Meat :: classification
Consistent predictable patterns in the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios of animal proteins consumed by modern humans in the USA.
IsoForensics Inc., Salt Lake City, UT 84108, USA. email@example.com
Published datasets of proteinaceous animal tissues suggest that co-variation between amino acid hydrogen (δ²H) and oxygen (δ¹⁸O) isotope ratios is a common feature in systems where isotopic variation is driven by geographic or temporal variation in the δ²H and δ¹⁸O values of environmental water. This has led to the development of models relating tissue δ²H and δ¹⁸O values to those of water, with potential application in a number of fields. However, the strength and ubiquity of the influence of environmental water on protein isotope ratios across taxonomic groups, and thus the relevance of predictive models, is an open question. Here we report strong co-variation of δ²H and δ¹⁸O values across a suite of terrestrial and aquatic animal meats purchased in American food markets, including beef, poultry (chicken and turkey), chicken eggs, pork, lamb, freshwater fish, and marine fish. Significant isotope co-variation was not found for small collections of marine bivalves and crustaceans. These results imply that isotopic signals from environmental water were propagated similarly through most of the diverse natural and human-managed foodwebs represented by our samples. Freshwater fish had the largest variation in δ²H and δ¹⁸O values, with ranges of 121‰ and 19.2‰, respectively, reflecting the large isotopic variation in environmental freshwaters. In contrast marine animals had the smallest variation for both δ²H (7‰ range, crustaceans) and δ¹⁸O (3.0‰ range, bivalves) values. Known-origin beef samples demonstrated direct relationships between the variance of environmental water isotope ratios and that of collected meats.
Most cited papers:
National Beef Quality Audit-2000: survey of targeted cattle and carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, and value of fed steers and heifers.
D R McKenna, D L Roebert, P K Bates, T B Schmidt, D S Hale, D B Griffin, J W Savell, J C Brooks, J B Morgan, T H Montgomery, K E Belk, G C Smith
Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station 77843-2471, USA.
The National Beef Quality Audit-2000 was conducted to assess the current status ofthe quality and consistency of U.S. fed steers and heifers. Between May and November 2000, survey teams assessed hide condition (n = 43,415 cattle for color, brands, mud/manure), bruises (n = 43,595 carcasses), offal and carcass condemnation (n = 8,588 cattle), and carcass quality and yield information (n = 9,396 carcasses) in 30 U.S. beef packing plants. Hide colors were black (45.1%), red (31.0%), yellow (8.0%), Holstein (5.7%), gray (4.0%), white (3.2%), brown (1.7%), and brindle (1.3%). Brand frequencies were no (49.3%), one (46.2%), and two or more (4.4%), and brands were located on the butt (36.3%), side (13.7%), and shoulder (3.6%). Most cattle had no (18.0%) or a small amount (55.8%) of mud/manure on their hides, and they had no (77.3%) horns. Most carcasses (53.3%) were not bruised, 30.9% had one bruise, and 15.8% had multiple bruises. Bruise location and incidence were round (14.9%), loin (25.9%), rib (19.4%), chuck (28.2%), and brisket, flank, and plate (11.6%). Condemnation item and incidence were liver (30.3%), lungs (13.8%), tripe (11.6%), heads (6.2%), tongues (7.0%), and carcasses (0.1%). Carcass evaluation revealed these traits and frequencies: steer (67.9%), heifer (31.8%), and bullock (0.3%) sex-classes; dark-cutters (2.3%); A (96.6%), B (2.5%), and C or older (0.9%) overall maturities; and native (90.1%), dairy-type (6.9%), and Bos indicus (3.0%) breed-types. Mean USDA yield grade traits were USDA yield grade (3.0), carcass weight (356.9 kg), adjusted fat thickness (1.2 cm), longissimus muscle area (84.5 cm2), and kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (2.4%). USDA yield grades were Yield Grade 1 (12.2%), Yield Grade 2 (37.4%), Yield Grade 3 (38.6%), Yield Grade 4 (10.4%), and Yield Grade 5 (1.3%). Mean USDA quality grade traits were USDA quality grade (Select85), marbling score (Small23), overall maturity (A66), lean maturity (A65), and skeletal maturity (A67). Marbling score distribution was Slightly Abundant or higher (2.3%), Moderate (4.8%), Modest (13.1%), Small (33.3%), Slight (43.3%), and Traces (3.4%). USDA quality grades were Prime (2.0%), Choice (49.1%), Select (42.3%), Standard (5.6%), and Commercial, Utility, Cutter, and Canner (0.9%). This information will help the beef industry measure progress compared to the past two surveys and will provide a benchmark for future educational and research activities.
Meat and fish consumption, APC gene mutations and hMLH1 expression in colon and rectal cancer: a prospective cohort study (The Netherlands).
Margreet Lüchtenborg, Matty P Weijenberg, Anton F P M de Goeij, Petra A Wark, Mirian Brink, Guido M J M Roemen, Marjolein H F M Lentjes, Adriaan P de Bruïne, R Alexandra Goldbohm, Pieter van 't Veer, Piet A van den Brandt
Department of Epidemiology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht (NUTRIM), Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between meat and fish consumption and APC mutation status and hMLH1 expression in colon and rectal cancer. METHODS: The associations were investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study, and included 434 colon and 154 rectal cancer patients on whom case-cohort analyses (subcohort n = 2948) were performed. RESULTS: Total meat consumption was not associated with the endpoints studied. Meat product (i.e. processed meat) consumption showed a positive association with colon tumours harbouring a truncating APC mutation, whereas beef consumption was associated with an increased risk of colon tumours without a truncating APC mutation (incidence rate ratio (RR) highest versus lowest quartile of intake 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96-2.71, p-trend = 0.04 and 1.58, 95% CI 1.10-2.25, p-trend = 0.01, respectively). Consumption of other meat (horsemeat, lamb, mutton, frankfurters and deep-fried meat rolls) was associated with an increased risk of rectal cancer without a truncating APC mutation (RR intake versus no intake 1.79, 95% CI 1.10-2.90). No associations were observed for meat consumption and tumours lacking hMLH1 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that several types of meat may contribute differently to the aetiology of colon and rectal cancer, depending on APC mutation status but not hMLH1 expression of the tumour.
T R Neely, C L Lorenzen, R K Miller, J D Tatum, J W Wise, J F Taylor, M J Buyck, J O Reagan, J W Savell
Department of Animal Science, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Texas A&M University, College Station 77843-2471, USA.
An in-home beef study evaluated consumer ratings from moderate-to-heavy beef users as influenced by cut (top loin, top sirloin, and top round steaks), USDA quality grade (Top Choice, Low Choice, High Select, and Low Select), and city (Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia, and San Francisco). Consumers (n = 2,212) evaluated each steak for overall like (OLIKE), tenderness (TEND), juiciness (JUIC), flavor desirability (DFLAV), and flavor intensity (IFLAV) using 23-point hedonic scales (23 = like extremely, extremely tender, extremely juicy, like extremely, and an extreme amount of flavor; 1 = dislike extremely, not at all tender, not at all juicy, dislike extremely, and no flavor at all). A USDA grade x cut interaction existed for OLIKE (P <.05). Consumers rated top loin steaks highest (P <.05) in OLIKE and ranked Top Choice highest of all steaks (P <.05). Within the top loin, consumers were not (P >.05) able to distinguish OLIKE differences between Low Choice and High Select or between High Select and Low Select. For OLIKE, top sirloin was rated intermediate (P <.05) of the three cuts, and consumers were not able to detect (P >.05) USDA quality grade differences. For OLIKE, top round was the lowest-rated (P <.05) cut. However, consumers preferred (OLIKE, P <.05) Top Choice to the other USDA grades offered. Grade and city interacted to affect TEND, JUIC, DFLAV, and IFLAV. The cut x city interaction was significant for all palatability attributes. Cut and city affected customer satisfaction more than USDA quality grade. Tenderness and flavor were important and equal contributors to OLIKE, r =.85 and r =.86, respectively.
Different measures of energetic efficiency and their phenotypic relationships with growth, feed intake, and ultrasound and carcass merit in hybrid cattle.
J D Nkrumah, J A Basarab, M A Price, E K Okine, A Ammoura, S Guercio, C Hansen, C Li, B Benkel, B Murdoch, S S Moore
Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Residual feed intake (RFI) has been proposed as an index for determining beef cattle energetic efficiency. Although the relationship of RFI with feed conversion ratio (FCR) is well established, little is known about how RFI compares to other measures of efficiency. This study examined the phenotypic relationships among different measures of energetic efficiency with growth, feed intake, and ultrasound and carcass merit of hybrid cattle (n = 150). Dry matter intake, ME intake (MEI), ADG, metabolic weight (MWT), and FCR during the test averaged 10.29 kg/d (SD = 1.62), 1,185.45 kJ/(kg0.75 x d)(SD = 114.69), 1.42 kg/d (SD = 0.25), 86.67 kg0.75 (SD = 10.21), and 7.27 kg of DM/kg of gain (SD = 1.00), respectively. Residual feed intake averaged 0.00 kg/d and ranged from -2.25 kg/d (most efficient) to 2.61 kg/d (least efficient). Dry matter intake (r = 0.75), MEI (r = 0.83), and FCR (r = 0.62) were correlated with RFI (P < 0.001) and were higher for animals with high (>0.5 SD) RFI vs. those with medium (+/-0.5 SD) or low (<0.5 SD) RFI (P < 0.001). Partial efficiency of growth (PEG; energetic efficiency for ADG) was correlated with RFI (r =-0.89, P < 0.001) and was lower (P < 0.001) for high- vs. medium- or low-RFI animals. However, RFI was not related to ADG (r =-0.03), MWT (r =-0.02), relative growth rate (RGR; growth relative to instantaneous body size; r =-0.04), or Kleiber ratio (KR; ADG per unit of MWT; r =-0.004). Also, DMI was correlated (P < 0.01) with ADG (r = 0.66), MWT (r = 0.49), FCR (r = 0.49), PEG (r =-0.52), RGR (r = 0.18), and KR (r = 0.36). Additionally, FCR was correlated (P < 0.001) with ADG (r =-0.63), PEG (r =-0.83), RGR (r =-0.75), and KR (r =-0.73), but not with MWT (r = 0.07). Correlations of measures of efficiency with ultrasound or carcass traits generally were not different from zero except for correlations of RFI, FCR, and PEG, respectively, with backfat gain (r = 0.30, 0.20, and -0.30), ultrasound backfat (r = 0.19, 0.21, and -0.25), grade fat (r = 0.25, 0.19, and -0.27), lean meat yield (r =-0.22,-0.18, and 0.24), and yield grade (r = 0.28, 0.24, and -0.25). These phenotypic relationships indicate that, compared with other measures of energetic efficiency, RFI should have a greater potential to improve overall production efficiency and PEG above maintenance, and lead to minimal correlated changes in carcass merit without altering the growth and body size of different animals.
Effects of crude protein concentration and degradability on performance, carcass characteristics, and serum urea nitrogen concentrations in finishing beef steers.
New Mexico State University Clayton Livestock Research Center, Clayton 88415, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Two experiments were conducted at two locations to determine the effects of dietary CP concentration and source on performance, carcass characteristics, and serum urea nitrogen (SUN) concentrations of finishing beef steers. British x Continental steers were blocked by BW (357 +/- 28 and 305 +/- 25 kg initial BW; n = 360 and 225; four and five pens per treatment in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively). Steam-flaked corn-based diets were arranged in a 3 x 3 factorial with three CP concentrations (11.5, 13, or 14.5% of DM) and three sources of supplemental CP (N basis): 100% urea; 50:50 blend of urea and cottonseed meal; or 100% cottonseed meal. Steers in both experiments were initially implanted with Ralgro and reimplanted with Revalor-S on d 56. Performance and carcass data were pooled across locations. Crude protein concentration x source interactions were not observed (P = 0.22 to 0.93) for performance and carcass data. Crude protein concentration affected ADG (P = 0.02) and carcass-adjusted (to a common dressing percent within location) ADG quadratically (P = 0.06). Increasing the concentration of supplemental urea linearly increased carcass-adjusted ADG and G:F (P < 0.05) and carcass-adjusted G:F (P < 0.001). Dry matter intake was not affected (P = 0.93) by either CP concentration or source. Hot carcass weight (HCW; P = 0.02), LM area (P = 0.05), and dressing percent (P = 0.03) increased linearly with increasing urea concentration, whereas increasing CP concentration quadratically affected HCW (P = 0.02), with a maximum at 13% CP. Differences in backfat thickness and yield grade were negligible across treatments. Neither marbling score nor percentage of carcasses grading USDA Choice was affected by CP concentration or source. At all times measured, SUN concentrations increased (P < 0.05) with increasing CP concentration, but effects of CP source were small and variable across time. Results indicate that increasing CP concentrations from 11.5 to 13% slightly increased ADG and carcass-adjusted ADG, whereas increasing the proportion of supplemental urea increased carcass-adjusted ADG, G:F, and carcass-adjusted G:F and increased HCW, LM area, and dressing percent. A CP concentration above 13% seemed detrimental to ADG and HCW. Serum urea N increased over time, with CP concentration having a greater effect than CP source.
An evaluation of current and alternative systems for quality grading carcasses of mature slaughter cows.
Department of Animal Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins 80523, USA.
Strip loins from 354 female bovine carcasses, selected to represent 30 skeletal maturity (A, B, C, D, and E) x marbling score (SA/MA/AB, MD, MT, SM, SL, and TR/PD) subclasses, were used to evaluate current and alternative systems for classifying cow carcasses into expected-palatability groups. Strip loins were vacuum-packaged, stored for 14 d postmortem at 2 degrees C, and frozen (-27 degrees C). Five steaks from each strip loin, each cooked to a different internal temperature (60, 66, 71, 77, or 82 degrees C), were used for shear force determinations. Two steaks from each strip loin, one cooked to 66 degrees C and the other to 77 degrees C, were used for sensory evaluation. Increased carcass maturity was associated with decreased tenderness and juiciness, increased flavor intensity, and a higher incidence of flavors described as "painty,""fishy," and "grassy." Position of a carcass within a maturity group had a negligible effect on palatability. Increased marbling was associated with greater tenderness and juiciness, a lower incidence of steaks with a "grassy" flavor, and a higher incidence of steaks with a flavor described as "fatty." Relationships between marbling and beef palatability traits were consistent across all maturity groups. Carcasses of maturities A through E were most effectively stratified according to differences in palatability when marbling scores were grouped as follows: 1) MD and higher; 2) SL, SM, MT; and 3) TR/PD. Among mature (C, D, and E maturity) carcasses, yellow-colored fat was associated with greater beef toughness and higher detection rates for "grassy" and "fishy" flavors. Higher end-point temperatures were associated with higher shear force values and lower ratings for muscle fiber tenderness, connective tissue amount, overall tenderness, and juiciness. Two alternative grading approaches (one involving current quality grading factors and the other involving the use of fat color as an additional grade factor) were developed for possible use in classification of cow carcasses into expected-palatability groups. Both alternative systems provided a more effective stratification of cow carcasses according to palatability differences than did the current USDA quality grading system.
Relationships of consumer sensory ratings, marbling score, and shear force value to consumer acceptance of beef strip loin steaks.
Department of Animal Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins 80523, USA.
Logistic regression was used to quantify and characterize the effects of changes in marbling score, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and consumer panel sensory ratings for tenderness, juiciness, or flavor on the probability of overall consumer acceptance of strip loin steaks from beef carcasses (n = 550). Consumers (n = 489) evaluated steaks for tenderness, juiciness, and flavor using nine-point hedonic scales (1 = like extremely and 9 = dislike extremely) and for overall steak acceptance (satisfied or not satisfied). Predicted acceptance of steaks by consumers was high (> 85%) when the mean consumer sensory rating for tenderness,juiciness, or flavor for a steak was 3 or lower on the hedonic scale. Conversely, predicted consumer acceptance of steaks was low (< or = 10%) when the mean consumer rating for tenderness, juiciness, or flavor for a steak was 5 or higher on the hedonic scale. As mean consumer sensory ratings for tenderness, juiciness, or flavor decreased from 3 to 5, the probability of acceptance of steaks by consumers diminished rapidly in a linear fashion. These results suggest that small changes in consumer sensory ratings for these sensory traits have dramatic effects on the probability of acceptance of steaks by consumers. Marbling score displayed a weak (adjusted R2 = 0.053), yet significant (P < 0.01), relationship to acceptance of steaks by consumers, and the shape of the predicted probability curve for steak acceptance was approximately linear over the entire range of marbling scores (Traces67 to Slightly Abundant97), suggesting that the likelihood of consumer acceptance of steaks increases approximately 10% for each full marbling score increase between Slight to Slightly Abundant. The predicted probability curve for consumer acceptance of steaks was sigmoidal for the WBSF model, with a steep decline in predicted probability of acceptance as WBSF values increased from 3.0 to 5.5 kg. Changes in WBSF within the high (> 5.5 kg) or low (< 3.0 kg) portions of the range of WBSF values had little effect on the probability of consumer acceptance of steaks.
Effect of repeated administration of combination trenbolone acetate and estradiol implants on growth, carcass traits, and beef quality of long-fed Holstein steers.
Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824, USA.
Our objective was to determine the effect of repeated use of implants on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of Holstein cattle. Holstein steers (n = 128) weighing an average of 211 kg were blocked by weight and randomly assigned to 16 pens. At the start of the trial (d 0), pens were assigned to one of four treatments: 1) nonimplanted control (C); 2) implant on d 0, 112, and 224 (T3); 3) implant on d 112 and 224 (T2); and 4) implant on d 224 (T1). Component TE-S implants (120 mg of trenbolone acetate and 24 mg of estradiol per implant) were used for all treatments during the 291-d feeding period. Over the course of the study, T2 and T3 cattle had greater ADG and final weights than C and T1 cattle (P < 0.05). Steers were harvested at a commercial abattoir on d 291. Hot carcass weights of T3 steers were greater than those of C and T1 steers (P < 0.05). Dressing percentage, adjusted 12th-rib fat, percentage of kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, yield grade, and longissimus color were not different among treatments (P > or = 0.26). Longissimus muscle areas (LMA) of T2 and T3 carcasses were larger than LMA of C (P < 0.01). No USDA Select carcasses were produced from C cattle, whereas the percentage of Select carcasses from implanted cattle ranged from 10 to 18%. Skeletal maturity advanced (P < 0.05) progressively with each additional implant. Steaks from T3 carcasses had a higher percentage of protein than controls (P < 0.05) and were less tender than all other treatments (P < 0.05). Repeated administration of combination trenbolone acetate and estradiol implants increased ADG and resulted in heavier carcasses with larger LMA. Administration of three successive implants decreased tenderness of Holstein beef, and resulted in more advanced skeletal maturity scores.
G Monin, C Larzul, P Le Roy, J Culioli, J Mourot, S Rousset-Akrim, A Talmant, C Touraille, P Sellier
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique: Station de Recherches sur la Viande, Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the halothane (HAL) genotype, slaughter weight (SW), and the HAL x SW interaction on compositional and textural traits of raw and cooked pork. Pigs were bred to exhibit one of the three HAL genotypes (NN, Nn, and nn) with otherwise equivalent genomes. The nn halothane reactors are known to typically produce PSE pork, whereas NN pigs do not typically produce PSE pork. Pietrain x Large White gilts and boars, all with verified Nn genotype (by DNA test), were mated to obtain F2 littermates of the three HAL genotypes. These pigs were slaughtered at either 101 +/- 3 ("light") or 127 +/- 3 ("heavy") kg BW and were evaluated for longissimus muscle traits. The pH at .5 h after death (pH1) was 6.35, 6.13, and 5.68 in NN, Nn, and nn pigs, respectively. Sarcomere length was greater in nn than in NN and Nn pigs (1.94 vs 1.83 and 1.85 microm, respectively). Mechanical resistance was higher in nn than in NN pigs for both raw and cooked meat. Meat from nn pigs was judged by a trained panel to be less rough, more cohesive, harder, more fibrous, less granular, more elastic, and less easy to swallow than meat from NN pigs. For most traits under study, the heterozygotes were intermediate between the homozygotes but closer to NN than to nn pigs. Muscle from heavy pigs had longer sarcomeres and less moisture than muscle from light pigs. The n allele of the HAL gene unfavorably affects pork texture, and this effect is maintained throughout the range of 101 to 127 kg BW.
Warren M Snelling, Mathieu Gautier, John W Keele, Timothy P L Smith, Roger T Stone, Gregory P Harhay, Gary L Bennett, Naoya Ihara, Akiko Takasuga, Haruko Takeda, Yoshikazu Sugimoto, André Eggen
USDA, ARS, U,S, Meat Animal Research Center, Spur 18D, Clay Center, Nebraska 68933-0166, USA. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: Bovine chromosome (BTA) 15 contains a quantitative trait loci (QTL) for meat tenderness, as well as several breaks in synteny with human chromosome (HSA) 11. Both linkage and radiation hybrid (RH) maps of BTA 15 are available, but the linkage map lacks gene-specific markers needed to identify genes underlying the QTL, and the gene-rich RH map lacks associations with marker genotypes needed to define the QTL. Integrating the maps will provide information to further explore the QTL as well as refine the comparative map between BTA 15 and HSA 11. A recently developed approach to integrating linkage and RH maps uses both linkage and RH data to resolve a consensus marker order, rather than aligning independently constructed maps. Automated map construction procedures employing this maximum-likelihood approach were developed to integrate BTA RH and linkage data, and establish comparative positions of BTA 15 markers with HSA 11 homologs. RESULTS: The integrated BTA 15 map represents 145 markers; 42 shared by both data sets, 36 unique to the linkage data and 67 unique to RH data. Sequence alignment yielded comparative positions for 77 bovine markers with homologs on HSA 11. The map covers approximately 32% of HSA 11 sequence in five segments of conserved synteny, another 15% of HSA 11 is shared with BTA 29. Bovine and human order are consistent in portions of the syntenic segments, but some rearrangement is apparent. Comparative positions of gene markers near the meat tenderness QTL indicate the region includes separate segments of HSA 11. The two microsatellite markers flanking the QTL peak are between defined syntenic segments. CONCLUSIONS: Combining data to construct an integrated map not only consolidates information from different sources onto a single map, but information contributed from each data set increases the accuracy of the map. Comparison of bovine maps with well annotated human sequence can provide useful information about genes near mapped bovine markers, but bovine gene order may be different than human. Procedures to connect genetic and physical mapping data, build integrated maps for livestock species, and connect those maps to more fully annotated sequence can be automated, facilitating the maintenance of up-to-date maps, and providing a valuable tool to further explore genetic variation in livestock.