Uridine :: administration & dosage
PLoS One. 2011 ;6 (2):e14709 21379380
Enhanced uridine bioavailability following administration of a triacetyluridine-rich nutritional supplement.
Melissa E Weinberg, Mark C Roman, Peyton Jacob, Michael Wen, Polly Cheung, Ulrich A Walker, Kathleen Mulligan, Morris Schambelan
University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America. firstname.lastname@example.org
Uridine is a therapy for hereditary orotic aciduria and is being investigated in other disorders caused by mitochondrial dysfunction, including toxicities resulting from treatment with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in HIV. Historically, the use of uridine as a therapeutic agent has been limited by poor bioavailability. A food supplement containing nucleosides, NucleomaxX®, has been reported to raise plasma uridine to supraphysiologic levels. Single- and multi-dose PK studies following NucleomaxX® were compared to single-dose PK studies of equimolar doses of pure uridine in healthy human volunteers. Product analysis documented that more than 90% of the nucleoside component of NucleomaxX® is in the form of triacetyluridine (TAU). Single and repeated dosing with NucleomaxX® resulted in peak plasma uridine concentrations 1-2 hours later of 150.9 ± 39.3 µM and 161.4 ± 31.5 µM, respectively, levels known to ameliorate mitochondrial toxicity in vitro. C(max) and AUC were four-fold higher after a single dose of NucleomaxX® than after uridine. No adverse effects of either treatment were observed. NucleomaxX®, containing predominantly TAU, has significantly greater bioavailability than pure uridine in human subjects and may be useful in the management of mitochondrial toxicity.
Most cited papers:
Administration to rats of D-galactosamine (400 mg/kg) produces liver cell death that develops during the first 24 hours. Plasma membranes isolated within the first few hours from these animals show a 40% reduction in 5'-nucleotidase activity and a two-fold increase in maximum negative ellipticity determined by circular dichroism. Simultaneous administration of uridine prevents liver cell death and these early alterations in the plasma membranes. Uridine also prevents cell death if administered for up to 3 hours after galactosamine. The 5'nucleotidase activity reduced when uridine is administered for up to 2-1/2 hours after galactosamine. Changes in the liver calcium ion concentration accompany these plasma membrane alterations. Uridine will prevent and reverse the changes in calcium content in parallel to its ability to reverse the membrane alterations. The significance of these findings with respect to the mechanism of galactosamine-induced liver cell death is discussed.
Clinical and pharmacokinetic studies of prolonged administration of high-dose uridine intended for rescue from 5-FU toxicity.
A clinical and pharmacokinetic investigation of prolonged administration of high-dose uridine was performed in seven patients with advanced-stage cancer. Uridine administration was examined as a continuous infusion at 1 and 2.5 g/m2/hr (two patients) and as a series of intermittent infusions during 72 hrs at doses of 1-3 g/m2/hr, whereby 3-hr uridine administration was alternated with a 3-hr treatment-free interval (six patients). Continuous infusions of uridine resulted in plasma uridine concentrations of 0.5-1 mM, but was discontinued due to rapid increase in body temperature. Further studies focused on the intermittent schedule in an attempt to avoid the development of fever. Intermittent uridine infusion resulted in markedly elevated plasma uridine levels in the millimolar range. However, during the treatment-free period, rapid elimination of uridine was observed, resulting in plasma levels of 138-335 microM for 3 g/m2/hr. Plasma uracil concentrations also increased markedly, but smaller fluctuations compared to uridine were seen. Total urinary excretion of uridine was 15%-40% of the dose, while uracil excretion in urine was 2%-17%. Intermittent uridine infusion resulted in little or no rise in body temperature (less than or equal to 1.0 degrees C) in ten of 12 courses, and fever of greater than 39 degrees C in two courses. Both intermittent and continuous infusion of uridine gave rise to phlebitis, which necessitated central venous administration. These data show that using an intermittent infusion schedule, long-term administration of uridine is tolerable, with fever being dose-limiting. Intermittent infusion provides for the maintenance of markedly elevated plasma uridine levels and long-term uridine exposure to the tissues, and may be useful in further studies aimed at testing the potential of uridine to rescue patients from 5-FU toxicity.
Safety and tolerability of denufosol tetrasodium inhalation solution, a novel P2Y2 receptor agonist: results of a phase 1/phase 2 multicenter study in mild to moderate cystic fibrosis.
Robin Deterding, George Retsch-Bogart, Laura Milgram, Ron Gibson, Cori Daines, Pamela L Zeitlin, Carlos Milla, Bruce Marshall, Lisa Lavange, Jean Engels, Dave Mathews, Joann Gorden, Amy Schaberg, Judy Williams, Bonnie Ramsey
Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital, Denver, Colorado 80218, USA. email@example.com
Denufosol tetrasodium (INS37217) is a selective P2Y(2) agonist that stimulates ciliary beat frequency and Cl(-) secretion in normal and cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelia, and is being investigated as an inhaled treatment for CF. The Cl(-) secretory response is mediated via a non-CFTR pathway, and the driving force for Cl(-) secretion is enhanced by the effect of P2Y(2) activation to also inhibit epithelial Na(+) transport. Denufosol is metabolically more stable and better tolerated, and may enhance mucociliary clearance for a longer period of time than previously investigated P2Y(2) agonists. The goal of this phase 1/phase 2 study was to assess the safety and tolerability of single and repeated doses of aerosolized denufosol in subjects with CF. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter comparison of ascending single doses of denufosol (10, 20, 40, and 60 mg, administered by inhalation via the Pari LC Star nebulizer) vs. placebo (normal saline), followed by a comparison of twice-daily administration of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of denufosol or placebo for 5 days. Thirty-seven adult (18 years of age or older) and 24 pediatric (5-17 years of age) subjects with CF were evaluated in five cohorts. Subjects were randomized in a 3:1 ratio to receive either denufosol or placebo within each cohort. The percent of subjects experiencing adverse events was similar between the denufosol and placebo groups. The most common adverse event in subjects receiving denufosol was chest tightness in adult subjects (39%) and cough in pediatric subjects (56%). Three (7%) subjects receiving denufosol and one (7%) subject receiving placebo experienced a serious adverse event. Forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV(1)) profiles following dosing were similar across treatment groups, with some acute, reversible decline seen in both groups, most notably in subjects with lower lung function at baseline. In conclusion, doses up to 60 mg of denufosol inhalation solution were well-tolerated in most subjects. Some intolerability was noted among subjects with lower baseline lung function. Based on the results of this phase 1/phase 2 study, the Therapeutics Development Network (TDN) of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF) and Inspire Pharmaceuticals, Inc., recently completed a multicenter, 28-day, phase 2 safety and efficacy clinical trial of denufosol inhalation solution in CF subjects with mild lung disease.
Phase I and pharmacokinetic studies of high-dose uridine intended for rescue from 5-fluorouracil toxicity.
The clinical effects and pharmacokinetics of high-dose uridine were determined in seven patients with advanced-stage cancer and in one healthy volunteer. Uridine was also examined for its effect on 5-fluorouracil toxicity in two patients. Uridine was administered as a 1-hr i.v. infusion at doses of 1 to 12 g/sq m. Plasma and urine samples were analyzed for uridine and uracil using high-pressure liquid chromatography. In 23 courses of uridine alone, the only toxicity observed was transient shivering after one of two courses at 12 g/sq m. This side effect was also seen after administration of uridine (10 g/sq m) during combination with 5-fluorouracil. The pretreatment plasma uridine concentration was elevated from low micromolar to millimolar levels with uridine administration at doses up to 12 g/sq m. Maximal areas under the concentration-time curve were about 5 mmol/liter/hr. Both peak plasma level and area under the curve for uridine increased linearly with dose. Uridine plasma decay curves were biphasic with a terminal half-life of 118 min. Half-life, volume of distribution (634 ml/kg), and total clearance (4.98 ml/kg/min) appeared to be independent of dose. Plasma uracil concentration increased gradually after administration of uridine to plateau levels. Maximal plasma uracil concentrations were about one-tenth that of peak uridine concentrations. The plasma uracil level declined with a half-life of about 40 min after uridine levels decreased to 300 microM. Total urinary excretion of uridine was 24% of the dose, while the amount of uracil recovered in urine was 3.4%. In two patients, uridine rescue was attempted during 5-fluorouracil dose escalation. Uridine at 5 to 6 g/sq m given on 1 or on 2 days after 5-fluorouracil did not prevent myelosuppression and gastrointestinal toxicity associated with increasing plasma concentrations of 5-fluorouracil. These data show that uridine administered as a 1-hr infusion at doses which provide peak plasma uridine concentrations in the millimolar range is well tolerated. Rapid elimination of uridine primarily due to catabolism results in modest exposure to substantially elevated plasma uridine concentrations. Preliminary findings suggest that prolonged treatment with uridine may be required to test its potential to rescue patients from 5-fluorouracil toxicity.
We examined the ability of uridine to increase the therapeutic index of 5-fluorouracil (FUra) against C57BL/6 X DBA/2 F1 mice bearing a Day 1 B16 melanoma or L1210 leukemia. FUra (400, 600, or 800 mg/kg, i.p.) followed in 24 hr by a 5-day s.c. infusion with uridine (5 g/kg/day, s.c.) was compared with the maximum tolerated dose of FUra (200 mg/kg, i.p.) plus a 5-day infusion with 0.9% NaCl solution. High-dose FUra plus delayed infusion with uridine was more effective than FUra (200 mg/kg) in inhibiting the growth of the B16 melanoma. High-dose FUra plus uridine rescue was, however, no more effective than FUra (200 mg/kg) in increasing the survival times of mice bearing the L1210 leukemia. To see if uridine rescue from FUra toxicity correlated with effects against a sensitive normal tissue, bone marrow nucleated cellularity of normal, non-tumor-bearing mice was monitored after drug treatment. In mice treated with FUra (200 mg/kg) followed in 24 hr by a 5-day infusion with either uridine (5 g/kg/day) or 0.9% NaCl solution, there was not as great a decrease in cellularity at the nadir with uridine, and, in addition, uridine accelerated recovery as compared to 0.9% NaCl solution. Furthermore, uridine (5 g/kg/day), but not thymidine (dThd)(5 g/kg/day) or 2'-deoxyuridine (dUrd)(5 g/kg/day), had a sparing effect on the depression in bone marrow nucleated cellularity seen at the nadir on Day 4 after Fura (200 mg/kg). The specificity of uridine to rescue mice from the lethal toxicity of the related fluorinated pyrimidines, 5-fluorouridine and 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine, was also examined. Mice were treated with 5-fluorouridine (250 mg/kg, i.p.) followed in 24 hr by a 5-day infusion with uridine (1, 5, or 10 g/kg/day), dThd (1, 5, or 10 g/kg/day), or dUrd (1 or 5 g/kg/day). Uridine (1, 5, or 10 g/kg/day) rescued mice from the lethal toxicity of 5-fluorouridine, whereas dThd or dUrd was ineffective. Similarly, a 5-day infusion with uridine, but not dThd or dUrd, rescued mice from the lethal toxicity of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (1800 mg/kg, i.p.).
Effects of total parenteral nutrition with nucleoside and nucleotide mixture on D-galactosamine-induced liver injury in rats.
Department of Surgery, Kochi Medical School, Japan.
The effect of a nucleoside-nucleotide mixture on liver injury of rats induced by D-galactosamine was studied by examining changes in function and histopathology of the liver. Animals with liver damage received total parenteral nutrition with glucose and amino acids supplemented with a nucleoside-nucleotide mixture containing inosine, cytidine, GMP, uridine and thymidine, or with uridine which inhibits galactosamine injury, or with liver cell extract containing flavin adenine dinucleotide and nucleic acid derivatives. As control, animals with liver damage received total parenteral nutrition with glucose and amino acids only. The serum GOT and GPT concentrations were significantly lower in the group supplemented with nucleoside-nucleotide mixture than those in other groups. A large dose (1.2 g/kg) of uridine inhibited liver injury, but a lower dose (0.14 g/kg) did not have any effect, whereas nucleoside-nucleotide mixture containing the same amount of uridine inhibited the injury. Liver cell extract also did not improve liver function. Thus infusion of a physiological and balanced mixture of nucleosides or nucleotides may improve liver function in rats with liver injury.
Department of Medical Oncology, Free University Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Effects of oral administrations of uridine were investigated in a study of six healthy volunteer control subjects and nine patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Oral uridine was studied as single-dose administrations at doses escalating from 0.3 to 12 g/m2 and as multiple-dose administrations every 6 hours for 3 days at doses from 5 to 10 g/m2. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was 10 to 12 g/m2 for a single dose of uridine and 5 g/m2 for the multiple-dose regimen. Diarrhea was the dose-limiting toxic effect. Single-dose oral uridine resulted in an increase in plasma uridine concentrations in the range of 60 to 80 microM after doses of 8 to 12 g/m2. At these doses, bioavailability of oral uridine ranged from 5.8% to 9.9%. At the MTD of 5 g/m2 in the multiple-dose uridine schedule, steady-state plasma uridine levels of approximately 50 microM were achieved. Further studies should explore the role of oral uridine in the modulation of the toxicity of fluorouracil.
Synaptic proteins and phospholipids are increased in gerbil brain by administering uridine plus docosahexaenoic acid orally.
Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 43 Vassar Street, 46-5023B MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
The synthesis of brain phosphatidylcholine may utilize three circulating precursors: choline; a pyrimidine (e.g., uridine, converted via UTP to brain CTP); and a PUFA (e.g., docosahexaenoic acid); phosphatidylethanolamine may utilize two of these, a pyrimidine and a PUFA. We observe that consuming these precursors can substantially increase membrane phosphatide and synaptic protein levels in gerbil brains.(Pyrimidine metabolism in gerbils, but not rats, resembles that in humans.) Animals received, daily for 4 weeks, a diet containing choline chloride and UMP (a uridine source) and/or DHA by gavage. Brain phosphatidylcholine rose by 13-22% with uridine and choline alone, or DHA alone, or by 45% with the combination, phosphatidylethanolamine and the other phosphatides increasing by 39-74%. Smaller elevations occurred after 1-3 weeks. The combination also increased the vesicular protein Synapsin-1 by 41%, the postsynaptic protein PSD-95 by 38% and the neurite neurofibrillar proteins NF-70 and NF-M by up to 102% and 48%, respectively. However, it had no effect on the cytoskeletal protein beta-tubulin. Hence, the quantity of synaptic membrane probably increased. The precursors act by enhancing the substrate saturation of enzymes that initiate their incorporation into phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine and by UTP-mediated activation of P2Y receptors. Alzheimer's disease brains contain fewer and smaller synapses and reduced levels of synaptic proteins, membrane phosphatides, choline and DHA. The three phosphatide precursors might thus be useful in treating this disease.
Homeostatic control of uridine and the role of uridine phosphorylase: a biological and clinical update.
Giuseppe Pizzorno, Deliang Cao, Janine J Leffert, Rosalind L Russell, Dekai Zhang, Robert E Handschumacher
Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Giuseppe.Pizzorno@yale.edu
Uridine, a pyrimidine nucleoside essential for the synthesis of RNA and bio-membranes, is a crucial element in the regulation of normal physiological processes as well as pathological states. The biological effects of uridine have been associated with the regulation of the cardio-circulatory system, at the reproduction level, with both peripheral and central nervous system modulation and with the functionality of the respiratory system. Furthermore, uridine plays a role at the clinical level in modulating the cytotoxic effects of fluoropyrimidines in both normal and neoplastic tissues. The concentration of uridine in plasma and tissues is tightly regulated by cellular transport mechanisms and by the activity of uridine phosphorylase (UPase), responsible for the reversible phosphorolysis of uridine to uracil. We have recently completed several studies designed to define the mechanisms regulating UPase expression and better characterize the multiple biological effects of uridine. Immunohistochemical analysis and co-purification studies have revealed the association of UPase with the cytoskeleton and the cellular membrane. The characterization of the promoter region of UPase has indicated a direct regulation of its expression by the tumor suppressor gene p53. The evaluation of human surgical specimens has shown elevated UPase activity in tumor tissue compared to paired normal tissue.
Development of a multiple-drug delivery implant for intraocular management of proliferative vitreoretinopathy.
Division of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, 500 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.
A prototype multiple-drug delivery implant has been developed for the intraocular management of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Because of the recurrent nature of the disease, PVR causes blindness in approximately 7% of patients who have undergone retinal re-attachment surgery. The poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) 50/50 (PLGA) implant consists of three cylindrical segments, each of which contains one of the following drugs: 5-fluorouridine (5FUrd, an antimetabolite), triamcinolone (Triam, a corticosteroid), and human recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA, a thrombolytic agent). The device can be inserted through a 20-gauge syringe needle into the vitreous body of the eye. The implant also possesses a PLGA coating over the t-PA-containing terminal segment, which creates a lag-time to deliver t-PA when most needed and to decrease the risk of postoperative bleeding. Two methods of cylinder fabrication were investigated: heat and solvent extrusion. The release behavior of several drugs was examined as a function of the processing variables including: extrusion method, drug loading, polymer molecular weight, and drug particle size. The presence of either the organic solvent (acetone) during processing or a highly water-soluble drug (5FUrd) in the formulation increased the polymer porosity, which in turn, increased the drug release-rate. Drug loading effects were consistent with percolation concepts, and a low-molecular-weight PLGA (e.g., Mw=42000 for inherent viscosity=0.58 dl/g) was desirable to produce controlled release close to one month. Based on pharmacological and pharmacokinetic data of these compounds and our clinical experience with this disease, several design criteria for a combined implant were devised. Optimal cylindrical segments from the formulation studies were selected and combined in series to form a contiguous implant. After successful combination and coating procedures were developed, prototype implants were prepared. From the 3-drug prototype, 5FUrd and Triam were released approximately 1 microgram/day for over 4 weeks and 10-190 microgram/day over 2 weeks, respectively. The solvent-extrusion procedure did not significantly alter the stability of the encapsulated t-PA (>94+/-5% serine protease activity after preparation). After a lag-time of approximately 2 days, t-PA was released active at a rate of approximately 0.2-0.5 microgram/day in approximately 2 weeks. The release characteristics from the combined implant largely met our initial design criteria. Hence, controlled-release implants of this kind may have potential use for intraocular treatment of PVR.