Malocclusion :: epidemiology
Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Pallikaranai, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
AIM To assess the oral health status of autistic children in Chennai. DESIGN and METHODS Oral health status was assessed for 483 children with autism, solicited from special education schools, autistic child centres and therapy centres. Conditions assessed were plaque accumulation, gingival health, dental caries, malocclusion, developmental anomalies, oral injuries and restorations. STATISTICS Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests of significance were used to compare groups. Proportions test was used to compare the significance of the parameters between boys and girls. RESULTS Autistic children with primary dentition showed significantly higher incidence of dental caries (24%), when compared to other oral conditions. Children with mixed dentition had more gingivitis (50%) and children with permanent dentition had more gingivitis (48.96%) and malocclusion (71.15%). All the oral conditions were seen more in boys than girls. CONCLUSION Autistic children have significantly poor oral hygiene and higher incidence of malocclusion and dental caries when compared to other oral conditions.
Most cited papers:
The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reproducible index of orthodontic treatment priority. After reviewing the available literature, it was felt that this could be best achieved by using two separate components to record firstly the dental health and functional indications for treatment, and secondly the aesthetic impairment caused by the malocclusion. A modification of the index used by the Swedish Dental Health Board was used to record the need for orthodontic treatment on dental health and functional grounds. This index was modified by defining five grades, with precise dividing lines between each grade. An illustrated 10-point scale was used to assess independently the aesthetic treatment need of the patients. This scale was constructed using dental photographs of 12-year-olds collected during a large multi-disciplinary survey. Six non-dental judges rated these photographs on a visual analogue scale, and at equal intervals along the judged range, representative photographs were chosen. To test the index in use, two sample populations were defined; a group of patients referred for treatment, and a random sample of 11-12-year-old schoolchildren. Both samples were examined using the index and satisfactory levels of intra- and inter-examiner agreement were obtained.
Studies on function and dysfunction of the masticatory system. IV. Age and sex distribution of symptoms of dysfunction of the masticatory system in Lapps in the north of Finland.
Associations between occlusal characteristics and signs and symptoms of TMJ dysfunction in children and young adults.
Center for Human Growth, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109.
Cross-sectional data were obtained from 1,342 subjects 6 to 17 years of age and analyzed for the prevalence of (1) specific types of occlusion, and (2) subjective symptoms and clinical signs of TMJ dysfunction. The results, as they pertained to occlusion and clinical signs, were as follows: functional shift was negatively associated with TMJ and muscle tenderness; open bite was positively associated with TMJ and muscle tenderness; excessive or negative overjets were more likely to have joint tenderness; older subjects with a cusp-to-cusp or a Class II molar relationship were more likely to experience TMJ and muscle tenderness, and restricted opening; and buccal crossbites had a significantly higher prevalence of joint sounds in older children. Results pertaining to occlusion and subjective symptoms were as follows: Class II molar relationship was positively associated with joint noise in the 6 to 8 and 15 to 17-year age groups; and subjects with negative overjet were more likely to report joint noise. Our conclusions were that (1) statistical associations exist between certain features of occlusion and TMJ signs/symptoms, and (2) such associations are greater in the older groups tested.
Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in the United States: estimates from the NHANES III survey.
Department of Orthodontics, University of North Carolina, School of Dentistry, Chapel Hill 27599-7450, USA. WilliamvProffit@dentistry.unc.edu
Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) provide a clear picture of malocclusion in the US population. Noticeable incisor irregularity occurs in the majority of all racial/ethnic groups, with only 35% of adults having well-aligned mandibular incisors. Irregularity is severe enough in 15% that both social acceptability and function could be affected, and major arch expansion or extraction of some teeth would be required for correction. About 20% of the population have deviations from the ideal bite relationship; in 2% these are severe enough to be disfiguring and are at the limit for orthodontic correction. In Mexican-Americans compared to the rest of the population, incisor irregularity and both severe Class II and Class III malocclusions are more prevalent, but deep bite and open bite are less prevalent. Application of the Index of Treatment Need to the survey data reveals that 57% to 59% of each racial/ethnic group has at least some degree of orthodontic treatment need. Over 30% of white youths, 11% of Mexican-Americans, and 8% of blacks report receiving treatment. Severe malocclusion is observed more frequently among blacks, which may reflect their lower level of treatment. Treatment is much more frequent in higher income groups, but approximately 5% of those in the lowest income group and 10% to 15% of those in intermediate income groups report being treated.
Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA.
Maxillary canine-first premolar (Mx.C.P1) transposition, an uncommon dental anomaly involving positional interchange of the two teeth, was studied using a sample of 43 subjects with the abnormality. Data were recorded on sidedness, sex, race, tooth agenesis, and peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisors for each case. Mx.C.P1 transposition occurred bilaterally in nearly one-quarter of the sample and favored female expression (sex ratio, M1:F3.8) and left-side occurrence (61% of unilateral cases). Familial occurrence was noted, as was a predilection for white subjects. Tooth agenesis (excluding third molars) and/or peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisors accompanied Mx.C.P1 transposition in 49%(21) of the subjects, four to ten times the normal rate of occurrence. Data from this study and the analysis of previously published cases provided strong evidence that Mx.C.P1 transposition is a disturbance of tooth order and eruptive position resulting from genetic influences within a multifactorial inheritance model.
A longitudinal study on malocclusion in relation to signs and symptoms of cranio-mandibular disorders in children and adolescents.
Department of Orthodontics, University of Jöteborg, Sweden.
Two-hundred-and-thirty-eight subjects in three different age-groups (7, 11, and 15 years) were followed over a period of 4-5 years in respect of morphological malocclusions, and signs and symptoms of functional disturbances. About half of the 7-year-olds had at least one of the morphological malocclusions registered while the corresponding figure was 38 per cent at the age of 20. Some subjects had received corrective orthodontic treatment. When compared with subjects without such treatment, there were no differences in prevalences of occlusal interferences, nor in signs or symptoms of craniomandibular disorders (CMD). The associations between CMD and different morphological malocclusions were low. Nevertheless, some malocclusions were found to be more important than others. In a long-term perspective cross-bite, both uni- and bilateral, anterior open bite, post-, and prenormal occlusion had some association with the development of CMD.