Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Cement
Division of Oral Ecology and Biochemistry, Department of Oral Biology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, 4-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8575, Japan.
Physiochemical assessment of the parasite-biomaterial interface is essential in the development of new biomaterials. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to evaluate pH at the bacteria-dental cement interface and to demonstrate physiochemical interaction at the interface. The experimental apparatus with a well (4.0 mm in diameter and 2.0 mm deep) was made of polymethyl methacrylate with dental cement or polymethyl methacrylate (control) at the bottom. Three representative dental cements (glass-ionomer, zinc phosphate, and zinc oxide-eugenol cements) were used. Each specimen was immersed in 2 mM potassium phosphate buffer for 10 min, 24 hrs, 1 wk, or 4 wks. The well was packed with Streptococcus mutans NCTC 10449, and a miniature pH electrode was placed at the interface between bacterial cells and dental cement. The pH was monitored after the addition of 1% glucose, and the fluoride contained in the cells was quantified. Glass-ionomer cement inhibited the bacteria-induced pH fall significantly compared with polymethyl methacrylate (control) at the interface (10 min, 5.16 ± 0.19 vs. 4.50 ± 0.07; 24 hrs, 5.20 ± 0.07 vs. 4.59 ± 0.11; 1 wk, 5.34 ± 0.14 vs. 4.57 ± 0.11; and 4 wks, 4.95 ± 0.27 vs. 4.40 ± 0.14), probably due to the fluoride released from the cement. This method could be useful for the assessment of pH at the parasite-biomaterial interface.
Most cited papers:
Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.
Amalgam, IRM, and a mineral trioxide aggregate were tested for repair of experimentally created root perforations. Fifty sound, extracted mandibular and maxillary molars were used in this study. A perforation was created on the mesial root surface at about a 45-degree angle to the long axis of each tooth. The tooth was then placed into a saline-soaked "Oasis" to simulate a clinical condition. After placing the repair materials into the perforations, the teeth were kept for 4 wk in the Oasis model. The perforation sites were then stained with methylene blue for 48 h, sectioned, and examined under a dissecting microscope. The results showed that the mineral trioxide aggregate had significantly less leakage than IRM or amalgam (p < 0.05). The mineral trioxide aggregate also showed the least overfilling tendency while IRM showed the least underfilling tendency.
Department of Endodontics, Loma Linda University, School of Dentistry, California, USA.
Previous dye leakage studies have shown that mineral trioxide aggregate leaks significantly less than other commonly used root-end filling materials. This study determined the time needed for Staphylococcus epidermidis to penetrate a 3-mm thickness of amalgam, Super-EBA, Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM), or mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as root-end filling materials. Fifty-six single-rooted extracted human teeth were cleaned and shaped using a step-back technique. Following root-end resection, 48 root-end cavities were filled with amalgam, Super-EBA, IRM, or MTA. Four root-end cavities were filled with thermoplasticized gutta-percha without a root canal sealer (+ control), and another four were filled with sticky wax covered with two layers of nail polish (- control). After attaching the teeth to plastic caps of 12-ml plastic vials and placing the root ends into phenol red broth, the set-ups were sterilized overnight with ethylene dioxide gas. A tenth of a microliter of broth containing S. epidermidis was placed into the root canal of 46 teeth (40 experimental, 3 positive, and 3 negative control groups). In addition, the root canals of two teeth with test root-end filling materials and one tooth from the positive and negative control groups were filled with sterile saline. The number of days required for the test bacteria to penetrate various root-end filling materials was determined. Most samples whose apical 3 mm were filled with amalgam, Super-EBA, or IRM began leaking at 6 to 57 days.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Department of Endodontics School of Dentistry, Loma Linda University, CA.
The purpose of this study was to compare the amount of dye leakage (in the presence versus absence of blood) in root end cavities filled with amalgam, Super EBA, IRM, and a mineral trioxide aggregate. After removing the anatomical crowns of 90 extracted human teeth, their roots were instrumented and obturated. Except for their apical 2 mm, the root surfaces were sealed with nail polish. After removal of the apical 2 to 3 mm of each root, a standardized root end cavity was prepared. Five root ends were filled with gutta-percha and no sealer, and another five root ends were filled with sticky wax. These served as positive and negative controls, respectively. The remaining 80 roots were divided into four equal groups and filled with the test materials. For each material, half of the root end cavities were dried prior to placing the filling material. The remaining half were filled after they were contaminated with blood. All 90 roots were then immediately placed in 1% methylene blue dye for 72 h. Finally, the roots were split and linear dye penetration was measured and statistically analyzed (analysis of variance). Presence or absence of blood had no significant effect on the amount of dye leakage. However, the results showed that there was a significant leakage difference between the root end filling materials (p < 0.0001). Mineral trioxide aggregate leaked significantly less than other materials tested with or without blood contamination of the root end cavities.
Dade County Dental Research Clinic, Miami, FL.
A retrospective study was done to compare the success rates of teeth with three different root end filling materials. The materials studied were SuperEBA, IRM, and zinc-free high-copper spherical amalgam. Radiographs of 488 cases from two geographically distinct offices were used, with the recall period ranging from a minimum of 6 months to a maximum of 10 yr. The cases in each office were examined independently using the same criteria. The results revealed that both SuperEBA and IRM demonstrated statistically significant improvements in success rates when compared with amalgam. The success rates were 75% for amalgam, 91% for IRM, and 95% for SuperEBA. The difference between IRM and SuperEBA was not statistically significant.
Comparative investigation of marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate and other commonly used root-end filling materials.
Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Loma Linda University, California, USA.
This study investigated the marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as a root-end filling material, compared with commonly used root-end filling materials by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Eighty-eight single-rooted freshly extracted human teeth were cleaned, shaped, and obturated with gutta-percha and root canal sealer. Following root-end resection and cavity preparation, the root-end cavities were filled with amalgam, Super-EBA, Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM), or MTA. Using a slow-speed diamond saw, 40 roots were longitudinally sectioned into two halves. Resin replicas of resected root ends of the remaining nonsectioned roots were also prepared. After mounting longitudinal sections of roots and resin replicas of resected roots on aluminum stubs, the distance between the test root-end filling materials and surrounding dentin was measured at four points under SEM. Examination of the original samples showed numerous artifacts in the longitudinal sections of the specimens. In contrast, the resin replicas of resected and filled root ends had no artifacts. Statistical analysis of data comparing gap sizes between the root-end filling materials and their surrounding dentin shows that MTA had better adaptation compared with amalgam, Super-EBA, and IRM.
Adhesive bonding of various materials to hard tooth tissues. VI. Forces developing in direct-filling materials during hardening.
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
The influence of a smear layer on the adhesion of sealer cements to dentin was assessed in recently extracted human anterior teeth. A total of 120 samples was tested, 40 per sealer; 20 each with and without the smear layer. The teeth were split longitudinally, and the internal surfaces were ground flat. One-half of each tooth was left with the smear layer intact, while the other half had the smear removed by washing for 3 min with 17% EDTA followed by 5.25% NaOCl. Evidence of the ability to remove the smear layer was verified by scanning electron microscopy. Using a specially designed jig, the sealer was placed into a 4-mm wide x 4-mm deep well which was then set onto the tooth at a 90-degree angle and allowed to set for 7 days in 100% humidity at 37 degrees C. This set-up was then placed into a mounting jig which was designed for the Instron Universal Testing Machine so that only a tensile load was applied without shearing or applying preloading forces. The set-up was subjected to a tensile load at a crosshead speed of 1 mm per min. The results show significant differences (p less than 0.001) among AH26, Sultan, and Sealapex, with AH26 being the strongest and Sealapex being the weakest. The only significant difference with regard to the presence or absence of the smear layer was found with AH26, which had a stronger bond when the smear layer was removed.