Cholelithiasis :: etiology
Department for Pediatric Surgery, Astrid Lindgren's Children's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. firstname.lastname@example.org
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the standard approach in most pediatric surgical centers. In an attempt to further minimize the surgical trauma and improve cosmetic outcome, new techniques with a single incision through the umbilicus have been proposed. There are still few reports concerning this technique in the pediatric population. We evaluated the feasibility of the single incision for laparoscopic cholecystectomy in children. We performed the operation in 10 patients, with a mean age of 12 years, mean operating time of 122 minutes, and mean hospital stay of 2 days. No complications occurred, and no conversion to open surgery was needed. In 1 patient, an extra 5-mm port was necessary. The cosmetic results were very satisfactory. In our experience, despite its technical difficulty and initial learning curve, single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the pediatric population is a safe and feasible method.
Most cited papers:
Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 181 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Alison.Field@channing.harvard.edu
BACKGROUND Overweight adults are at an increased risk of developing numerous chronic diseases. METHODS Ten-year follow-up (1986-1996) of middle-aged women in the Nurses' Health Study and men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study to assess the health risks associated with overweight. RESULTS The risk of developing diabetes, gallstones, hypertension, heart disease, and stroke increased with severity of overweight among both women and men. Compared with their same-sex peers with a body mass index (BMI)(calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) between 18.5 and 24.9, those with BMI of 35.0 or more were approximately 20 times more likely to develop diabetes (relative risk [RR], 17.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 14.2-20.5 for women; RR, 23.4; 95% CI, 19.4-33.2 for men). Women who were overweight but not obese (ie, BMI between 25.0 and 29.9) were also significantly more likely than their leaner peers to develop gallstones (RR, 1.9), hypertension (RR, 1.7), high cholesterol level (RR, 1.1), and heart disease (RR, 1.4). The results were similar in men. CONCLUSIONS During 10 years of follow-up, the incidence of diabetes, gallstones, hypertension, heart disease, colon cancer, and stroke (men only) increased with degree of overweight in both men and women. Adults who were overweight but not obese (ie, 25.0 < or = BMI < or = 29.9) were at significantly increased risk of developing numerous health conditions. Moreover, the dose-response relationship between BMI and the risk of developing chronic diseases was evident even among adults in the upper half of the healthy weight range (ie, BMI of 22.0-24.9), suggesting that adults should try to maintain a BMI between 18.5 and 21.9 to minimize their risk of disease.
The extra-intestinal complications of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: a study of 700 patients.
The records of a series of 700 patients with inflammatory bowel disease, 498 with Crohn's disease and 202 with ulcerative colitis, have been analyzed to determine the relative incidence and characteristic features of their extra-intestinal manifestations. The group with Crohn's disease included 62 with colitis, 223 with ileocolitis, and 213 with regional enteritis. A consideration of the clinical patterns and an understanding of their pathophysiology suggested a subdivision into two main groups: one "colitis related" and one related to the pathophysiology of the small nonspecific third group. Group A, colitis related, comprises joint, skin, mouth, and eye disease. The complications might be immunologically determined, were closely associated with active inflammation, and often responded to medical or surgical treatment of the underlying bowel disease. They occurred in 36% of the entire series of patients: joints were involved in 23%, skin in 15%, and mouth and eye each in 4%. Pyoderma gangrenosum was observed most often in ulcerative colitis and erythema nodosum most often in granulomatous colitis. The incidence of Group A complications was higher in disease involving the colon (42%) than in disease restricted exclusively to the small bowel (23%). There were interrelationships among the various members of Group A, with multiple manifestations occurring in a third of affected patients. Group B, related to small bowel pathophysiology, includes malabsorption, gallstones, kidney stones, and non-calculous hydronephrosis and hydroureter. Disorders in this group were generally related to the severity of the disease in the small bowel and tended to persist even in the absence of active inflammation. In contrast to Group A, this group occurred most frequently in small bowel disease, and least in colonic disease. Malabsorption was virtually confined to the patients with small bowel disease (10% incidence), while gallstones and renal stones were also both more frequent in Crohn's disease (11% and 9% respectively), the latter usually in association with small bowel resection or ileostomy. Group C, found in a small percentage of patients, consists of nonspecific complications, including osteoporosis (3%), liver disease (5%), peptic ulcer (10%), and amyloidosis (1%).
L Barbara, C Sama, A M Morselli Labate, F Taroni, A G Rusticali, D Festi, C Sapio, E Roda, C Banterle, A Puci
Clinica Medica I, Universitá di Bologna, Italy.
The prevalence of gallstone disease (cholelithiasis and previous cholecystectomy for gallstones) in the population of the town of Sirmione, Italy, examined by ultrasonography, was 6.7% in men and 14.6% in women, ranging from 18 to 65 yr of age (overall prevalence = 11%). The prevalence of cholelithiasis in the same age span was 6.9%(4.5% in men and 8.9% in women). Prevalence of cholelithiasis increased with age in both sexes. Twenty-two percent of gallstone subjects suffered from biliary pain vs. 2% of subjects without gallstones. No difference was observed in the frequency of nonspecific symptoms between subjects with and without gallstones. Of the 132 gallstone subjects, 108 (82%) were not aware of having gallstones prior to the study. Prevalence of gallstone disease was found to be higher in obese and hypertriglyceridemic subjects and to increase with the number of pregnancies.
Pathogenesis of calcium bilirubinate gallstone: role of E. coli, beta-glucuronidase and coagulation by inorganic ions, polyelectrolytes and agitation.
Because mucin glycoproteins may be important in the pathophysiology of gallstones, we studied the relationship among biliary lipids, gallbladder mucin secretion, and gallstone formation in cholesterol-fed prairie dogs. Organ culture studies of gallbladder explants revealed that the incorporation of [(3)H]glucosamine into tissue and secretory gallbladder glycoproteins was significantly increased at 3, 5, 8, and 14 d of feeding. Peak secretion of labeled mucin occurred at 5 d, when total tissue and secreted glycoprotein production was fivefold greater than control. Gel filtration of the secreted glycoprotein on Sepharose 4B indicated that the majority of radioactivity was present in a macromolecule of > 1 million molecular weight. The increased secretion of gallbladder mucin was organ specific, in that [(3)H]glucosamine incorporation into glycoproteins of stomach and colon was unaffected by cholesterol feeding. Similarly, the incorporation of [(3)H]mannose into gallbladder membrane glycoproteins was not altered by cholesterol feeding. The rate of glycoprotein synthesis and secretion returned to normal upon withdrawal of the cholesterol diet, and ligation of the cystic duct before cholesterol feeding prevented gallbladder mucin hypersecretion. Both results indicate that the stimulus to mucin secretion was a constituent of bile. Gallbladder bile after 5 d contained cholesterol in micelles, liquid crystals, and crystals, whereas hepatic bile remained a single micellar phase throughout cholesterol feeding. For this reason the cholesterol-saturation indices of gallbladder bile were compared in both homogenized and centrifuged samples. The micellar phase of gallbladder bile was appreciably less saturated than homogenized bile at 5 and 8 d, which reflects the continuous nucleation of cholesterol in the gallbladder. Purified human gallbladder mucin gels were shown to induce nucleation of lecithin-cholesterol liquid crystals from supersaturated hepatic bile. These in turn gave rise to cholesterol monohydrate crystals within 18 h. Control supersaturated hepatic bile could not be nucleated by the addition of other proteins, and was stable for days upon standing. These results suggest that the increase in cholesterol content of bile in cholesterolfed prairie dogs stimulates gallbladder mucus hypersecretion, and that gallbladder mucus gel is a nucleating agent for biliary cholesterol.
To assess the prevalence of sludge formation and lithiasis during total parenteral nutrition, serial biliary ultrasonographic studies were performed during and after i.v. nutrition periods in 23 selected adult gastroenterological patients. All patients were free of hepatobiliary disease before i.v. nutrition. Initial sonograms of 19 patients taken at the 12th day +/- 2 days (mean +/- SEM) of i.v. nutrition were normal. Initial studies for the 4 remaining patients, which were performed on the 39th day +/- 10 days of i.v. therapy (p less than 0.001), showed gallbladder sludge but did not demonstrate lithiasis. Serial ultrasonographic studies indicated that the percentage of sludge-positive patients during parenteral nutrition increased from 6% during the first 3 wk to 50% between the fourth and the sixth weeks and reached 100% in patients receiving i.v. nutritional therapy for greater than 6 wk. Gallstone formation was demonstrated in 6 of 14 sludge-forming patients but was not observed in patients who were sludge-negative. Three of the 6 stone-forming patients underwent cholecystectomy because of complications secondary to cholelithiasis after a mean 43-day course of parenteral nutrition. Analysis of bile from these patients revealed thick bile-containing cholesterol crystals and small stones of mixed bilirubin-cholesterol type. Ultrasonographic studies were obtained for sludge-positive patients after the parenteral nutrition period. Sludge positivity decreased from 88% during the first 3 wk of oral refeeding to 0% by the end of the fourth week. This study, therefore, strongly suggests that bowel rest and bile stasis during parenteral nutrition lead to production of sludge, which can result in eventual gallstone formation. Consequently, during parenteral nutrition exceeding 1 mo, gallbladder stasis should be palliated to prevent cholelithiasis formation.
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Mass.
To assess the risk factors for symptomatic gallstones, 88,837 women in the Nurses' Health Study cohort (age range, 34 to 59 years) were followed for four years after completing a detailed questionnaire about food and alcohol intake in 1980. A total of 433 cholecystectomies and 179 cases of newly symptomatic, unremoved gallstones, diagnosed by ultrasonographic examination or x-ray films, were reported during the four-year follow-up. The age-adjusted relative risk for very obese women, who had a Quetelet index of relative weight (weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of more than 32 kg per square meter, was 6.0 (95 percent confidence interval, 4.0 to 9.0), as compared with women whose relative weight was less than 20 kg per square meter. For slightly overweight women (relative weight, 24 to 24.9 kg per square meter), the relative risk was 1.7 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 2.7). Overall, we observed a roughly linear relation between relative weight and the risk of gallstones. Among the 59,306 women whose relative weight was less than 25 kg per square meter, a high energy intake (greater than 8200 J per day), as compared with a low energy intake (less than 4730 J per day), was associated with an increased incidence of symptomatic gallstones (relative risk, 2.1; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.4 to 3.3), and an alcohol intake of at least 5 g per day was associated with a decreased incidence as compared with abstention (relative risk, 0.6; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.4 to 0.8). Parity did not appear to be an important risk factor after an adjustment was made for relative weight. These data support a strong association between obesity and symptomatic gallstones and suggest that even moderate overweight may increase the risk.
We used real-time ultrasonography to study gallbladder kinetics in 11 nonpregnant women, 17 women using steroid contraceptives, and 33 pregnant women. Gallbladder volume was determined after an overnight fast and serially for 90 minutes after a standard liquid meal. After the first trimester of pregnancy, gallbladder volume during fasting and residual volume after contraction were twice as large as in control subjects. The rate of emptying and the percentage emptied were reduced. In early pregnancy the only important abnormality was a 30 per cent decrease in emptying rate. Gallbladder function was not affected by contraceptive steroids. Incomplete empyting of the gallbladder in late pregnancy leaves a large residual volume and may cause retention of cholesterol crystals, a prerequisite for cholesterol-gallstone formation. These findings are consistent with the view that pregnancy increases the risk of cholesterol gallstones. The increased incidence of gallstones associated with contraceptive steroids does not involve abnormal gallbladder kinetics.