Oxytetracycline :: therapeutic use
N Z Vet J. 2012 May ;60 (3):213-4 22480360
Use of parenteral long-acting and topical oxytetracycline, without hoof trimming, for treatment of footrot in goats.
Most cited papers:
A difference in mortality rate and incidence of kernicterus among premature infants allotted to two prophylactic antibacterial regimens.
Centre for Digestive Diseases, General Infirmary, Leeds.
Ascorbic acid, the reduced form of vitamin C, may protect against gastric cancer and is secreted by the normal stomach. Secretion is impaired in Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) associated chronic gastritis. This study examined if eradication of H pylori improves gastric juice ascorbate values. Fasting gastric juice and plasma samples were collected at endoscopy from patients participating in trials of H pylori eradication for duodenal ulcer disease and intestinal metaplasia before and up to 15 months after attempted eradication. Ascorbic acid and total vitamin C concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. In 12 patients in whom H pylori was successfully eradicated gastric juice ascorbate and total vitamin C concentrations and the ratio of juice to plasma vitamin C rose after treatment. Analysis after treatment suggested that the rise was greatest in patients with high final plasma vitamin C concentrations, even though these did not change with treatment. By contrast, in 22 patients in whom H pylori eradication was unsuccessful there were no significant changes in juice or plasma concentrations after treatment. It is concluded that successful eradication of H pylori improves secretion of vitamin C into gastric juice. It is speculated that this increases protection against gastric cancer.
Macrofilaricidal activity of tetracycline against the filarial nematode Onchocerca ochengi: elimination of Wolbachia precedes worm death and suggests a dependent relationship.
N G Langworthy, A Renz, U Mackenstedt, K Henkle-Dührsen, M B de Bronsvoort, V N Tanya, M J Donnelly, A J Trees
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool, UK.
Filarial nematodes are important and widespread parasites of animals and humans. We have been using the African bovine parasite Onchocerca ochengi as a chemotherapeutic model for O. volvulus, the causal organism of 'river blindness' in humans, for which there is no safe and effective drug lethal to adult worms. Here we report that the antibiotic, oxytetracycline is macrofilaricidal against O. ochengi. In a controlled trial in Cameroon, all adult worms (as well as microfilariae) were killed, and O. ochengi intradermal nodules resolved, by nine months' post-treatment in cattle treated intermittently for six months. Adult worms removed from concurrent controls remained fully viable and reproductively active. By serial electron-microscopic examination, the macrofilaricidal effects were related to the elimination of intracellular micro-organisms, initially abundant. Analysis of a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene from the O. ochengi micro-organisms confirmed them to be Wolbachia organisms of the order Rickettsiales, and showed that the sequence differed in only one nucleotide in 858 from the homologous sequence of the Wolbachia organisms of O. volvulus. These data are, to our knowledge, the first to show that antibiotic therapy can be lethal to adult filariae. They suggest that tetracycline therapy is likely to be macrofilaricidal against O. volvulus infections in humans and, since similar Wolbachia organisms occur in a number of other filarial nematodes, against those infections too. In that the elimination of Wolbachia preceded the resolution of the filarial infections, they suggest that in O. ochengi at least, the Wolbachia organisms play an essential role in the biology and metabolism of the filarial worm.
In a study of the diagnosis and treatment of Corynebacterium vaginale (Haemophilus vaginalis) vaginitis in 30 patients, clinical and microscopical findings were compared with laboratory cultures. The study also included a double-blind randomised trial of treatment regimens including placebo therapy. Laboratory cultures of C. vaginale corresponded well with clinical findings, and we suggest that C. vaginale vaginitis can be reliably diagnosed with clinical and microscopical findings. Tetracycline was effective in half the patients treated, whereas all but 1 of the 17 patients eventually treated with metronidazole were cured. The apparent discrepancy between in-vitro sensitivity and in-vitro efficacy of metronidazole in this condition is discussed.
Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
The effects of supplemental chromium (Cr) from high-Cr yeast were investigated with steer calves fed corn silage diets. One hundred eight Charolais-crossed calves, weighing 245 kg after marketing and transport, were allotted to one of four treatments during the initial 28-d stress period: control,.4 ppm of Cr in the diet, long-acting injectable oxytetracycline (LAOTC), and Cr + LAOTC. Those fed Cr received 4 mg of Cr/d for the first 3 d sprinkled onto a small amount of hay over the silage. Chromium without LAOTC increased (P less than .05) ADG by 30%(.61 vs .79 kg/d) and ADG/DMI by 27%(.123 vs .156). Oxytetracycline alone increased (P less than .05) ADG by 30% and DMI by 15%. Chromium had no effect on morbidity. However, LAOTC tended (P less than .14) to reduce morbidity (26.0 vs 14.0%) after its administration. After d 28, steers were processed. Two weeks later, they were rerandomized within Cr groups to urea-corn vs soybean meal supplementation of corn silage during a 70-d growing period. Level of Cr was reduced to .2 ppm. Jugular blood was collected from eight steers on each treatment on two occasions. Chromium had no effect on ADG or ADG/DMI. However, Cr decreased (P less than .05) serum cortisol (75.0 vs 55.6 nmol/L). Furthermore, Cr increased (P less than .05) serum immunoglobulin M and total immunoglobulins in calves fed diets with soybean meal but had no effect in calves with urea-corn supplementation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
An investigation of chlamydial infection in sexual contacts of patients with nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) was carried out to determine the clinical signs of infection in the cervix, and their response to chemotherapy, and the incidence of cervical infection in the presence of ectopy and oral contraception. In 202 consecutive female contacts of NGU the isolation rate of Chlamydia trachomatis was 35%. Hypertrophic ectopy and endocervical mucopus were present in 19% and 37% of chlamydia-positive patients respectively and, in all but one, resolved after treatment. Only 14% of those followed up after treatment developed yeast infections. The chlamydial isolation rate was significantly higher in patients with hypertrophic ectopy and endocervical mucopus. Cervical ectopy and oral contraceptives acted additively, each producing a significant effect on the chlamydial isolation rate in the presence of the other but not when present alone.