular diseases. Using inulin (radius [rs]= 15 A) as a reference marker, we found that the fractional clearance of 99mTc-DTPA (rs = 4 A) was 1.02 +/- 0.14, while that of a 19 A rs dextran was 0.98 +/- 0.13, with neither value differing from unity. In contrast, the fractional clearance (relative to inulin) of creatinine (rs = 3 A) exceeded unity, averaging 1.64 +/- 0.05 (P less than 0.001), but could be lowered towards unity by acute blockade of tubular creatinine secretion by IV cimetidine. Cross-sectional analysis of all 171 patients revealed fractional creatinine secretion to vary inversely with GFR. This inverse relationship was confirmed also among individual patients with either deteriorating (N = 28) or remitting (N = 26) glomerular disease, who were studied longitudinally. As a result, changes in creatinine relative to inulin clearance were blunted considerably or even imperceptible. We conclude that true filtration markers with rs less than 20 A, including inulin, are unrestricted in glomerular disease, and that creatinine is hypersecreted progressively by remnant renal tubules as the disease worsens. Accordingly, attempts to use creatinine as a marker with which to evaluate or monitor glomerulopathic patients will result in gross and unpredictable overestimates of the GFR.
Standard true 24-hour creatinine clearance determinations were performed on 884 subjects of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study. On the basis of clinical data, subjects were placed in categories indicating the presence of specific diseases or medications which might alter glomerular filtration rate. Subjects not included in these categories were considered normal (N=548). In the normals, cross-sectional analysis by 10-year age groups showed a progressive linear decline in clearance from 140 ml/min/1.73m2 at age 30 to 97 at age 80. Three or more serial clearances were obtained at 12- to 18-mo. intervals on 293 normal subjects. These longitudinal data showed an acceleration of the rate of decline in creatinine clearance with advancing age. The decrease in creatinine clearance with age seen in this study represents true renal aging and is not secondary to diseases which become increasingly prevalent in the elderly. A nomogram constructed from these data provides normative age-corrected standards for creatinine clearance.
A specific immunoassay for monitoring human bone resorption: quantitation of type I collagen cross-linked N-telopeptides in urine.
Department of Orthopaedics, University of Washington, Seattle.
Peptides of low molecular weight that contain pyridinoline cross-links were isolated from adolescent human urine. A fraction was selected that was enriched in the N-telopeptide-to-helix intermolecular cross-linking domain of bone type I collagen. Mouse monoclonal antibodies were generated against these urinary peptides conjugated to a carrier protein as immunogen. A high-affinity antibody was identified that specifically bound to the trivalent peptides derived from the N-telopeptide-to-helix pyridinoline cross-linking site in type I collagen of human bone. This was confirmed by the direct isolation from human bone collagen of similar fragments recognized selectively by the antibody. A sensitive inhibition ELISA was established on microtiter plates that could quantify the bone-derived peptides in human urine. The assay, which can be run directly on untreated urine, was thoroughly tested against samples from normal subjects and from patients with metabolic bone disease. For example, strong correlations with urinary hydroxyproline and total pyridinoline cross-links were found in patients with Paget's disease of bone. The method shows considerable promise as a rapid and specific index of human bone resorption rates, with greatly improved specificity and convenience over total pyridinoline analysis. Potential applications include the study of normal metabolism, the diagnosis and monitoring of bone disease, and evaluating the effectiveness of antiresorption therapies.