Thrombophlebitis :: etiology
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA.
OBJECTIVE We sought to estimate the effectiveness of a limited course of antibiotics in treating patients with chorioamnionitis. METHODS We conducted a retrospective review of patients treated for chorioamnionitis at our medical center from 2005 to 2009. Patients received ampicillin plus gentamicin as soon as the diagnosis was made. Postpartum they received only the next scheduled dose of each antibiotic. Patients who underwent a cesarean delivery received either metronidazole or clindamycin immediately after cord clamping. The primary outcome was treatment failure, defined as persistent fever requiring continuation of antibiotics, surgical intervention, or administration of heparin. RESULTS Of the 423 patients, 282 delivered vaginally, and 141 delivered by cesarean. Overall, 399 (94%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 92-96%) were treated successfully and 24 (6%; 95% CI 3.7-8.3%) failed short-course treatment. Of the 282 patients who delivered vaginally, 279 (99%; 95% CI 98-100%) were cured with short-term therapy. Of the 141 who delivered by cesarean, 120 (85%; 95% CI 79-91%) were cured (P<.001). Seventeen of the patients with total treatment failure had endometritis and responded to continuation of antibiotics. Seven patients had more serious complications: wound infection (n=4) and septic thrombophlebitis (n=3). All of the serious complications occurred after cesarean delivery, and all of the affected patients either were obese or had prolonged labor or prolonged rupture of membranes. CONCLUSION A limited course of antibiotics was sufficient for virtually all patients (99%) with chorioamnionitis who had a vaginal delivery. However, a subset of patients who delivered by cesarean may have benefited from a more extended course of antibiotic therapy. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE III.
Most cited papers:
BACKGROUND: Inflammation may be important in the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis. We studied whether inflammation increases the risk of a first thrombotic event and whether treatment with aspirin decreases the risk. METHODS: We measured plasma C-reactive protein, a marker for systemic inflammation, in 543 apparently healthy men participating in the Physicians' Health Study in whom myocardial infarction, stroke, or venous thrombosis subsequently developed, and in 543 study participants who did not report vascular disease during a follow-up period exceeding eight years. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive aspirin or placebo at the beginning of the trial. RESULTS: Base-line plasma C-reactive protein concentrations were higher among men who went on to have myocardial infarction (1.51 vs. 1.13 mg per liter, P<0.001) or ischemic stroke (1.38 vs. 1.13 mg per liter, P=0.02), but not venous thrombosis (1.26 vs. 1.13 mg per liter, P=0.34), than among men without vascular events. The men in the quartile with the highest levels of C-reactive protein values had three times the risk of myocardial infarction (relative risk, 2.9; P<0.001) and two times the risk of ischemic stroke (relative risk, 1.9; P=0.02) of the men in the lowest quartile. Risks were stable over long periods, were not modified by smoking, and were independent of other lipid-related and non-lipid-related risk factors. The use of aspirin was associated with significant reductions in the risk of myocardial infarction (55.7 percent reduction, P=0.02) among men in the highest quartile but with only small, nonsignificant reductions among those in the lowest quartile (13.9 percent, P=0.77). CONCLUSIONS: The base-line plasma concentration of C-reactive protein predicts the risk of future myocardial infarction and stroke. Moreover, the reduction associated with the use of aspirin in the risk of a first myocardial infarction appears to be directly related to the level of C-reactive protein, raising the possibility that antiinflammatory agents may have clinical benefits in preventing cardiovascular disease.
Venous thrombosis due to poor anticoagulant response to activated protein C: Leiden Thrombophilia Study.
We undertook a population-based case-control study to test the clinical importance of a hereditary abnormality in the coagulation system, characterised by poor anticoagulant response to activated protein C (APC), which is associated with familial thrombophilia. The abnormality was detected in 64 (21%) of 301 unselected consecutive patients younger than 70 years, with a first, objectively confirmed episode of deep-vein thrombosis and without underlying malignant disease. Among 301 healthy control subjects matched for age and sex, the frequency was 5%(14 subjects). Thus, there is a seven-fold increase in risk of deep-vein thrombosis in subjects with a poor response to APC (matched odds ratio 6.6 [95% CI 3.6-12.0]). In addition, there was a clear inverse relation between the degree of response to APC and thrombosis risk. In the families of the patients an autosomal dominant mode of transmission of the abnormality was confirmed. 9 of 10 thrombosis patients with a poor response to APC had 1 parent with a similar poor response, whereas 9 of 10 patients with normal tests had parents with equally normal tests. The abnormality was found in both parents of 1 patient with an extremely poor response to APC; this patient is probably homozygous for the abnormality. We conclude that the poor response to APC is the most important hereditary cause of venous thrombosis. Its high prevalence in a series of unselected patients will make testing of all thrombosis patients for this abnormality worth while.
Role of clotting factor VIII in effect of von Willebrand factor on occurrence of deep-vein thrombosis.
To elucidate the roles of the ABO blood group, von Willebrand factor (vWF), and clotting factor VIII in the process of deep-vein thrombosis we undertook a population-based patient-control study in which 301 consecutive patients younger than 70 with a first, objectively diagnosed episode of venous thrombosis and without an underlying malignant disorder were compared with 301 healthy controls matched for age and sex. In univariate analysis, blood group, vWF concentration, and factor VIII concentrations were all related to deep-vein thrombosis. The risk of thrombosis increased with increasing vWF or factor VIII concentration and was higher in subjects of non-O blood groups than in those of group O. In multivariate analysis only factor VIII remained as a risk factor, and the dose-response relation between factor VIII concentration and risk of thrombosis persisted (subjects with factor VIII concentrations above 1500 IU/L had an adjusted odds ratio of 4.8 [95% Cl 2.3-10.0]). By contrast, the adjusted odds ratio for each vWF stratum did not differ from 1, and that for blood group was 1.5 (1.0-2.2). Our findings point to an effect on thrombosis risk of vWF and blood group, the former fully and the latter at least partly mediated through factor VIII. The 25% prevalence of factor VIII concentrations above 1500 IU/L among unselected consecutive thrombosis patients and the high adjusted relative risk for thrombosis lead to the conclusion that high factor VIII concentrations are common and represent a clear increase in risk of thrombosis, similar to the risks conferred by deficiencies of the coagulation-inhibiting proteins and activated protein C resistance.
BACKGROUND. Previous studies have suggested that hyperhomocysteinemia may be a risk factor for venous thrombosis. To assess the risk of venous thrombosis associated with hyperhomocysteinemia, we studied plasma homocysteine levels in patients with a first episode of deep-vein thrombosis and in normal control subjects. METHODS. We measured plasma homocysteine levels in 269 patients with a first, objectively diagnosed episode of deep-vein thrombosis and in 269 healthy controls matched to the patients according to age and sex. Hyperhomocysteinemia was defined as a plasma homocysteine level above the 95th percentile in the control group (18.5 micromol per liter). RESULTS. Of the 269 patients, 28 (10 percent) had plasma homocysteine levels above the 95th percentile for the controls, as compared with 13 of the controls (matched odds ratio, 2.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.2 to 5.2). The association between elevated homocysteine levels and venous thrombosis was stronger among women than among men and increased with age. The exclusion of subjects with other established risk factors for thrombosis (e.g., a deficiency of protein C, protein S, or antithrombin; resistance to activated protein C; pregnancy or recent childbirth; or oral-contraceptive use) did not materially affect the risk estimates. CONCLUSIONS. High plasma homocysteine levels are a risk factor for deep-vein thrombosis in the general population.
Increased risk of venous thrombosis in oral-contraceptive users who are carriers of factor V Leiden mutation.
We investigated whether the occurrence of venous thrombosis in young women who use oral contraceptives might be explained by the factor V Leiden mutation, which leads to resistance to activated protein C and enhances susceptibility to thrombosis. We compared 155 consecutive premenopausal women, aged 15 to 49, who had developed deep venous thrombosis in the absence of other underlying diseases, with 169 population controls. The risk of thrombosis among users of oral contraceptives was increased 4-fold (relative risk 3.8 [95% CI 2.4-6.0]). The risk of thrombosis among carriers of the mutation compared with non-carriers was increased 8-fold (7.9 [3.2-19.4]). Compared with women who did not use oral contraceptives and were not carriers of the mutation, the risk of thrombosis among those with both risk factors was increased more than 30-fold (34.7 [7.8-154]). Recalculation of population incidences from these relative risks shows that the absolute risk of venous thrombosis in young women who use oral contraceptives is much larger when they carry the factor V Leiden mutation. When a young woman develops thrombosis, her factor V Leiden status should be considered in counselling about her future method of contraception.
BACKGROUND. Although deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are considered common complications after major trauma, their frequency and the associated risk factors have not been carefully quantified. METHODS. We performed serial impedance plethysmography and lower-extremity contrast venography to detect deep-vein thrombosis in a cohort of 716 patients admitted to a regional trauma unit. Prophylaxis against thromboembolism was not used. RESULTS. Deep-vein thrombosis in the lower extremities was found in 201 of the 349 patients (58 percent) with adequate venographic studies, and proximal-vein thrombosis was found in 63 (18 percent). Three patients died of massive pulmonary embolism before venography could be performed. Before venography, only three of the patients with deep-vein thrombosis had clinical features suggestive of the condition. Deep-vein thrombosis was found in 65 of the 129 patients with major injuries involving the face, chest, or abdomen (50 percent); in 49 of the 91 patients with major head injuries (53.8 percent); in 41 of the 66 with spinal injuries (62 percent); and in 126 of the 182 with lower-extremity orthopedic injuries (69 percent). Thrombi were detected in 61 of the 100 patients with pelvic fractures (61 percent), in 59 of the 74 with femoral fractures (80 percent), and in 66 of the 86 with tibial fractures (77 percent). A multivariate analysis identified five independent risk factors for deep-vein thrombosis: older age (odds ratio, 1.05 per year of age; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.06), blood transfusion (odds ratio, 1.74; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.03 to 2.93), surgery (odds ratio, 2.30; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.08 to 4.89), fracture of the femur or tibia (odds ratio, 4.82; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.79 to 8.33), and spinal cord injury (odds ratio, 8.59; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.92 to 25.28). CONCLUSIONS. Venous thromboembolism is a common complication in patients with major trauma, and effective, safe prophylactic regimens are needed.
BACKGROUND: The shortage of livers for transplantation has prompted transplant centers to seek alternatives to conventional cadaveric liver transplantation. Left lateral segmentectomy from living donors has proven to be a safe operation for the donor with excellent results in the pediatric population. Left lobectomy, conceived to supply more tissue, still provides insufficient liver mass for an average size adult patient. Right lobectomy could supply a graft of adequate size. METHODS: Donors were considered only after recipients were listed according to United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) criteria. Donor evaluation included liver biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging, and celiac and mesenteric angiography. The donor operation consisted of a right lobectomy uniformly performed throughout the series as described herein. RESULTS: Twenty-five right lobe living donor liver transplants were performed between adults, with no significant complications in donors. Recipient and graft survival was 88%, with three recipient deaths secondary to uncontrolled sepsis in patients at high risk for liver transplant; all three had functioning grafts. CONCLUSIONS: Right lobe living donor liver transplantation poses challenges that require a meticulous surgical technique to minimize morbidity in the recipient. Right lobectomies for living donation can be performed safely with minimal risk to both donor and recipient although providing adequate liver mass for an average size adult patient.