Teratoma :: surgery
Do high levels of CA 19-9 in women with mature cystic teratomas of the ovary warrant further evaluation?
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gaziantep University, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep, Turkey. email@example.com
PURPOSE To evaluate the serum levels of tumor markers (particularly CA 19-9) in patients with ovarian mature cystic teratomas (MCT) with respect to age, size, bilaterality, menopause, presence of adhesions, complications and the postoperative levels. METHODS We evaluated clinical characteristics and tumor markers of 157 patients with MCT of the ovary operated at our clinic. RESULTS CA19-9 was the only tumor marker with a mean serum level (46.95 +/- 101.11 U/ml) above the cut-off value and the elevated rate was 33.1%. Tumor size, presence of adhesions and CA 125 levels were significantly higher in patients with elevated CA 19-9. Bilaterality rate was 10.8%. The most common complication was torsion (6.4%). CONCLUSION We suggest that elevated levels of CA 19-9 may be expected in MCTs of the ovary and that they will probably be decreased postoperatively. Therefore, postponing evaluation of other possible sources of CA 19-9 elevation in asymptomatic and young patients is more common sense.
Most cited papers:
Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor: a surgically curable tumor of young patients with intractable partial seizures. Report of thirty-nine cases.
Department of Pathology, Hôpital Sainte Anne, Paris, France.
This report concerns the clinicopathological features of 39 cases of a morphologically unique and surgically curable group of neuroepithelial tumors associated with medically intractable partial complex seizures. All were supratentorial and characterized by intracortical location, multinodular architecture, and heterogeneity in cellular composition. The constituent cells included astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neurons. Because neuronal atypia was often inapparent, the tumors superficially resembled mixed oligoastrocytomas. The term "dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor"(DNT) is proposed for these distinctive lesions, the clinicopathological features of which suggest a dysembryoplastic origin. With the exception of the occurrence of headaches in 2 patients, partial complex seizures were the exclusive symptom. Age at onset of symptoms ranged from 1 to 19 years (mean 9 years). In addition to the chronic nature of the seizures (range, 2 to 18 years; mean, 9 years), one-third of the patients showed radiological features, such as focal cranial deformity, indicating that the tumors had an early onset and were of long standing. In most cases, computed tomography showed a "pseudocystic," well-demarcated, low density appearance associated in some cases with focal contrast enhancement (18%) or calcific hyperdensity (23%). The tumor involved the temporal lobe in 24 patients (62%), the frontal lobe in 12 (31%), and the parietal and/or occipital lobe in 3 cases. Although tumor removal was considered incomplete or subtotal in 17 patients (44%), long term follow-up (range, 1 to 18 years; mean, 9 years) showed neither clinical nor radiological evidence of recurrence in any patient. Comparison of the survival data of the 13 subjects who had undergone postoperative radiotherapy with 26 who had not indicated that radiation therapy was of no obvious benefit. The identification of DNT has therapeutic and prognostic implications because aggressive therapy can be avoided, thus sparing these young patients the deleterious long term effects of radio- or chemotherapy.
Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tokyo, Japan.
The authors analyzed 153 cases of histologically verified intracranial germ cell tumors. The histological diagnosis was germinoma in 63 patients (41.2%), teratoma in 30 (19.6%), and other types of tumors in 60 patients (39.2%). The patients were treated by a consistent policy of surgical removal with histological verification followed by radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy. The 10- and 20-year survival rates of patients with pure germinoma were 92.7% and 80.6%, respectively. The 10-year survival rates of patients with mature teratoma and malignant teratoma were 92.9% and 70.7%, respectively. Patients with pure malignant germ cell tumors (embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, or choriocarcinoma) had a 3-year survival rate of 27.3%. The mixed tumors were divided into three subgroups: 1) mixed germinoma and teratoma; 2) mixed tumors whose predominant characteristics were germinoma or teratoma combined with some elements of pure malignant tumors; and 3) mixed tumors with predominantly pure malignant elements. The 3-year survival rates were 94.1% for the first group, 70% for the second group, and 9.3% for the third group, and the differences were statistically significant. Twenty-six patients with malignant tumors received chemotherapy that consisted of cisplatin and carboplatin combinations with or without radiation therapy. However, chemotherapy was not significantly more effective than radiation therapy alone. From these treatment results, the authors classified tumors into three groups with different prognoses and proposed a treatment guideline appropriate for the subgroups.
Medical Research Council prospective study of surveillance for stage I testicular teratoma. Medical Research Council Testicular Tumors Working Party.
Medical Research Council, London, United Kingdom.
PURPOSE A prospective study of surveillance after orchidectomy alone in patients with stage I nonseminomatous germ cell testicular tumor (NSGCT) was performed to determine the relapse-free rate and to identify the histologic criteria that predict for relapse. PATIENTS AND METHODS Three hundred ninety-six patients from 16 United Kingdom and one Norwegian centers were entered onto the study between January 1, 1984 and October 1, 1987 of whom 373 were eligible for analysis. In a previous retrospective study, we defined a prognostic index based on histologic criteria that identified a group of patients with a high risk of relapse. This index was based on the presence of venous and lymphatic invasion, undifferentiated cells, and the absence of yolk sac elements in the primary tumor. RESULTS The 2-year actuarial relapse-free rate after orchidectomy was 75%(95% confidence interval, 71% to 79%), and the rate at 5 years was 73%. Five patients died of tumor or treatment-related complications, which resulted in a 5-year survival of 98%. The relapse-free rate in patients with three or four risk factors was 54%. CONCLUSIONS This study confirms the safety of surveillance as a method of management and identifies a group of patients with a high risk of relapse. A prospective phase II study has been initiated to determine whether two courses of platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy will prevent relapse in these high-risk patients.
Histopathology in the prediction of relapse of patients with stage I testicular teratoma treated by orchidectomy alone.
259 patients with stage I non-seminomatous germ-cell testicular teratoma who were treated by orchidectomy alone and monitored at one often centres in the United Kingdom were followed for a median of 30 months. 62 of the 70 relapses occurred in the first 18 months after orchidectomy. The 2-year relapse-free rate was 74%, falling to 68% at 4 years. Histological sections from 233 of the orchidectomy specimens were reviewed centrally. Four features independently predicted relapses: invasion of testicular veins, invasion of testicular lymphatics, absence of yolk-sac elements, and presence of undifferentiated tumour. An index, based on the number of these features observed, identified a high-risk subgroup of 55 patients who had a 42% relapse-free rate at 2 years.
Six patients with metastatic mixed germ-cell tumors who had been treated successfully with chemotherapy had recurring solitary enlarging masses. Four had enlarging pulmonary masses and two patients had enlarging abdominal masses. Each had the presumed chemotherapy refractory mass surgically resected and was found to have mature teratoma with absence of malignant histologies. The growth in two patients can be attributed to tense and expansile cysts; the remaining four had firm masses. All patients remain free of disease without further therapy at 5, 13, 14, 25, 66, and 108 months. Early recognition of this previously unreported and unusual clinical circumstance of a benign teratoma to grow after chemotherapy will allow for surgical salvage.
53 patients with clinical stage I non-seminomatous germ-cell testicular tumours were entered into a prospective study to receive no treatment other than orchidectomy until unequivocal clinical evidence of metastases was established. Of this group, 9 men (17%) have relapsed, 8 within six months of orchidectomy. All 9 are alive and disease-free after chemotherapy. The relapse rate was higher in patients with malignant teratoma undifferentiated (embryonal carcinoma) primary tumours than in those with malignant teratoma intermediate (teratocarcinoma); 42.8 and 3.4%, respectively. The results were compared with those from 157 men treated by orchidectomy and radiotherapy for stage I disease. In this group, 49 patients (25.8%) relapsed and 85% of relapses occurred within one year of orchidectomy. The tempo relapse was identical for embryonal carcinoma and teratocarcinoma. Of 32 patients in whom serum markers were measured before orchidectomy, 24 (75%) had raised levels of alphafetoprotein and/or beta human chorionic gonadotropin. These preliminary results imply that routine lymphadenectomy or lymph node irradiation in clinical state I testicular non-seminoma may be unjustifiable.
Platinum combination chemotherapy will regularly produce a 70% complete response rate in testicular cancer. Many patients failing to achieve complete remission can still be rendered disease-free with surgical resection of residual localized disease. Twenty-one patients underwent resection for residual pulmonary lesions and 41 underwent lymphadenectomy for persistent retroperitoneal disease. There were no characteristic radiographic findings for fibrous tissue versus mature teratoma versus carcinoma. Although elevated HCG or AFP levels indicated the presence of carcinoma, negative HCG and AFP did not rule out such a diagnosis as 12 of 22 resected carcinoma patients were seronegative. Of 35 patients, 31 (89%) with fibrous tissue or mature teratomas and all four patients with immature teratomas have been continuously free of disease with a minimal postoperative follow-up time of six months. However, only two of 22 patients with resected carcinomas have been continuously disease-free. Post-operative chemotherapy for mature teratoma or fibrous tissue is probably not necessary. However, we feel that further aggressive chemotherapy is needed in the resected carcinoma patient with at least two courses of platinum combination chemotherapy. Surgical resection of residual disease following chemotherapy-induced cytoreduction with platinum combination chemotherapy may be therapeutic in some cases and helps to define the optimal subsequent treatment strategy.