Basal Ganglia :: blood supply
Brain. 2012 Jun ;135 (Pt 6):1937-46 22434213
Yulia Worbe, Caroline Malherbe, Andreas Hartmann, Mélanie Pélégrini-Issac, Arnaud Messé, Marie Vidailhet, Stéphane Lehéricy, Habib Benali
Inserm, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Assistance Publique–Hôpitaux de Paris, Centre d’Investigation Clinique CIC 9503, Pôle des Maladies du Système Nerveux, Paris, France. firstname.lastname@example.org
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a clinically heterogeneous disorder with poor known pathophysiology. Recent neuropathological and structural neuroimaging data pointed to the dysfunction of cortico-basal ganglia networks. Nonetheless, it is not clear how these structural changes alter the functional activity of the brain and lead to heterogeneous clinical expressions of the syndrome. The objective of this study was to evaluate global integrative state and organization of functional connections of sensori-motor, associative and limbic cortico-basal ganglia networks, which are likely involved in tics and behavioural expressions of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. We also tested the hypothesis that specific regions and networks contribute to different symptoms. Data were acquired on 59 adult patients and 27 gender- and age-matched controls using a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Cortico-basal ganglia networks were constructed from 91 regions of interest. Functional connectivity was quantified using global integration and graph theory measures. We found a stronger functional integration (more interactions among anatomical regions) and a global functional disorganization of cortico-basal ganglia networks in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome compared with controls. All networks were characterized by a shorter path length, a higher number of and stronger functional connections among the regions and by a loss of pivotal regions of information transfer (hubs). The functional abnormalities correlated to tic severity in all cortico-basal ganglia networks, namely in premotor, sensori-motor, parietal and cingulate cortices and medial thalamus. Tic complexity was correlated to functional abnormalities in sensori-motor and associative networks, namely in insula and putamen. Severity of obsessive-compulsive disorder was correlated with functional abnormalities in associative and limbic networks, namely in orbito-frontal and prefrontal dorsolateral cortices. The results suggest that the pattern of functional changes in cortico-basal ganglia networks in patients could reflect a defect in brain maturation. They also support the hypothesis that distinct regions of cortico-basal ganglia networks contribute to the clinical heterogeneity of this syndrome.
Most cited papers:
D Kondziolka, L Wechsler, S Goldstein, C Meltzer, K R Thulborn, J Gebel, P Jannetta, S DeCesare, E M Elder, M McGrogan, M A Reitman, L Bynum
Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA 15213, USA.
Transplantation of cultured neuronal cells is safe in animal models and improves motor and cognitive deficits in rats with stroke. The authors studied the safety and feasibility of human neuronal cellular transplantation in patients with basal ganglia stroke and fixed motor deficits, including 12 patients (aged 44 to 75 years) with an infarct 6 months to 6 years previously (stable for at least 2 months). Serial evaluations (12 to 18 months) showed no adverse cell-related serologic or imaging-defined effects. The total European Stroke Scale score improved in six patients (3 to 10 points), with a mean improvement 2.9 points in all patients (p = 0. 046). Six of 11 PET scans at 6 months showed improved fluorodeoxyglucose uptake at the implant site. Neuronal transplantation is feasible in patients with motor infarction.
Histopathologic analysis of foci of signal loss on gradient-echo T2*-weighted MR images in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: evidence of microangiopathy-related microbleeds.
Department of Neurology, and MR Institute, Karl-Franzens University, Graz, Austria.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) frequently have small areas of signal loss on gradient-echo T2*-weighted MR images, which have been suggested to represent remnants of previous microbleeds. Our aim was to provide histopathologic support for this assumption and to clarify whether the presence and location of microbleeds were associated with microangiopathy. METHODS: We performed MR imaging and correlative histopathologic examination in 11 formalin-fixed brains of patients who had died of an ICH (age range, 45-90 years). RESULTS: Focal areas of signal loss on MR images were noted in seven brains. They were seen in a corticosubcortical location in six brains, in the basal ganglia/thalami in five, and infratentorially in three specimens. Histopathologic examination showed focal hemosiderin deposition in 21 of 34 areas of MR signal loss. No other corresponding abnormalities were found; however, hemosiderin deposits were noted without MR signal changes in two brains. All specimens with MR foci of signal loss showed moderate to severe fibrohyalinosis, and there was additional evidence of amyloid angiopathy in two of those brains. CONCLUSION: Small areas of signal loss on gradient echo T2*-weighted images indicate previous extravasation of blood and are related to bleeding-prone microangiopathy of different origins.
Cerebral structures participating in motor preparation in humans: a positron emission tomography study.
Medical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1428, USA.
1. Using positron emission tomography and measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) as an index of cerebral activity we investigated the central processing of motor preparation in 13 healthy volunteers. 2. We used a motor reaction time paradigm with visual cues as preparatory and response signals. A preparatory stimulus (PS) provided either full, partial, or no information regarding two variables of a forthcoming right finger movement: finger type (index or little finger) and movement direction (abduction or elevation). After a variable delay period, a response stimulus (RS) prompted the movement. A condition was also tested in which the subject could freely select any of the four possible movements during the preparation period ("free" condition). The timing of events was designed to emphasize the motor preparation phase over the motor execution component during the scanning time of 1 min. 3. Distinct preparatory processes, which depended on the information contained in the PS, were demonstrated by significant differences in reaction time between conditions. The reaction time was shorter in the "full" and free conditions, intermediate in the two partial information conditions ("finger" and "direction"), and longer when no preparatory information was available ("none" condition). Conversely, movement time and movement amplitude were similar between conditions, establishing the constancy of the motor executive output. 4. In comparison with a "rest" condition, which had matched visual inputs, the different conditions of motor preparation were associated with increased rCBF in a common set of cerebral regions: the contralateral frontal cortex (sensorimotor, premotor, cingulate, and supplementary motor cortex), the contralateral parietal association cortex (anterior and posterior regions), the ipsilateral cerebellum, the contralateral basal ganglia, and the thalamus. This observation substantiates the participation of those cerebral structures in the preparation for movement. Furthermore, the similarity of the activated areas among the different conditions compared with the rest condition suggests a single anatomic substrate for motor preparation, independent of the movement information context. 5. Differing amounts of movement information contained in the PS affected rCBF changes in some cerebral regions. In particular, the rCBF in the anterior parietal cortex (Brodmann's area 40) was significantly larger in each of the full, finger, and direction conditions, individually, compared with the none condition. This observation supports the hypothesis that the anterior parietal association cortex plays a major role in the use of visual instructions contained in the PS for partial or complete preparation to perform a motor act. On the other hand, the posterior parietal association cortex (Brodmann's area 7) was more activated in the finger, direction, and none conditions than in the full condition. This increased activity with restricted advance information suggests that the posterior region of the parietal cortex is concerned with correct movement selection on the basis of enhanced spatial attention to the RS. 6. In contrast with the parietal cortex, the secondary motor areas (i.e, premotor cortex, cingulate cortex, and supplementary motor area) showed similar activity regardless of the degree of preparation allowed by the advance visual information. Thus the parietal cortex may play a more crucial role than the secondary motor areas in integrating visual information in preparation for movement. 7. The effect on brain activity of the internal (self-generated) versus the external (cued) mode of movement selection was assessed by comparing the free and full conditions, the preparatory component being matched in the two conditions. The anterior part of the supplementary motor area was the main area preferentially involved in the internal selection of movement, independently of motor preparation processes.
In ten patients, 11 infarcts involving mainly the internal capsule have been examined pathologically. Serial sections of the involved basal ganglia were studied in ten infarcts and only a gross dissection was made in the other. The implicated penetrating arteries were traced throughout their length and obstructive vascular lesions were found in nine instances. In two of the nine there was an atheromatous plaque with a superimposed thrombus, in four an atheromatous plaque had caused severe stenosis, in one a destructive arterial process lipohyalinosis had occurred, in one case the nature of the obstruction remained "uncertained," and in one the penetrating arteries were obstructed at their orifices by an atheroma in the superior division of the middle cerebral artery. In two cases the vessels were patent, suggesting embolism. The atheromas consisted almost exclusively of a conglomerate of fat-filled macrophages. The clinical correlate was a pure motor hemiplegia or hemiparesis involving the face, arm, and leg without sensory deficit, homonymous hemianopia, receptive aphasia, or apractognosia. Confusion was prominent in one patient.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA, USA.
Mood disorders may be associated with global and regional changes in cerebral blood flow and metabolism. The accumulated functional neuroimaging findings in mood disorders were reviewed in order to examine a proposed neuroanatomic model of pathophysiology. Global cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism appear normal, but may be decreased in late-life depression. Regional cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism deficits are present, and may be indicators of brain regions participating in neuroanatomic circuits involved in mood disorders. Decreased pre-frontal cortex blood flow and metabolism in depressed unipolar and bipolar patients are the most consistently replicated findings, and correlate with severity of illness. Basal ganglia abnormalities have been found in depressed unipolar and bipolar patients, involving decreased blood flow and metabolism. Temporal lobe abnormalities are present in bipolar disorder patients, and perhaps unipolar depression. There is conflicting evidence of abnormalities in other limbic regions. Cognitive impairment may correlate with decreased metabolism in frontal and cerebellar areas. The relationship between functional neuroimaging findings and clinical course, and therefore state and trait characteristics, has not been systematically investigated. Antidepressant medications, but not ECT, seem to reverse some of the identified functional brain changes in the depressed state. The structural, neurotransmitter and neuropathological correlates of these functional abnormalities are yet to be determined. Functional abnormalities in frontal, subcortical and limbic structures appear to be part of the pathophysiology of mood disorders.
Imaging Research Laboratories, John P. Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Our objective was to develop a method to correct for the effect of partial volume averaging (PVA) in the CT measurement of contrast enhancement in small arteries, and to validate a dynamic contrast-enhanced CT method for the measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). METHODS: Contrast-enhanced CT scans of tubes of known inner diameters were obtained to estimate the size-dependent scaling factors (PVSF) due to PVA. The background-subtracted image profiles of the contrast-filled tubes were fitted to gaussian curves, and the standard deviations (SDs) of these curves were correlated with the PVSF of each tube. In the second part of this investigation, 13 studies were performed in six New Zealand white rabbits under normal conditions. Dynamic CT measurements of rCBF, regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV), and regional mean transit time (rMTT) were calculated in the left and right parietal lobes and the basal ganglia. The CT rCBF values were compared with those obtained by the microsphere method, which is the standard of reference. RESULTS: We found strong correlations for the SDs of the gaussian curves to the known inner diameters of the tubes and to their size-related PVSF. These correlations demonstrated that the error from PVA in the measurement of arterial enhancement can be corrected without knowledge of the actual size of the artery. The animal studies revealed a mean (+/- SD) rCBF of 73.3 +/- 31.5 mL/100 g per minute, a mean rCBV of 1.93 +/- 0.74 mL/100 g, and a mean rMTT of 1.81 +/- 1.02 seconds. A strong correlation was found between rCBF values derived by the CT and the microsphere methods. CONCLUSION: We have validated a new dynamic CT method for measuring rCBF. The accuracy of this technique suggests that it can be used as an alternative diagnostic tool to assess the cerebral hemodynamics in experimental and clinical situations.
The predilection sites of cerebrovascular lesions (cerebral hemorrhage and/or softening) were studied in 1,278 stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). The precise supply to the main cerebral arteries was determined by trypan blue injections and microangiography. The three major territories were the anteromedial cortex, the occipital cortex, and the basal ganglia. A common angioarchitectural characteristic of these three areas was the blood supply through "recurrent branching" from the main stream. In the basal ganglia, where there is a preponderance of lesions, the arteries responsible for these lesions belonged to the lateral group of lenticulostriate arteries. The primary pre-stroke arterial lesions were further studied microangiographically in SHRSP killed at the time the initial symptoms of stroke were detected. These points were located at the "boundary zone" of the main cerebral arteries. Our findings indicated the importance of these two angioarchitectural minor loci as the basis for functional or organic circulatory disturbances that may cause stroke. Since these local factors of stroke are common in the cortex and basal ganglia of rats and basal ganglia of humans, these SHRSP are regarded as good pathogenetic models for studies on stroke in humans.
PET measurements of brain glucose metabolism and blood flow in major depressive disorder: a critical review.
Department of Biological Psychiatry, Psychiatric Hospital in Arhus, Risskov, Denmark.
OBJECTIVE: To show that PET investigations of brain function in patients with major depression can contribute with valuable pathophysiological knowledge about brain function of these states. METHODS: PET studies of cerebral blood flow or glucose metabolism in patients with unipolar or bipolar depression were reviewed. RESULTS: The studies have great discrepancies related to sample size, subject selection, imaging protocol and image analysis. In spite of this shortcoming, there is evidence that patients with major depression have reduced blood flow and metabolism in the prefrontal cortex, particularly when they exhibit psychomotor retardation. Abnormalities are also found in the anterior cingulate gyrus and the basal ganglia. A few studies point to the possibility that response to antidepressant treatment can be predicted from PET scans. CONCLUSION: This evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that depressive symptoms are caused by dysfunction of regions of the limbic system and the frontal lobes in close connection with the basal ganglia.
Regional cerebral blood flow changes in cortex and basal ganglia during voluntary movements in normal human volunteers.
Serial MRI after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats: dynamics of tissue injury, blood-brain barrier damage, and edema formation.
Department of Radiology, Lucas MRS/MRI Center, Stanford Stroke Center, Stanford University, CA, USA. email@example.com
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE With the advent of thrombolytic therapy for acute stroke, reperfusion-associated mechanisms of tissue injury have assumed greater importance. In this experimental study, we used several MRI techniques to monitor the dynamics of secondary ischemic damage, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disturbances, and the development of vasogenic edema during the reperfusion phase after focal cerebral ischemia in rats. METHODS Nineteen Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion of 30 minutes, 60 minutes, or 2.5 hours with the suture occlusion model. MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), T2-weighted imaging, perfusion-weighted imaging, and T1-weighted imaging, was performed 5 to 15 minutes before reperfusion, as well as 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 hours and 1, 2, and 7 days after withdrawal of the suture. Final infarct size was determined histologically at 7 days. RESULTS In the 30-minute ischemia group (and partially also after 60 minutes), DWI abnormalities reversed transiently during the early reperfusion period but recurred after 1 day, probably due to secondary ischemic damage. After 2.5 hours of ischemia, DWI abnormalities no longer reversed, and signal intensity on both DWI and T2-weighted images increased rapidly in the previously ischemic region due to BBB damage (enhancement on postcontrast T1-weighted images) and edema formation. Early BBB damage during reperfusion was found to be predictive of relatively pronounced edema at subacute time points and was probably related to the increased mortality rates in this experimental group (3 of 7). CONCLUSIONS Reperfusion after short periods of ischemia (30 to 60 minutes) appears to be mainly complicated by secondary ischemic damage as shown by the delayed recurrence of the DWI lesions, whereas BBB damage associated with vasogenic edema becomes a dominant factor with longer occlusion times (2.5 hours).