Pulmonary Emphysema :: genetics
Sensitivity of heterozygous α1,6-fucosyltransferase knock-out mice to cigarette smoke-induced emphysema: implication of aberrant transforming growth factor-β signaling and matrix metalloproteinase gene expression.
Congxiao Gao, Toshitaka Maeno, Fumi Ota, Manabu Ueno, Hiroaki Korekane, Shinji Takamatsu, Ken Shirato, Akio Matsumoto, Satoshi Kobayashi, Keiichi Yoshida, Shinobu Kitazume, Kazuaki Ohtsubo, Tomoko Betsuyaku, Naoyuki Taniguchi
RIKEN Alliance Laboratory, The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047, Japan.
We previously demonstrated that a deficiency in core fucosylation caused by the genetic disruption of α1,6-fucosyltransferase (Fut8) leads to lethal abnormalities and the development of emphysematous lesions in the lung by attenuation of TGF-β1 receptor signaling. Herein, we investigated the physiological relevance of core fucosylation in the pathogenesis of emphysema using viable heterozygous knock-out mice (Fut8(+/-)) that were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). The Fut8(+/-) mice exhibited a marked decrease in FUT8 activity, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activities were elevated in the lung at an early stage of exposure. Emphysema developed after a 3-month CS exposure, accompanied by the recruitment of large numbers of macrophages to the lung. CS exposure substantially and persistently elevated the expression level of Smad7, resulting in a significant reduction of Smad2 phosphorylation (which controls MMP-9 expression) in Fut8(+/-) mice and Fut8-deficient embryonic fibroblast cells. These in vivo and in vitro studies show that impaired core fucosylation enhances the susceptibility to CS and constitutes at least part of the disease process of emphysema, in which TGF-β-Smad signaling is impaired and the MMP-mediated destruction of lung parenchyma is up-regulated.
Most cited papers:
Cirrhosis associated with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency: a previously unrecognized inherited disorder.
Microsatellite polymorphism in the heme oxygenase-1 gene promoter is associated with susceptibility to emphysema.
Department of Geriatric and Respiratory Medicine, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai 980-8574, Japan.
Cigarette smoke, containing reactive oxygen species, is the most important risk factor for chronic pulmonary emphysema (CPE). Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a protective role as an antioxidant in the lung. A (GT)n dinucleotide repeat in the 5'-flanking region of human HO-1 gene shows length polymorphism and could modulate the level of gene transcription. To investigate the correlation between the length of the (GT)n repeat and susceptibility to the development of CPE, we screened the frequencies of alleles with varying numbers of (GT)n repeats in the HO-1 gene in 101 smokers with CPE and in 100 smokers without CPE. Polymorphisms of the (GT)n repeat were grouped into three classes: class S alleles (<25 repeats), class M alleles (25-29 repeats), and class L alleles (>/=30 repeats). The proportion of allele frequencies in class L, as well as the proportion of genotypic frequencies in the group with class L alleles (L/L, L/M, and L/S), was significantly higher in the smokers with CPE than in smokers without CPE. Moreover, we analyzed the promoter activities of the HO-1 gene carrying different (GT)n repeats (n=16, 20, 29, and 38), by transient-transfection assay in cultured cell lines. H2O2 exposure up-regulated the transcriptional activity of the HO-1 promoter/luciferase fusion genes with (GT)16 or (GT)20 but did not do so with (GT)29 or (GT)38. These findings suggest that the large size of a (GT)n repeat in the HO-1 gene promoter may reduce HO-1 inducibility by reactive oxygen species in cigarette smoke, thereby resulting in the development of CPE.
Increased metalloproteinase activity, oxidant production, and emphysema in surfactant protein D gene-inactivated mice.
S E Wert, M Yoshida, A M LeVine, M Ikegami, T Jones, G F Ross, J H Fisher, T R Korfhagen, J A Whitsett
Division of Pulmonary Biology, Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229-3039, USA.
Targeted ablation of the surfactant protein D (SP-D) gene caused chronic inflammation, emphysema, and fibrosis in the lungs of SP-D (-/-) mice. Although lung morphology was unperturbed during the first 2 weeks of life, airspace enlargement was observed by 3 weeks and progressed with advancing age. Inflammation consisted of hypertrophic alveolar macrophages and peribronchiolar-perivascular monocytic infiltrates. These abnormalities were associated with increased activity of the matrix metalloproteinases, MMP2 and MMP9, and immunostaining for MMP9 and MMP12 in alveolar macrophages. Hydrogen peroxide production by isolated alveolar macrophages also was increased significantly (10-fold). SP-D plays a critical role in the suppression of alveolar macrophage activation, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation and emphysema.
Pulmonary Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.
Alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) deficiency is an autosomal hereditary disorder associated with a major reduction in serum A1AT levels. Clinically, A1AT deficiency is associated with emphysema in adults and, less commonly, liver disease in neonates. A1AT is a 52-kDa, 394-amino acid, single-chain glycoprotein normally present in serum at 150 to 350 mg/dl. The A1AT gene, composed of seven exons dispersed over 12 kb of chromosomal segment 14q31-32.3, is expressed in hepatocytes and mononuclear phagocytes. The A1AT protein, a member of the class of protease inhibitor proteins known as serpins (serine protease inhibitors), is a globular molecule composed of nine alpha-helices and three beta-pleated sheets. The major function of A1AT is to inhibit neutrophil elastase; A1AT does so through an active site centered around Met358 contained within an external stressed loop on the surface of the molecule. A1AT is a highly pleomorphic protein with greater than 75 variants determined at the protein and/or gene level. These variants can be categorized into four groups according to their serum A1AT level and function: normal, deficient, dysfunctional, and absent. There are two important salt bridges within the A1AT molecule (Glu342-Lys290; Glu263-Lys387); a mutation in the A1AT gene causing disruption of either salt bridge causes distinct molecular pathology resulting in reduced serum A1AT levels. Clinically relevant variants can be distinguished by a combination of isoelectric focusing of serum, restriction fragment length analysis of genomic DNA, oligonucleotide probes, and direct sequencing of the variant A1AT genes.
David G Morris, Xiaozhu Huang, Naftali Kaminski, Yanli Wang, Steven D Shapiro, Gregory Dolganov, Adam Glick, Dean Sheppard
Lung Biology Center, Department of Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, California 94143, USA.
Integrins are heterodimeric cell-surface proteins that regulate cell growth, migration and survival. We have shown previously that the epithelial-restricted integrin alpha(v)beta6 has another critical function; that is, it binds and activates latent transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Through a global analysis of pulmonary gene expression in the lungs of mice lacking this integrin (Itgb6 null mice) we have identified a marked induction of macrophage metalloelastase (Mmp12)--a metalloproteinase that preferentially degrades elastin and has been implicated in the chronic lung disease emphysema. Here we report that Itgb6-null mice develop age-related emphysema that is completely abrogated either by transgenic expression of versions of the beta6 integrin subunit that support TGF-beta activation, or by the loss of Mmp12. Furthermore, we show that the effects of Itgb6 deletion are overcome by simultaneous transgenic expression of active TGF-beta1. We have uncovered a pathway in which the loss of integrin-mediated activation of latent TGF-beta causes age-dependent pulmonary emphysema through alterations of macrophage Mmp12 expression. Furthermore, we show that a functional alteration in the TGF-beta activation pathway affects susceptibility to this disease.
Antielastases of the human alveolar structures. Implications for the protease-antiprotease theory of emphysema.
The current concepts of the pathogenesis of emphysema hold that progressive, chronic destruction of the alveolar structures occurs because there was in imbalance between the proteases and antiproteases in the lower respiratory tract. In this context, proteases, particularly neutrophil elastase, work unimpeded to destroy the alveolar structures. This concept has evolved from consideration of patients with alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, who have decreased levels of serum alpha 1-antitrypsin and who have progressive panacinar emphysema. To directly assess the antiprotease side of this equation, the lower respiratory tract of non-smoking individuals with normal serum antiproteases and individuals with PiZ homozygous alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency underwent bronchoalveolar lavage to evaluate the antiprotease screen of their lower respiratory tract. These studies demonstrated that:(a) alpha 1-antitrypsin is the major antielastase of the normal human lower respiratory tract;(b) alpha 2-macroglobulin, a large serum antielastase, and the bronchial mucous inhibitor, an antielastase of the central airways, do not contribute to the antielastase protection of the human alveolar structures;(c) individuals with PiZ alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency have little or no alpha 1-antitrypsin in their lower respiratory tract and have no alternative antiprotease protection against neutrophil elastase; and (d) the lack of antiprotease protection of the lower respiratory tract of PiZ individuals is a chronic process, suggesting their vulnerability to neutrophil elastase is always present.
P21Waf1/Cip1/Sdi1 and p53 expression in association with DNA strand breaks in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Research Institute for Diseases of the Chest, Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Higashiku, Fukuoka, Japan.
The tumor suppressor p53 protein is a transcription factor that plays a central role in the cellular response to DNA damage, and it can cause either G1 arrest or apoptosis. Recently, it was shown to induce the tumor suppressor p21Waf1/Cip1/Sdi1 (p21), which inhibits cyclin-CDK complex kinase activity. Although the etiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is still uncertain, it is postulated that IPF begins with an initial inflammatory lesion localized to the alveolus and progresses on to chronic inflammation with alveolitis. We examined whether p53 and p21 are upregulated in association with chronic DNA damage in the bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells in patients with IPF in an attempt to repair the injury. We performed in situ detection of DNA strand breaks or apoptosis (TUNEL) in the tissues as well as immunohistochemistry (IHC) for p53 and p21. Positive signals by TUNEL were detected mainly in the bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells in 10 of 14 lung specimens from patients with IPF. On the other hand, no positive signal by TUNEL was detected in normal lung parenchyma or in specimens of pulmonary emphysema. The IHC demonstrated that p53 and p21 were expressed especially in hyperplastic bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells of lung tissues from all patients with IPF, except five specimens for p21. These results are consistent with those obtained by TUNEL. In normal lung parenchyma and specimens of pulmonary emphysema, p53 and p21 were not detected except in scattered alveolar macrophages and in the epithelial cells within localized fibrotic regions. These results suggest that p53 and p21 are upregulated in association with chronic DNA damage, resulting in either G1 arrest or apoptosis so that the DNA damage can be repaired in IPF. We speculate that chronic DNA damage and repair may lead to mutation of the p53 gene and tumorigenesis in IPF.
Smad3 null mice develop airspace enlargement and are resistant to TGF-beta-mediated pulmonary fibrosis.
Philippe Bonniaud, Martin Kolb, Tom Galt, Jennifer Robertson, Clinton Robbins, Martin Stampfli, Carol Lavery, Peter J Margetts, Anita B Roberts, Jack Gauldie
Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Centre for Gene Therapeutics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.
Transforming growth factor-beta 1 plays a key role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, mediating extracellular matrix (ECM) gene expression through a series of intracellular signaling molecules, including Smad2 and Smad3. We show that Smad3 null mice (knockout (KO)) develop progressive age-related increases in the size of alveolar spaces, associated with high spontaneous presence of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-9 and MMP-12) in the lung. Moreover, transient overexpression of active TGF-beta 1 in lungs, using adenoviral vector-mediated gene transfer, resulted in progressive pulmonary fibrosis in wild-type mice, whereas no fibrosis was seen in the lungs of Smad3 KO mice up to 28 days. Significantly higher levels of matrix components (procollagen 3A1, connective tissue growth factor) and antiproteinases (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1) were detected in wild-type lungs 4 days after TGF-beta 1 administration, while no such changes were seen in KO lungs. These data suggest a pivotal role of the Smad3 pathway in ECM metabolism. Basal activity of the pathway is required to maintain alveolar integrity and ECM homeostasis, but excessive signaling through the pathway results in fibrosis characterized by inhibited degradation and enhanced ECM deposition. The Smad3 pathway is involved in pathogenic mechanisms mediating tissue destruction (lack of repair) and fibrogenesis (excessive repair).
Alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency: the clinical and physiological features of pulmonary emphysema in subjects homozygous for Pi type Z. A survey by the British Thoracic Association.
Hereditary deficiency of alpha 1 antitrypsin, the main serum inhibitor of proteolytic enzymes is associated with pulmonary emphysema of early onset. A multicentre survey of this disorder was started in 1976 and details of 166 subjects homozygous for the Z phenotype form the main body of this report. There were 126 index cases who were identified through chest clinics and 40 non-index cases who were identified through family studies. The index cases and many of the non-index cases had severe radiological and physiological abnormalities. A history of cigarette smoking had a significant effect upon the prognosis, but sex and occupational exposure to dust or fumes did not. There was a wide variance in lung function even among those who had never smoked.